Special Issue "Invasive Plants"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tina Heger
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Biodiversity Research / Botany, University of Potsdam, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
2. Restoration Ecology, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
Interests: ecological novelty; invasion biology; conceptual ecology and metatheory of ecology; evolutionary ecology of invasive plants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Invasive plants can now be found all over the world. In some areas, the presence of these species has led to striking changes; in other cases, they have become inconspicuous parts of the vegetation. Sometimes, they have effects that are clearly negative from a nature conservation point of view, and in some areas, they cause severe economic costs or human health problems. These impacts make biological invasions an important topic urgently calling for research on its applied aspects. Topics of high priority in this respect are related to finding more efficient ways for the prevention of new invasions and management of already established species.

Apart from this, invasive plants are highly interesting for basic research. During an invasion, plants get transported from their native range into a novel area. The environmental conditions in this novel area may differ considerably from those that these plants have evolved with. This leads to invasive plants usually being confronted with a whole range of abiotic and biotic conditions they are not adapted to. In this respect, plant invasions are natural experiments, offering the opportunity to study the effects of such ‘ecological novelty’ on ecological and evolutionary processes. Invasions can therefore be viewed as blueprints, also for how our native plants may respond to changing environmental conditions in the future.

For this Special Issue, we invite manuscripts (original research papers, perspectives, hypotheses, opinions, reviews, modeling approaches, and method papers) covering the whole breadth of research topics related to invasive plants.

Dr. Tina Heger
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plant invasions
  • Ecological novelty
  • Global change
  • Novel interactions
  • Invasion dynamics
  • Responses of native species
  • Adaptation in the new range
  • Rapid evolution
  • Prediction of future invasions
  • Prevention of plant invasions
  • Management of invasive plants

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Combined Effects of UV-B and Drought on Native and Exotic Populations of Verbascum thapsus L.
Plants 2020, 9(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020269 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
During plant invasions, exotic species have to face new environmental challenges and are affected by interacting components of global change, which may include more stressful environmental conditions. We investigated an invasive species of New Zealand grasslands, commonly exposed to two concomitant and limiting [...] Read more.
During plant invasions, exotic species have to face new environmental challenges and are affected by interacting components of global change, which may include more stressful environmental conditions. We investigated an invasive species of New Zealand grasslands, commonly exposed to two concomitant and limiting abiotic factors—high levels of ultraviolet-B radiation and drought. The extent to which Verbascum thapsus may respond to these interacting stress factors via adaptive responses was assessed in a greenhouse experiment comprising native German plants and plants of exotic New Zealand origins. Plants from both origins were grown within four treatments resulting from the crossed combinations of two levels of UV-B and drought. Over twelve weeks, we recorded growth, morphological characteristics, physiological responses and productivity. The results showed that drought stress had the strongest effect on biomass, morphology and physiology. Significant effects of UV-B radiation were restricted to variables of leaf morphology and physiology. We found neither evidence for additive effects of UV-B and drought nor origin-dependent stress responses that would indicate local adaptation of native or exotic populations. We conclude that drought-resistant plant species might be predisposed to handle high UV-B levels, but emphasize the importance of setting comparable magnitudes in stress levels when testing experimentally for antagonistic interaction effects between two manipulated factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Leaves of Invasive Plants—Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed—The Promising New Source of Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins
Plants 2020, 9(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010118 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
This is the first report on identification of all B-type proanthocyanidins from monomers to decamers (monomers—flavan-3-ols, dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers, and decamers) and some of their gallates in leaves of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.), giant knotweed ( [...] Read more.
This is the first report on identification of all B-type proanthocyanidins from monomers to decamers (monomers—flavan-3-ols, dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers, and decamers) and some of their gallates in leaves of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.), giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis F. Schmidt) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia × bohemica (Chrtek & Chrtkova) J.P. Bailey). Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins were investigated using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled to densitometry, image analysis, and mass spectrometry (HPTLC–MS/MS). All species contained (−)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2, while (+)-catechin was only detected in Bohemian and giant knotweed. (−)-Epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1 and procyanidin C1 was only confirmed in giant knotweed. Leaves of all three knotweeds have the same chemical profiles of proanthocyanidins with respect to the degree of polymerization but differ with respect to gallates. Therefore, chromatographic fingerprint profiles of proanthocyanidins enabled differentiation among leaves of studied knotweeds, and between Japanese knotweed leaves and rhizomes. Leaves of all three species proved to be a rich source of proanthocyanidins (based on the total peak areas), with the highest content in giant and the lowest in Japanese knotweed. The contents of monomers in Japanese, Bohemian and giant knotweed were 0.84 kg/t of dry weight (DW), 1.39 kg/t DW, 2.36 kg/t, respectively, while the contents of dimers were 0.99 kg/t DW, 1.40 kg/t, 2.06 kg/t, respectively. Giant knotweed leaves showed the highest variety of gallates (dimer gallates, dimer digallates, trimer gallates, tetramer gallates, pentamer gallates, and hexamer gallates), while only monomer gallates and dimer gallates were confirmed in Japanese knotweed and monomer gallates, dimer gallates, and dimer digallates were detected in leaves of Bohemian knotweed. The profile of the Bohemian knotweed clearly showed the traits inherited from Japanese and giant knotweed from which it originated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Functional Diversity and Invasive Species Influence Soil Fertility in Experimental Grasslands
Plants 2020, 9(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010053 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Ecosystem properties can be positively affected by plant functional diversity and compromised by invasive alien plants. We performed a community assembly study in mesocosms manipulating different functional diversity levels for native grassland plants (communities composed by 1, 2 or 3 functional groups) to [...] Read more.
Ecosystem properties can be positively affected by plant functional diversity and compromised by invasive alien plants. We performed a community assembly study in mesocosms manipulating different functional diversity levels for native grassland plants (communities composed by 1, 2 or 3 functional groups) to test if functional dispersion could constrain the impacts of an invasive alien plant (Solidago gigantea) on soil fertility and plant community biomass via complementarity. Response variables were soil nutrients, soil water nutrients and aboveground biomass. We applied linear mixed-effects models to assess the effects of functional diversity and S. gigantea on plant biomass, soil and soil water nutrients. A structural equation model was used to evaluate if functional diversity and invasive plants affect soil fertility directly or indirectly via plant biomass and soil pH. Invaded communities had greater total biomass but less native plant biomass than uninvaded ones. While functional diversity increased nutrient availability in the soil solution of uninvaded communities, invasive plants reduced nutrient concentration in invaded soils. Functional diversity indirectly affected soil water but not soil nutrients via plant biomass, whereas the invader reduced native plant biomass and disrupted the effects of diversity on nutrients. Moreover, invasive plants reduced soil pH and compromised phosphate uptake by plants, which can contribute to higher phosphate availability and its possible accumulation in invaded soils. We found little evidence for functional diversity to constrain invasion impacts on nutrients and plant biomass. Restoration of such systems should consider other plant community features than plant trait diversity to reduce establishment of invasive plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Environmental Background of an Invasive Plant Species (Asclepias syriaca) for the Future: An Application of LUCAS Field Photographs and Machine Learning Algorithm Methods
Plants 2019, 8(12), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120593 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
For developing global strategies against the dramatic spread of invasive species, we need to identify the geographical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors determining the spatial distribution of invasive species. In our study, we investigated these factors influencing the occurrences of common milkweed (Asclepias [...] Read more.
For developing global strategies against the dramatic spread of invasive species, we need to identify the geographical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors determining the spatial distribution of invasive species. In our study, we investigated these factors influencing the occurrences of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.), an invasive plant species that is of great concern to the European Union (EU). In a Hungarian study area, we used country-scale soil and climate databases, as well as an EU-scale land cover databases (CORINE) for the analyses. For the abundance data of A. syriaca, we applied the field survey photos from the Land Use and Coverage Area Frame Survey (LUCAS) Land Cover database for the European Union. With machine learning algorithm methods, we quantified the relative weight of the environmental variables on the abundance of common milkweed. According to our findings, soil texture and soil type (sandy soils) were the most important variables determining the occurrence of this species. We could exactly identify the actual land cover types and the recent land cover changes that have a significant role in the occurrence the common milkweed in Europe. We could also show the role of climatic conditions of the study area in the occurrence of this species, and we could prepare the potential distribution map of common milkweed for the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Can Cynodon dactylon Suppress the Growth and Development of the Invasive Weeds Tagetes minuta and Gutenbergia cordifolia?
Plants 2019, 8(12), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120576 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Approaches to managing invasive plants is challenging, particularly in protected areas where conventional methods, such as chemical herbicide applications are limited. We studied the effects of varying densities of Cynodon dactylon on the growth and development of the invasive weeds Tagetes minuta and [...] Read more.
Approaches to managing invasive plants is challenging, particularly in protected areas where conventional methods, such as chemical herbicide applications are limited. We studied the effects of varying densities of Cynodon dactylon on the growth and development of the invasive weeds Tagetes minuta and Gutenbergia cordifolia in northern Tanzania. We conducted pot and field plot experiments following a completely randomized block design that was replicated three times. Increasing densities of C. dactylon significantly reduced growth, leaf total chlorophyll, biomass and significantly increased leaf anthocyanin of both T. minuta and G. cordifolia invasives. Our results further showed that the critical density of C. dactylon to suppress the two invasive species is ≥ 8 plants/m2. We suggest that C. dactylon can successfully be used as an alternative eco-friendly and sustainable approach for managing invasive weeds, such as T. minuta and G. cordifolia. This management technique can additionally improve forage production and biomass for wild and domestic herbivores in the affected areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Release from Above- and Belowground Insect Herbivory Mediates Invasion Dynamics and Impact of an Exotic Plant
Plants 2019, 8(12), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120544 - 26 Nov 2019
Viewed by 872
Abstract
The enemy-release hypothesis is one of the most popular but also most discussed hypotheses to explain invasion success. However, there is a lack of explicit, experimental tests of predictions of the enemy-release hypothesis (ERH), particularly regarding the effects of above- and belowground herbivory. [...] Read more.
The enemy-release hypothesis is one of the most popular but also most discussed hypotheses to explain invasion success. However, there is a lack of explicit, experimental tests of predictions of the enemy-release hypothesis (ERH), particularly regarding the effects of above- and belowground herbivory. Long-term studies investigating the relative effect of herbivores on invasive vs. native plant species within a community are still lacking. Here, we report on a long-term field experiment in an old-field community, invaded by Solidago canadensis s. l., with exclusion of above- and belowground insect herbivores. We monitored population dynamics of the invader and changes in the diversity and functioning of the plant community across eight years. Above- and belowground insects favoured the establishment of the invasive plant species and thereby increased biomass and decreased diversity of the plant community. Effects of invertebrate herbivores on population dynamics of S. canadensis appeared after six years and increased over time, suggesting that long-term studies are needed to understand invasion dynamics and consequences for plant community structure. We suggest that the release from co-evolved trophic linkages is of importance not only for the effect of invasive species on ecosystems, but also for the functioning of novel species assemblages arising from climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Do No Harm: Efficacy of a Single Herbicide Application to Control an Invasive Shrub While Minimizing Collateral Damage to Native Species
Plants 2019, 8(10), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100426 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
Control of invasive exotic species in restorations without compromising the native plant community is a challenge. Efficacy of exotic species control needs to consider collateral effects on the associated plant community. We asked (1) if short-term control of a dominant exotic invasive, Lespedeza [...] Read more.
Control of invasive exotic species in restorations without compromising the native plant community is a challenge. Efficacy of exotic species control needs to consider collateral effects on the associated plant community. We asked (1) if short-term control of a dominant exotic invasive, Lespedeza cuneata in grassland restorations allows establishment of a more diverse native plant community, and (2) if control of the exotic and supplemental seed addition allows establishment of native species. A manipulative experiment tested the effects of herbicide treatments (five triclopyr and fluroxypyr formulations plus an untreated control) and seed addition (and unseeded control) on taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity, and community composition of restored grasslands in three sites over three years. We assessed response of L. cuneata through stem density counts, and response of the plant community through estimates of canopy cover. Herbicide treatments reduced the abundance of the exotic in the first field season leading to a less dispersed community composition compared with untreated controls, with the exotic regaining dominance by the third year. Supplemental seed addition did not provide extra resistance of the native community to reinvasion of the exotic. The communities were phylogenetically over-dispersed, but there was a short-term shift to lower phylogenetic diversity in response to herbicides consistent with a decrease in biotic filtering. Native plant communities in these grassland restorations were resilient to short-term reduction in abundance of a dominant invasive even though it was insufficient to provide an establishment window for native species establishment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Global Actions for Managing Cactus Invasions
Plants 2019, 8(10), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100421 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
The family Cactaceae Juss. contains some of the most widespread and damaging invasive alien plant species in the world, with Australia (39 species), South Africa (35) and Spain (24) being the main hotspots of invasion. The Global Cactus Working Group (IOBC GCWG) was [...] Read more.
The family Cactaceae Juss. contains some of the most widespread and damaging invasive alien plant species in the world, with Australia (39 species), South Africa (35) and Spain (24) being the main hotspots of invasion. The Global Cactus Working Group (IOBC GCWG) was launched in 2015 to improve international collaboration and identify key actions that can be taken to limit the impacts caused by cactus invasions worldwide. Based on the results of an on-line survey, information collated from a review of the scientific and grey literature, expertise of the authors, and because invasiveness appears to vary predictably across the family, we (the IOBC GCWG): (1) recommend that invasive and potentially invasive cacti are regulated, and to assist with this, propose five risk categories; (2) recommend that cactus invasions are treated physically or chemically before they become widespread; (3) advocate the use of biological control to manage widespread invasive species; and (4) encourage the development of public awareness and engagement initiatives to integrate all available knowledge and perspectives in the development and implementation of management actions, and address conflicts of interest, especially with the agricultural and ornamental sectors. Implementing these recommendations will require global co-operation. The IOBC GCWG aims to assist with this process through the dissemination of information and experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Japanese and Bohemian Knotweeds as Sustainable Sources of Carotenoids
Plants 2019, 8(10), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100384 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica) are invasive alien plant species, causing great global ecological and economic damage. Mechanical excavation of plant material represents an effective containment method, but it is not economically and environmentally [...] Read more.
Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica) are invasive alien plant species, causing great global ecological and economic damage. Mechanical excavation of plant material represents an effective containment method, but it is not economically and environmentally sustainable as it produces an excessive amount of waste. Thus, practical uses of these plants are actively being sought. In this study, we explored the carotenoid profiles and carotenoid content of mature (green) and senescing leaves of both knotweeds. Both plants showed similar pigment profiles. By means of high performance thin-layer chromatography with densitometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometric detector, 11 carotenoids (and their derivatives) and 4 chlorophylls were identified in green leaves, whereas 16 distinct carotenoids (free carotenoids and xanthophyll esters) were found in senescing leaves. Total carotenoid content in green leaves of Japanese knotweed and Bohemian knotweed (378 and 260 mg of lutein equivalent (LE)/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively) was comparable to that of spinach (384 mg LE/100 g DW), a well-known rich source of carotenoids. A much lower total carotenoid content was found for senescing leaves of Japanese and Bohemian knotweed (67 and 70 mg LE/100 g DW, respectively). Thus, green leaves of both studied knotweeds represent a rich and sustainable natural source of bioactive carotenoids. Exploitation of these invaders for the production of high value-added products should consequently promote their mechanical control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Decrease in Bat Diversity Points towards a Potential Threshold Density for Black Cherry Management: A Case Study from Germany
Plants 2019, 8(9), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8090320 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
In times of land use changes towards more close-to-nature forestry, the application of bioindicators becomes an interesting tool for effective land-use management schemes. Forest managers are increasingly confronted by alien tree species. Therefore, this case study aimed to investigate the influence of the [...] Read more.
In times of land use changes towards more close-to-nature forestry, the application of bioindicators becomes an interesting tool for effective land-use management schemes. Forest managers are increasingly confronted by alien tree species. Therefore, this case study aimed to investigate the influence of the invasive black cherry (Prunus serotina) on bats (Chiroptera: Verpertilionidae) in pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest ecosystems, in order to identify the potential of bats as bioindicators for a black cherry invasion. In three pre-classified succession stages of the black cherry, the diversity and relative abundance of bats were bioacoustically monitored for a period of 60 nights. From the bat call recordings made during the study period, eight bat species could be identified to species level. Within the succession stages of pine monoculture and light black cherry forest, a comparable bat diversity of eight bat species and three sonotypes with a similar relative abundance were observed. In dense black cherry forest, only four species and one sonotype were detected. Compared to the pine monoculture and light black cherry forest, the overall abundance of the bat community was significantly lower in the dense black cherry forest. Upon evaluation, those bat species associated with the edge and narrow space forager guilds were found to have a high sensitivity to a dense black cherry understory within naturally monocultural pine stands. Their activity patterns indicate that the transition from light to dense black cherry understory can be considered as a potential threshold value for a close-to-nature black cherry understory density in high canopy pine forest stands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Residence Time, Auto-Fertility and Pollinator Dependence on Reproductive Output and Spread of Alien and Native Asteraceae
Plants 2019, 8(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040108 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Alien plants benefit from auto-fertility to spread over areas where the lack of co-evolved mutualists would otherwise limit invasion success. However, the widespread generalists among mutualists and their large geographical ranges allow alien plants to be integrated into networks. The role of residence [...] Read more.
Alien plants benefit from auto-fertility to spread over areas where the lack of co-evolved mutualists would otherwise limit invasion success. However, the widespread generalists among mutualists and their large geographical ranges allow alien plants to be integrated into networks. The role of residence time also has to be accounted for, as it takes time for a species to spread and adapt to a new area. We investigated how residence time, auto-fertility and pollinator dependence affect reproductive output and invasion success of Asteraceae in Germany. We conducted a multi-species common-garden experiment along an alien–native continuum including 42 species of natives, archaeophytes and neophytes (casual and established), subjecting plant individuals either to free access or exclusion of pollinators. Pollinator dependence does not play a crucial role in invasion success, with most Asteraceae being able to self-fertilize. Surprisingly, both established neophytes and natives showed higher abilities to self-fertilize, while archaeophytes and casual neophytes were more attractive to pollinators. In contrast to casual neophytes, the established neophytes’ strategy was associated with a large reproductive output. Yet, auto-fertility was not associated with range size, since archaeophytes reached the largest range sizes. Elucidating how breeding systems affect invasion success is crucial for predicting and managing invasions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
A World of Gorse: Persistence of Ulex europaeus in Managed Landscapes
Plants 2019, 8(11), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8110523 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Gorse (Ulex europeus L.) is a woody legume and invasive woody weed that has been introduced to temperate pastoral landscapes worldwide. Despite the apparent cosmopolitan distribution of gorse across much of the temperate agroecological landscapes of the world, research and practice pertaining [...] Read more.
Gorse (Ulex europeus L.) is a woody legume and invasive woody weed that has been introduced to temperate pastoral landscapes worldwide. Despite the apparent cosmopolitan distribution of gorse across much of the temperate agroecological landscapes of the world, research and practice pertaining to the management of gorse has been largely constrained to single-treatments, regions, or timeframes. Gorse eradication has been widely attempted, with limited success. Using the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) method and a quasi-metanalytical approach, we reviewed the seminal ~299 papers pertaining to gorse management. We identified (i) the ecological characteristics of the species that predispose gorse to behaving invasively, and (ii) the success of management actions (from a plant ecological life history perspective) in reducing weed vigour and impact. A broad ecological niche, high reproductive output, propagule persistence, and low vulnerability to pests allow for rapid landscape exploitation by gorse throughout much the world. Additionally, there are differences in flowering duration and season in the northern and southern hemisphere that make gorse particularly pernicious in the latter, as gorse flowers twice per year. The implications of these life history stages and resistance to environmental sieves after establishment are that activity and efficacy of control is more likely to be favourable in juvenile stages. Common approaches to gorse control, including herbicides, biological controls, and fire have not been ubiquitously successful, and may in fact target the very site resources—sward cover, soil stability, hydrological balance—that, when degraded, facilitate gorse invasion. Ongoing seedling regeneration presents difficulties if eradication is a goal, but facilitated competition may reduce costs via natural suppression. Mechanical methods of gorse removal, though highly successful, induce chronic soil erosion and land degradation and should hence be used sparingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop