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New Insights into Leaf Physiological Responses to Ozone for Use in Crop Modelling

1
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK
2
Stockholm Environment Institute, Environment Department, University of York, York YO10 5NG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040084
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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Abstract

Estimating food production under future air pollution and climate conditions in scenario analysis depends on accurately modelling ozone (O3) effects on yield. This study tests several assumptions that form part of published approaches for modelling O3 effects on photosynthesis and leaf duration against experimental data. In 2015 and 2016, two wheat cultivars were exposed in eight hemispherical glasshouses to O3 ranging from 22 to 57 ppb (24 h mean), with profiles ranging from raised background to high peak treatments. The stomatal O3 flux (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD) to leaves was simulated using a multiplicative stomatal conductance model. Leaf senescence occurred earlier as average POD increased according to a linear relationship, and the two cultivars showed very different senescence responses. Negative effects of O3 on photosynthesis were only observed alongside O3-induced leaf senescence, suggesting that O3 does not impair photosynthesis in un-senesced flag leaves at the realistic O3 concentrations applied here. Accelerated senescence is therefore likely to be the dominant O3 effect influencing yield in most agricultural environments. POD was better than 24 h mean concentration and AOT40 (accumulated O3 exceeding 40 ppb, daylight hours) at predicting physiological response to O3, and flux also accounted for the difference in exposure resulting from peak and high background treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: ozone; air pollution; wheat; photosynthesis; leaf senescence; crop modelling ozone; air pollution; wheat; photosynthesis; leaf senescence; crop modelling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Osborne, S.; Pandey, D.; Mills, G.; Hayes, F.; Harmens, H.; Gillies, D.; Büker, P.; Emberson, L. New Insights into Leaf Physiological Responses to Ozone for Use in Crop Modelling. Plants 2019, 8, 84.

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