Special Issue "Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 June 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Kent Burkey

USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA, and Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: abiotic stress; climate change; genetic variation; heat stress; ozone; plant physiology and biochemistry; stress tolerance

Special Issue Information

Ozone is a toxic air pollutant that currently affects crops, forests, and natural vegetation in many regions of the world, with ozone levels expected to increase in the future. Plant responses to ozone stress have been studied extensively in many plant species. Genetic variation between and within species is consistently observed, evidence for the functioning of ozone tolerance mechanisms. Understanding the basis for this differential response will provide the knowledge required to improve the ozone tolerance of cultivated plants and to predict the impact of ozone stress on natural ecosystems. This Special Issue of Plants will focus on ozone tolerance mechanisms at all conceptual levels from the whole plant, individual leaves, physiological processes, cellular metabolism, gene expression, and proteomics. Contributions that elucidate phenotypic traits and DNA markers for ozone tolerance are also welcome.

Prof. Kent Burkey
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • antioxidants
  • genetics
  • photosynthesis
  • ozone
  • reactive oxygen
  • stomatal conductance
  • stress tolerance

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Elevated Ozone Concentration Reduces Photosynthetic Carbon Gain but Does Not Alter Leaf Structural Traits, Nutrient Composition or Biomass in Switchgrass
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
Elevated tropospheric ozone concentration (O3) increases oxidative stress in vegetation and threatens the stability of crop production. Current O3 pollution in the United States is estimated to decrease the yields of maize (Zea mays) up to 10%, however, [...] Read more.
Elevated tropospheric ozone concentration (O3) increases oxidative stress in vegetation and threatens the stability of crop production. Current O3 pollution in the United States is estimated to decrease the yields of maize (Zea mays) up to 10%, however, many bioenergy feedstocks including switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have not been studied for response to O3 stress. Using Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology, we investigated the impacts of elevated O3 (~100 nmol mol−1) on leaf photosynthetic traits and capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence, the Ball–Woodrow–Berry (BWB) relationship, respiration, leaf structure, biomass and nutrient composition of switchgrass. Elevated O3 concentration reduced net CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and maximum CO2 saturated photosynthetic capacity (Vmax), but did not affect other functional and structural traits in switchgrass or the macro- (except potassium) and micronutrient content of leaves. These results suggest that switchgrass exhibits a greater O3 tolerance than maize, and provide important fundamental data for evaluating the yield stability of a bioenergy feedstock crop and for exploring O3 sensitivity among bioenergy feedstocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle
New Insights into Leaf Physiological Responses to Ozone for Use in Crop Modelling
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
Estimating food production under future air pollution and climate conditions in scenario analysis depends on accurately modelling ozone (O3) effects on yield. This study tests several assumptions that form part of published approaches for modelling O3 effects on photosynthesis and [...] Read more.
Estimating food production under future air pollution and climate conditions in scenario analysis depends on accurately modelling ozone (O3) effects on yield. This study tests several assumptions that form part of published approaches for modelling O3 effects on photosynthesis and leaf duration against experimental data. In 2015 and 2016, two wheat cultivars were exposed in eight hemispherical glasshouses to O3 ranging from 22 to 57 ppb (24 h mean), with profiles ranging from raised background to high peak treatments. The stomatal O3 flux (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD) to leaves was simulated using a multiplicative stomatal conductance model. Leaf senescence occurred earlier as average POD increased according to a linear relationship, and the two cultivars showed very different senescence responses. Negative effects of O3 on photosynthesis were only observed alongside O3-induced leaf senescence, suggesting that O3 does not impair photosynthesis in un-senesced flag leaves at the realistic O3 concentrations applied here. Accelerated senescence is therefore likely to be the dominant O3 effect influencing yield in most agricultural environments. POD was better than 24 h mean concentration and AOT40 (accumulated O3 exceeding 40 ppb, daylight hours) at predicting physiological response to O3, and flux also accounted for the difference in exposure resulting from peak and high background treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Ozone Sensitivity in Three Wheat Cultivars Using Ethylenediurea
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars [HD 2987 (ozone (O3) sensitive), PBW 502 (intermediately sensitive) and Kharchiya 65 (O3 tolerant)] with known sensitivity to O3 were re-evaluated using ethylenediurea (EDU; 400 ppm) to ascertain the use of EDU [...] Read more.
Three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars [HD 2987 (ozone (O3) sensitive), PBW 502 (intermediately sensitive) and Kharchiya 65 (O3 tolerant)] with known sensitivity to O3 were re-evaluated using ethylenediurea (EDU; 400 ppm) to ascertain the use of EDU in determiningO3 sensitivity under highly O3-polluted tropical environments. EDU treatment helped in improving the growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and the antioxidative defense system of all the wheat cultivars. Under EDU treatment, PBW 502 retained more biomass, while HD 2987 showed better performance and ultimately the greatest increment in yield. Cultivar Kharchiya 65 also showed a positive response to EDU as manifested with an increase in pigment contents, total biomass and enzymatic antioxidants; however, this increment was comparatively lower compared to the other two cultivars. The results indicated that EDU did not have many physiological effects on cultivars but helped in counteracting O3 primarily by scavenging reactive oxygen species and enhancing the antioxidative defense system where superoxide dismutase emerged as the major responsive biochemical parameter against ambient O3. The observed results clearly indicated that differential O3 sensitivity in three wheat cultivars established by the previous study is in accordance with the present study using EDU as a sensitivity tool, which is an easy and efficient technology in comparison to chamber and Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiments although its mechanistic understanding needs to be further validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Ascorbic Acid and Ozone: Novel Perspectives to Explain an Elusive Relationship
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
A huge amount of studies highlighted the importance of high ascorbic acid (AA) content in ozone tolerance, yet the relationship between them appears more complex than a simple direct correlation. Sometimes the connection is clear, for example, two Arabidopsis mutants defective in the [...] Read more.
A huge amount of studies highlighted the importance of high ascorbic acid (AA) content in ozone tolerance, yet the relationship between them appears more complex than a simple direct correlation. Sometimes the connection is clear, for example, two Arabidopsis mutants defective in the main AA biosynthetic pathway (vtc mutants) were identified by means of their ozone sensitivity. However, some low-AA containing mutants are relatively tolerant, suggesting that AA location/availability could be more relevant than total content. A clear distinction should also be made between ozone tolerance obtained when AA content is increased by experimental supplementation (exogenous AA), and the physiological role of plant-synthesized AA (endogenous AA), whose amount is apparently subjected to tight regulation. Recent findings about the role of AA in signal transduction and epigenetic regulation of gene expression open new routes to further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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