Plant root system architecture changes drastically in response to availability of macronutrients in the soil environment. Despite the importance of root sulfur (S) uptake in plant growth and reproduction, molecular mechanisms underlying root development in response to S availability have not been fully characterized. We report here on the signaling module composed of the CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide and CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase, which regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis thaliana
upon changes in S availability. The wild-type seedlings exposed to prolonged S deficiency showed a phenotype with low LR density, which was restored upon sulfate supply. In contrast, the clv1
mutant showed a higher daily increase rate of LR density relative to the wild-type under prolonged S deficiency, which was diminished to the wild-type level upon sulfate supply, suggesting that CLV1 directs a signal to inhibit LR development under S-deficient conditions. CLE2
transcript levels decreased under S deficiency and through CLV1-mediated feedback regulations, suggesting the levels of CLE peptide signals are adjusted during the course of LR development. This study demonstrates a fine-tuned mechanism for LR development coordinately regulated by CLE-CLV1 signaling and in response to changes in S availability.
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