Next Issue
Volume 10, September
Previous Issue
Volume 10, July

Metabolites, Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 36 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Metabolomics approaches are useful tools for the simultaneous detection of endogenous metabolites affected by drug use. We performed comparative metabolic profiling of three psychoactive stimulant drugs—MDMA, amphetamine, and the new psychoactive substance (NPS) mephedrone—using liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry from plasma samples in controlled administration studies of humans. Various metabolites were identified as increased or decreased based on drug intake, and mainly belonged to energy metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, or amino acids. Linoleic acid and pregnenolone sulfate changed similarly in response to intake of all drugs. Overall, the profile of mephedrone was more similar to that of amphetamine than that of MDMA. These data can provide the basis for further targeted metabolome studies on pharmacological actions and the search for biomarkers of drug use. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Unraveling Arbuscular Mycorrhiza-Induced Changes in Plant Primary and Secondary Metabolome
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080335 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is among the most ubiquitous plant mutualists that enhance plant growth and yield by facilitating the uptake of phosphorus and water. The countless interactions that occur in the rhizosphere between plants and its AMF symbionts are mediated through the [...] Read more.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is among the most ubiquitous plant mutualists that enhance plant growth and yield by facilitating the uptake of phosphorus and water. The countless interactions that occur in the rhizosphere between plants and its AMF symbionts are mediated through the plant and fungal metabolites that ensure partner recognition, colonization, and establishment of the symbiotic association. The colonization and establishment of AMF reprogram the metabolic pathways of plants, resulting in changes in the primary and secondary metabolites, which is the focus of this review. During initial colonization, plant–AMF interaction is facilitated through the regulation of signaling and carotenoid pathways. After the establishment, the AMF symbiotic association influences the primary metabolism of the plant, thus facilitating the sharing of photosynthates with the AMF. The carbon supply to AMF leads to the transport of a significant amount of sugars to the roots, and also alters the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Apart from the nutrient exchange, the AMF imparts abiotic stress tolerance in host plants by increasing the abundance of several primary metabolites. Although AMF initially suppresses the defense response of the host, it later primes the host for better defense against biotic and abiotic stresses by reprogramming the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Additionally, the influence of AMF on signaling pathways translates to enhanced phytochemical content through the upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway, which improves the quality of the plant products. These phytometabolome changes induced by plant–AMF interaction depends on the identity of both plant and AMF species, which could contribute to the differential outcome of this symbiotic association. A better understanding of the phytochemical landscape shaped by plant–AMF interactions would enable us to harness this symbiotic association to enhance plant performance, particularly under non-optimal growing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecometabolomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
L-Ascorbate Biosynthesis Involves Carbon Skeleton Rearrangement in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080334 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Ascorbate (AsA) is required as a cofactor and is widely distributed in plants and animals. Recently, it has been suggested that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans also synthesizes AsA. However, its biosynthetic pathway is still unknown. To further understand AsA biosynthesis in C. elegans [...] Read more.
Ascorbate (AsA) is required as a cofactor and is widely distributed in plants and animals. Recently, it has been suggested that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans also synthesizes AsA. However, its biosynthetic pathway is still unknown. To further understand AsA biosynthesis in C. elegans, we analyzed the incorporation of the 13C atom into AsA using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in worms fed with D-Glc (1-13C)-labeled Escherichia coli. GC-MS analysis revealed that AsA biosynthesis in C. elegans, similarly to that in mammalian systems, involves carbon skeleton rearrangement. The addition of L-gulono-1,4-lactone, an AsA precursor in the mammalian pathway, significantly increased AsA level in C. elegans, whereas the addition of L-galactono-1,4-lactone, an AsA precursor in the plant and Euglena pathway, did not affect AsA level. The suppression of E03H4.3 (an ortholog of gluconolactonase) or the deficiency of F54D5.12 (an ortholog of L-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidase) significantly decreased AsA level in C. elegans. Although N2- and AsA-deficient F54D5.12 knockout mutant worm (tm6671) morphologies and the ratio of collagen to non-collagen protein did not show any significant differences, the mutant worms exhibited increased malondialdehyde levels and reduced lifespan compared with the N2 worms. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the AsA biosynthetic pathway is similar in C. elegans and mammals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metabolomics Comparison of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) Biofluids Using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080333 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the metabolomic profiles of rumen fluid, serum, and urine from Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae), using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. In all, 189, 110, and 188 metabolites were identified in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the metabolomic profiles of rumen fluid, serum, and urine from Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae), using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. In all, 189, 110, and 188 metabolites were identified in rumen fluid, serum, and urine, and 107, 49, and 99 were quantified, respectively. Organic acids, carbohydrates, and aliphatic acyclic compound metabolites were present at the highest concentrations in rumen fluid, serum, and urine, respectively. In addition, acetate, glucose, and urea were the most highly concentrated individual metabolites in rumen fluid, serum, and urine, respectively. In all, 77 metabolites were commonly identified, and 19 were quantified across three biofluids. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the common quantified metabolites could provide relevant information about three main metabolic pathways, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; caffeine metabolism; and histidine metabolism. These results can be useful as reference values for future metabolomic research on Hanwoo biofluids in Korea. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Lipidomic-Based Advances in Diagnosis and Modulation of Immune Response to Cancer
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080332 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
While immunotherapies for diverse types of cancer are effective in many cases, relapse is still a lingering problem. Like tumor cells, activated immune cells have an anabolic metabolic profile, relying on glycolysis and the increased uptake and synthesis of fatty acids. In contrast, [...] Read more.
While immunotherapies for diverse types of cancer are effective in many cases, relapse is still a lingering problem. Like tumor cells, activated immune cells have an anabolic metabolic profile, relying on glycolysis and the increased uptake and synthesis of fatty acids. In contrast, immature antigen-presenting cells, as well as anergic and exhausted T-cells have a catabolic metabolic profile that uses oxidative phosphorylation to provide energy for cellular processes. One goal for enhancing current immunotherapies is to identify metabolic pathways supporting the immune response to tumor antigens. A robust cell expansion and an active modulation via immune checkpoints and cytokine release are required for effective immunity. Lipids, as one of the main components of the cell membrane, are the key regulators of cell signaling and proliferation. Therefore, lipid metabolism reprogramming may impact proliferation and generate dysfunctional immune cells promoting tumor growth. Based on lipid-driven signatures, the discrimination between responsiveness and tolerance to tumor cells will support the development of accurate biomarkers and the identification of potential therapeutic targets. These findings may improve existing immunotherapies and ultimately prevent immune escape in patients for whom existing treatments have failed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Lipidomics: Biomedicine, Nutrients and Methodology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antibiotics Effects on the Fecal Metabolome in Preterm Infants
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080331 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Within a randomized prospective pilot study of preterm infants born at less than 33 weeks’ gestation, weekly fecal samples from 19 infants were collected and metabolomic analysis was performed. The objective was to evaluate for differences in fecal metabolites in infants exposed to [...] Read more.
Within a randomized prospective pilot study of preterm infants born at less than 33 weeks’ gestation, weekly fecal samples from 19 infants were collected and metabolomic analysis was performed. The objective was to evaluate for differences in fecal metabolites in infants exposed to antibiotics vs. not exposed to antibiotics in the first 48 h after birth. Metabolomics analysis was performed on 123 stool samples. Significant differences were seen in the antibiotics vs. no antibiotics groups, including pathways related to vitamin biosynthesis, bile acids, amino acid metabolism, and neurotransmitters. Early antibiotic exposure in preterm infants may alter metabolites in the intestinal tract of preterm infants. Broader multi-omic studies that address mechanisms will guide more prudent antibiotic use in this population. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Associations of BMI and Body Fat with Urine Metabolome in Adolescents Are Sex-Specific: A Cross-Sectional Study
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080330 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies examining the relationship between body composition and the urine metabolome may improve our understanding of the role of metabolic dysregulation in body composition-related health conditions. Previous studies, mostly in adult populations, have focused on a single measure of body composition, body [...] Read more.
Epidemiologic studies examining the relationship between body composition and the urine metabolome may improve our understanding of the role of metabolic dysregulation in body composition-related health conditions. Previous studies, mostly in adult populations, have focused on a single measure of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and sex-specific associations are rarely explored. We investigate sex-specific associations of two measures of body composition—BMI and body fat (BF)—with the urine metabolome in adolescents. In 369 participants (age 16–18, 49% female) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study, we examined sex-specific associations of these two measures of body composition, BMI and BF, and 1407 (467 unknown) 24 h urine metabolites analyzed by untargeted metabolomics cross-sectionally. Missing metabolites were imputed. We related metabolites (dependent variable) to BMI and BF (independent variable) separately using linear regression. The models were additionally adjusted for covariates. We found 10 metabolites associated with both BMI and BF. We additionally found 11 metabolites associated with only BF, and nine with only BMI. None of these associations was in females. We observed a strong sexual dimorphism in the relationship between body composition and the urine metabolome. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Identification of Human Sulfotransferases Active towards Silymarin Flavonolignans and Taxifolin
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080329 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Natural phenolic compounds are known to be metabolized by phase II metabolic reactions. In this study, we examined the in vitro sulfation of the main constituents of silymarin, an herbal remedy produced from the fruits of the milk thistle. The study focused on [...] Read more.
Natural phenolic compounds are known to be metabolized by phase II metabolic reactions. In this study, we examined the in vitro sulfation of the main constituents of silymarin, an herbal remedy produced from the fruits of the milk thistle. The study focused on major flavonolignan constituents, including silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silychristin, and silydianin, as well as the flavonoid taxifolin. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS), individual flavonolignans and taxifolin were found to be sulfated by human liver and human intestinal cytosols. Moreover, experiments with recombinant enzymes revealed that human sulfotransferases (SULTs) 1A1*1, 1A1*2, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1, 1C4, and 1E1 catalyzed the sulfation of all of the tested compounds, with the exception of silydianin, which was not sulfated by SULT1B1 and SULT1C4. The sulfation products detected were monosulfates, of which some of the major ones were identified as silybin A 20-O-sulfate, silybin B 20-O-sulfate, and isosilybin A 20-O-sulfate. Further, we also observed the sulfation of the tested compounds when they were tested in the silymarin mixture. Sulfates of flavonolignans and of taxifolin were produced by incubating silymarin with all of the above SULT enzymes, with human liver and intestinal cytosols, and also with human hepatocytes, even though the spectrum and amount of the sulfates varied among the metabolic models. Considering our results and the expression patterns of human sulfotransferases in metabolic tissues, we conclude that flavonolignans and taxifolin can potentially undergo both intestinal and hepatic sulfation, and that SULTs 1A1, 1A3, 1B1, and 1E1 could be involved in the biotransformation of the constituents of silymarin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacology and Drug Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Metabolomics in Radiation Biodosimetry: Current Approaches and Advances
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080328 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Triage and medical intervention strategies for unanticipated exposure during a radiation incident benefit from the early, rapid and accurate assessment of dose level. Radiation exposure results in complex and persistent molecular and cellular responses that ultimately alter the levels of many biological markers, [...] Read more.
Triage and medical intervention strategies for unanticipated exposure during a radiation incident benefit from the early, rapid and accurate assessment of dose level. Radiation exposure results in complex and persistent molecular and cellular responses that ultimately alter the levels of many biological markers, including the metabolomic phenotype. Metabolomics is an emerging field that promises the determination of radiation exposure by the qualitative and quantitative measurements of small molecules in a biological sample. This review highlights the current role of metabolomics in assessing radiation injury, as well as considerations for the diverse range of bioanalytical and sampling technologies that are being used to detect these changes. The authors also address the influence of the physiological status of an individual, the animal models studied, the technology and analysis employed in interrogating response to the radiation insult, and variables that factor into discovery and development of robust biomarker signatures. Furthermore, available databases for these studies have been reviewed, and existing regulatory guidance for metabolomics are discussed, with the ultimate goal of providing both context for this area of radiation research and the consideration of pathways for continued development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics/Lipidomics in Radiation Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
VenoMS—A Website for the Low Molecular Mass Compounds in Spider Venoms
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080327 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Spider venoms are highly complex mixtures. Numerous spider venom metabolites are uniquely found in spider venoms and are of interest concerning their potential use in pharmacology, agriculture, and cosmetics. A nontargeted ultra-high performance high-resolution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-ESI-MS/MS) approach offers a resource-saving [...] Read more.
Spider venoms are highly complex mixtures. Numerous spider venom metabolites are uniquely found in spider venoms and are of interest concerning their potential use in pharmacology, agriculture, and cosmetics. A nontargeted ultra-high performance high-resolution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-ESI-MS/MS) approach offers a resource-saving way for the analysis of crude spider venom. However, the identification of known as well as the structure elucidation of unknown low molecular mass spider venom compounds based on their MS/MS spectra is challenging because (1) acylpolyamine toxins are exclusively found in spider and wasp venom, (2) reference MS/MS spectra are missing in established mass spectrometry databases, and (3) trivial names for the various toxin metabolites are used in an inconsistent way in literature. Therefore, we introduce the freely accessible MS website for low molecular mass spider venom metabolites, venoMS, containing structural information, MS/MS spectra, and links to related literature. Currently the database contains the structures of 409 acylpolyamine toxins, 36 free linear polyamines, and 81 additional spider venom metabolites. Implemented into this website is a fragment ion calculator (FRIOC) that allows us to predict fragment ions of linear polyamine derivatives. With three metabolites from the venom of the spider Agelenopsis aperta, it was demonstrated how the new website can support the structural elucidation of acylpolyamines using their MS/MS spectra. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metabolic Profiling Reveals Aggravated Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet-Fed Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice Lacking Ron Receptor Signaling
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080326 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represents the progressive sub-disease of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that causes chronic liver injury initiated and sustained by steatosis and necroinflammation. The Ron receptor is a tyrosine kinase of the Met proto-oncogene family that potentially has a beneficial role in [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represents the progressive sub-disease of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that causes chronic liver injury initiated and sustained by steatosis and necroinflammation. The Ron receptor is a tyrosine kinase of the Met proto-oncogene family that potentially has a beneficial role in adipose and liver-specific inflammatory responses, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Since its discovery two decades ago, the Ron receptor has been extensively investigated for its differential roles on inflammation and cancer. Previously, we showed that Ron expression on tissue-resident macrophages limits inflammatory macrophage activation and promotes a repair phenotype, which can retard the progression of NASH in a diet-induced mouse model. However, the metabolic consequences of Ron activation have not previously been investigated. Here, we explored the effects of Ron receptor activation on major metabolic pathways that underlie the development and progression of NASH. Mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE KO) and double knockout (DKO) mice that lack ApoE and Ron were maintained on a high-fat high-cholesterol diet for 18 weeks. We observed that, in DKO mice, the loss of ligand-dependent Ron signaling aggravated key pathological features in steatohepatitis, including steatosis, inflammation, oxidation stress, and hepatocyte damage. Transcriptional programs positively regulating fatty acid (FA) synthesis and uptake were upregulated in the absence of Ron receptor signaling, whereas lipid disposal pathways were downregulated. Consistent with the deregulation of lipid metabolism pathways, the DKO animals exhibited increased accumulation of FAs in the liver and decreased level of bile acids. Altogether, ligand-dependent Ron receptor activation provides protection from the deregulation of major metabolic pathways that initiate and aggravate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Comparative Metabolomic Analysis of Dendrobium officinale under Different Cultivation Substrates
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080325 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Dendrobium officinale, a precious herbal medicine, has been used for a long time in Chinese history. The metabolites of D. officinale, regarded as its effective components to fight diseases, are significantly affected by cultivation substrates. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography [...] Read more.
Dendrobium officinale, a precious herbal medicine, has been used for a long time in Chinese history. The metabolites of D. officinale, regarded as its effective components to fight diseases, are significantly affected by cultivation substrates. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was conducted to analyze D. officinale stems cultured in three different substrates: pine bark (PB), coconut coir (CC), and a pine bark: coconut coir 1:1 mix (PC). A total of 529 metabolites were identified. Multivariate statistical analysis methods were employed to analyze the difference in the content of metabolites extracted from different groups. By the criteria of variable importance in projection (VIP) value ≥1 and absolute log2 (fold change) ≥1, there were a total of 68, 51, and 57 metabolites, with significant differences in content across groups being filtrated out between PB and PC, PB and CC, and PC and CC, respectively. The comparisons among the three groups revealed that flavonoids were the metabolites that fluctuated most. The results suggested the D. officinale stems from the PB group possessed a higher flavonoid content. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the significantly regulated metabolites were mainly connected with flavonoid biosynthesis. A comprehensive profile of the metabolic differentiation of D. officinale planted in different substrates was provided, which supports the selection of an optimum cultivation substrate for a higher biomass yield of D. officinale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Plant Environmental Physiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Branched-Chain Keto Acids in Hyperammonemic States: Metabolism and as Supplements
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080324 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
In hyperammonemic states, such as liver cirrhosis, urea cycle disorders, and strenuous exercise, the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) is activated and BCAA concentrations decrease. In these conditions, BCAAs are recommended to improve mental functions, protein balance, and [...] Read more.
In hyperammonemic states, such as liver cirrhosis, urea cycle disorders, and strenuous exercise, the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) is activated and BCAA concentrations decrease. In these conditions, BCAAs are recommended to improve mental functions, protein balance, and muscle performance. However, clinical trials have not demonstrated significant benefits of BCAA-containing supplements. It is hypothesized that, under hyperammonemic conditions, enhanced glutamine availability and decreased BCAA levels facilitate the amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs; α-ketoisocaproate, α-keto-β-methylvalerate, and α-ketoisovalerate) to the corresponding BCAAs, and that BCKA supplementation may offer advantages over BCAAs. Studies examining the effects of ketoanalogues of amino acids have provided proof that subjects with hyperammonemia can effectively synthesize BCAAs from BCKAs. Unfortunately, the benefits of BCKA administration have not been clearly confirmed. The shortcoming of most reports is the use of mixtures intended for patients with renal insufficiency, which might be detrimental for patients with liver injury. It is concluded that (i) BCKA administration may decrease ammonia production, attenuate cataplerosis, correct amino acid imbalance, and improve protein balance and (ii) studies specifically investigating the effects of BCKA, without the interference of other ketoanalogues, are needed to complete the information essential for decisions regarding their suitability in hyperammonemic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Metabolomic Signature of Amino Acids, Biogenic Amines and Lipids in Blood Serum of Patients with Severe Osteoarthritis
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080323 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Metabolomic analysis is an emerging new diagnostic tool, which holds great potential for improving the understanding of osteoarthritis (OA)-caused metabolomic shifts associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. The main aim of the study was to map the changes of amino acid, biogenic [...] Read more.
Metabolomic analysis is an emerging new diagnostic tool, which holds great potential for improving the understanding of osteoarthritis (OA)-caused metabolomic shifts associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. The main aim of the study was to map the changes of amino acid, biogenic amine and complex lipid profiles in severe OA, where the shifts should be more eminent compared with early stages. The fasting serum of 70 knee and hip OA patients and 82 controls was assessed via a targeted approach using the AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit. Changes in the serum levels of amino acids, sphingomyelins, phoshatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines of the OA patients compared with controls suggest systemic inflammation in severe OA patients. Furthermore, the decreased spermine to spermidine ratio indicates excessive oxidative stress to be associated with OA. Serum arginine level was positively correlated with radiographic severity of OA, potentially linking inflammation through NO synthesis to OA. Further, the level of glycine was negatively associated with the severity of OA, which might refer to glycine deficiency in severe OA. The current study demonstrates significant changes in the amino acid, biogenic amine and low-molecular weight lipid profiles of severe OA and provides new insights into the complex interplay between chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Differential Metabolomics Profiles Identified by CE-TOFMS between High and Low Intramuscular Fat Amount in Fattening Pigs
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080322 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) present in the loin eye area is one of the most important characteristics of high-quality pork. IMF measurements are currently impractical without a labor-intensive process. Metabolomic profiling could be used as an IMF indicator to avoid this [...] Read more.
The amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) present in the loin eye area is one of the most important characteristics of high-quality pork. IMF measurements are currently impractical without a labor-intensive process. Metabolomic profiling could be used as an IMF indicator to avoid this process; however, no studies have investigated their use during the fattening period of pigs. This study examined the metabolite profiles in the plasma of two groups of pigs derived from the same Duroc genetic line and fed the same diet. Five plasma samples were collected from each individual the day before slaughter. Capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) was used to analyze the purified plasma from each sample. Principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to find the semi-quantitative values of the compounds. The results indicate that branched-chain amino acids are significantly associated with high IMF content, while amino acids are associated with low IMF content. These differences were validated using the quantification analyses by high-performance liquid chromatograph, which supported our results. These results suggest that the concentration of branched-chain amino acids in plasma could be an indicative biomarker for the IMF content in the loin eye area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Changes of Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds in Postoperative Patients Undergoing Analgesic Treatment: A Prospective Observational Study
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080321 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Assessment and treatment of postoperative pain can be challenging as objective examination techniques to detect and quantify pain are lacking. We aimed to investigate changes of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in patients with postoperative pain before and after treatment with opioid analgesics. [...] Read more.
Assessment and treatment of postoperative pain can be challenging as objective examination techniques to detect and quantify pain are lacking. We aimed to investigate changes of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in patients with postoperative pain before and after treatment with opioid analgesics. In an observational study in 20 postoperative patients, we monitored for postoperative pain, hemodynamic parameters, and catecholamines before and during treatment. VOCs in the patients were determined by direct real-time proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry prior (0 min) and after piritramide application (15 min as well as 30 min). Cardiovascular variables changed and norepinephrine levels decreased during treatment. The VOCs acetonitrile (<0.001), acetaldehyde (p = 0.002), benzopyran (p = 0.004), benzene (p < 0.001), hexenal (p = < 0.001), 1-butanethiol (p = 0.004), methanethiol (p < 0.001), ethanol (p = 0.003), and propanol (p = < 0.001) changed significantly over time. Patients with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) < 4 showed a significantly lower concentration of hexenal compared to patients with NRS > 4 at the time points 15 min (45.0 vs. 385.3 ncps, p = 0.047) and 30 min (38.3 vs. 334.6 ncps, p = 0.039). Breath analysis can provide additional information for noninvasive monitoring for analgesic treatment in postoperative patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Promoter Architecture and Promoter Engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080320 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Promoters play an essential role in the regulation of gene expression for fine-tuning genetic circuits and metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). However, native promoters in S. cerevisiae have several limitations which hinder their applications in metabolic engineering. These limitations [...] Read more.
Promoters play an essential role in the regulation of gene expression for fine-tuning genetic circuits and metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). However, native promoters in S. cerevisiae have several limitations which hinder their applications in metabolic engineering. These limitations include an inadequate number of well-characterized promoters, poor dynamic range, and insufficient orthogonality to endogenous regulations. Therefore, it is necessary to perform promoter engineering to create synthetic promoters with better properties. Here, we review recent advances related to promoter architecture, promoter engineering and synthetic promoter applications in S. cerevisiae. We also provide a perspective of future directions in this field with an emphasis on the recent advances of machine learning based promoter designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Multilevel Bayesian Approach to Improve Effect Size Estimation in Regression Modeling of Metabolomics Data Utilizing Imputation with Uncertainty
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080319 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
To ensure scientific reproducibility of metabolomics data, alternative statistical methods are needed. A paradigm shift away from the p-value toward an embracement of uncertainty and interval estimation of a metabolite’s true effect size may lead to improved study design and greater reproducibility. [...] Read more.
To ensure scientific reproducibility of metabolomics data, alternative statistical methods are needed. A paradigm shift away from the p-value toward an embracement of uncertainty and interval estimation of a metabolite’s true effect size may lead to improved study design and greater reproducibility. Multilevel Bayesian models are one approach that offer the added opportunity of incorporating imputed value uncertainty when missing data are present. We designed simulations of metabolomics data to compare multilevel Bayesian models to standard logistic regression with corrections for multiple hypothesis testing. Our simulations altered the sample size and the fraction of significant metabolites truly different between two outcome groups. We then introduced missingness to further assess model performance. Across simulations, the multilevel Bayesian approach more accurately estimated the effect size of metabolites that were significantly different between groups. Bayesian models also had greater power and mitigated the false discovery rate. In the presence of increased missing data, Bayesian models were able to accurately impute the true concentration and incorporating the uncertainty of these estimates improved overall prediction. In summary, our simulations demonstrate that a multilevel Bayesian approach accurately quantifies the estimated effect size of metabolite predictors in regression modeling, particularly in the presence of missing data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metabolic Profiles of Whole, Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Saliva
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080318 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The detection of salivary molecules associated with pathological and physiological alterations has encouraged the search of novel and non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for oral health evaluation. While genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiles of human saliva have been reported, its metabolic composition is a topic [...] Read more.
The detection of salivary molecules associated with pathological and physiological alterations has encouraged the search of novel and non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for oral health evaluation. While genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiles of human saliva have been reported, its metabolic composition is a topic of research: metabolites in submandibular/sublingual saliva have never been analyzed systematically. In this study, samples of whole, parotid, and submandibular/sublingual saliva from 20 healthy donors, without dental or periodontal diseases, were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. We identified metabolites which are differently distributed within the three saliva subtypes (54 in whole, 49 in parotid, and 36 in submandibular/sublingual saliva). Principal component analysis revealed a distinct cluster for whole saliva and a partial overlap for parotid and submandibular/sublingual metabolites. We found exclusive metabolites for each subtype: 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, 3-methyl-glutarate, 3-phenylpropionate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, galactose, and isocaproate in whole saliva; caprylate and glycolate in submandibular/sublingual saliva; arginine in parotid saliva. Salivary metabolites were classified into standard and non-proteinogenic amino acids and amines; simple carbohydrates; organic acids; bacterial-derived metabolites. The identification of a salivary gland-specific metabolic composition in healthy people provides the basis to invigorate the search for salivary biomarkers associated with oral and systemic diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Target Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath for Lung Cancer Discrimination from Other Pulmonary Diseases and Healthy Persons
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080317 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of breath analysis to distinguish lung cancer (LC) patients from patients with other respiratory diseases and healthy people. The population sample consisted of 51 patients with confirmed LC, 38 patients with pathological [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of breath analysis to distinguish lung cancer (LC) patients from patients with other respiratory diseases and healthy people. The population sample consisted of 51 patients with confirmed LC, 38 patients with pathological computed tomography (CT) findings not diagnosed with LC, and 53 healthy controls. The concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified in the exhaled breath of study participants by solid phase microextraction (SPME) of the VOCs and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests were used to identify significant differences between subgroups. Machine learning methods were used to determine the discriminant power of the method. Several compounds were found to differ significantly between LC patients and healthy controls. Strong associations were identified for 2-propanol, 1-propanol, toluene, ethylbenzene, and styrene (p-values < 0.001–0.006). These associations remained significant when ambient air concentrations were subtracted from breath concentrations. VOC levels were found to be affected by ambient air concentrations and a few by smoking status. The random forest machine learning algorithm achieved a correct classification of patients of 88.5% (area under the curve—AUC 0.94). However, none of the methods used achieved adequate discrimination between LC patients and patients with abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings. Biomarker sets, consisting mainly of the exogenous monoaromatic compounds and 1- and 2- propanol, adequately discriminated LC patients from healthy controls. The breath concentrations of these compounds may reflect the alterations in patient’s physiological and biochemical status and perhaps can be used as probes for the investigation of these statuses or normalization of patient-related factors in breath analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volatile Metabolites’ New Frontier for Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metabolite Profiles of the Relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) Milestones and Metabolic Risk during Early Adolescence
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080316 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Early growth is associated with future metabolic risk; however, little is known of the underlying biological pathways. In this prospective study of 249 boys and 227 girls, we sought to identify sex-specific metabolite profiles that mark the relationship between age and magnitude of [...] Read more.
Early growth is associated with future metabolic risk; however, little is known of the underlying biological pathways. In this prospective study of 249 boys and 227 girls, we sought to identify sex-specific metabolite profiles that mark the relationship between age and magnitude of the infancy body mass index (BMI) peak, and the childhood BMI rebound with a metabolic syndrome z-score (MetS z-score) during early adolescence (median age 12.8 years). Thirteen consensus metabolite networks were generated between male and female adolescents using weighted correlation network analysis. In girls, none of the networks were related to BMI milestones after false discovery rate (FDR) correction at 5%. In boys, age and/or magnitude of BMI at rebound were associated with three metabolite eigenvector (ME) networks comprising androgen hormones (ME7), lysophospholipids (ME8), and diacylglycerols (ME11) after FDR correction. These networks were also associated with MetS z-score in boys after accounting for age and race/ethnicity: ME7 (1.43 [95% CI: 0.52, 2.34] units higher MetS z-score per 1 unit of ME7), ME8 (−1.01 [95% CI: −1.96, −0.07]), and ME11 (2.88 [95% CI: 2.06, 3.70]). These findings suggest that alterations in sex steroid hormone and lipid metabolism are involved in the relationship of early growth with future metabolic risk in males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex and Gender Differences in Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Plasma Metabolites Associate with All-Cause Mortality in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080315 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Alterations in the human metabolome occur years before clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). By contrast, there is little knowledge of how metabolite alterations in individuals with diabetes relate to risk of diabetes complications and premature mortality. Metabolite profiling was performed using [...] Read more.
Alterations in the human metabolome occur years before clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). By contrast, there is little knowledge of how metabolite alterations in individuals with diabetes relate to risk of diabetes complications and premature mortality. Metabolite profiling was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 743 participants with T2DM from the population-based prospective cohorts The Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC) and The Malmö Preventive Project (MPP). During follow-up, a total of 175 new-onset cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 298 deaths occurred. Cox regressions were used to relate baseline levels of plasma metabolites to incident CVD and all-cause mortality. A total of 11 metabolites were significantly (false discovery rate (fdr) <0.05) associated with all-cause mortality. Acisoga, acylcarnitine C10:3, dimethylguanidino valerate, homocitrulline, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine, 1-methyladenosine and urobilin were associated with an increased risk, while hippurate, lysine, threonine and tryptophan were associated with a decreased risk. Ten out of 11 metabolites remained significantly associated after adjustments for cardiometabolic risk factors. The associations between metabolite levels and incident CVD were not as strong as for all-cause mortality, although 11 metabolites were nominally significant (p < 0.05). Further examination of the mortality-related metabolites may shed more light on the pathophysiology linking diabetes to premature mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Metabolomic Biomarkers for Detection, Prognosis and Identifying Recurrence in Endometrial Cancer
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080314 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Metabolic reprogramming is increasingly recognised as one of the defining hallmarks of tumorigenesis. There is compelling evidence to suggest that endometrial cancer develops and progresses in the context of profound metabolic dysfunction. Whilst the incidence of endometrial cancer continues to rise in parallel [...] Read more.
Metabolic reprogramming is increasingly recognised as one of the defining hallmarks of tumorigenesis. There is compelling evidence to suggest that endometrial cancer develops and progresses in the context of profound metabolic dysfunction. Whilst the incidence of endometrial cancer continues to rise in parallel with the global epidemic of obesity, there are, as yet, no validated biomarkers that can aid risk prediction, early detection, prognostic evaluation or surveillance. Advances in high-throughput technologies have, in recent times, shown promise for biomarker discovery based on genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic platforms. Metabolomics, the large-scale study of metabolites, deals with the downstream products of the other omics technologies and thus best reflects the human phenotype. This review aims to provide a summary and critical synthesis of the existing literature with the ultimate goal of identifying the most promising metabolite biomarkers that can augment current endometrial cancer diagnostic, prognostic and recurrence surveillance strategies. Identified metabolites and their biochemical pathways are discussed in the context of what we know about endometrial carcinogenesis and their potential clinical utility is evaluated. Finally, we underscore the challenges inherent in metabolomic biomarker discovery and validation and provide fresh perspectives and directions for future endometrial cancer biomarker research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Integrated Metabolomics Study of Glucosinolate Metabolism in Different Brassicaceae Genera
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080313 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Glucosinolates are a group of plant secondary metabolites that can be hydrolyzed into a variety of breakdown products such as isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, and nitriles. These breakdown products can facilitate plant defense and function as attractants to natural enemies of insect pests. As part [...] Read more.
Glucosinolates are a group of plant secondary metabolites that can be hydrolyzed into a variety of breakdown products such as isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, and nitriles. These breakdown products can facilitate plant defense and function as attractants to natural enemies of insect pests. As part of the diet, some of these compounds have shown cancer-preventing activities, and the levels of these metabolites in the edible parts of the plants are of interest. In this study, we systematically examined variations in glucosinolates, their precursors, and their breakdown products in 12 commonly consumed vegetables of the Brassicaceae family with gas chromatography—quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC-Q-TOF/MS), liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-Q-TOF/MS), and liquid chromatography—triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QQQ/MS), using both untargeted and targeted approaches. The findings were integrated with data from literature to provide a comprehensive map of pathways for biosynthesis of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. The levels of precursor glucosinolates are found to correlate well with their downstream breakdown products. Further, the types and abundances of glucosinolates among different genera are significantly different, and these data allow the classification of plants based on morphological taxonomy. Further validation on three genera, which are grown underground, in damp soil, and above ground, suggests that each genus has its specific biosynthetic pathways and that there are variations in some common glucosinolate biosynthesis pathways. Our methods and results provide a good starting point for further investigations into specific aspects of glucosinolate metabolism in the Brassica vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites and Signaling Pathways)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Glucose Metabolism and Dynamics of Facilitative Glucose Transporters (GLUTs) under the Influence of Heat Stress in Dairy Cattle
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080312 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Heat stress is one of the main threats to dairy cow production; in order to resist heat stress, the animal exhibits a variety of physiological and hormonal responses driven by complex molecular mechanisms. Heat-stressed cows have high insulin activity, decreased non-esterified fatty acids, [...] Read more.
Heat stress is one of the main threats to dairy cow production; in order to resist heat stress, the animal exhibits a variety of physiological and hormonal responses driven by complex molecular mechanisms. Heat-stressed cows have high insulin activity, decreased non-esterified fatty acids, and increased glucose disposal. Glucose, as one of the important biochemical components of the energetic metabolism, is affected at multiple levels by the reciprocal changes in hormonal secretion and adipose metabolism under the influence of heat stress in dairy cattle. Therefore, alterations in glucose metabolism have negative consequences for the animal’s health, production, and reproduction under heat stress. Lactose is a major sugar of milk which is affected by the reshuffle of the whole-body energetic metabolism during heat stress, contributing towards milk production losses. Glucose homeostasis is maintained in the body by one of the glucose transporters’ family called facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs encoded by SLC2A genes). Besides the glucose level, the GLUTs expression level is also significantly changed under the influence of heat stress. This review aims to describe the effect of heat stress on systemic glucose metabolism, facilitative glucose transporters, and its consequences on health and milk production. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Multiblock Analysis to Relate Polyphenol Targeted Mass Spectrometry and Sensory Properties of Chocolates and Cocoa Beans
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080311 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Chocolate quality is largely due to the presence of polyphenols and especially of flavan-3-ols and their derivatives that contribute to bitterness and astringency. The aim of the present work was to assess the potential of a quantitative polyphenol targeted metabolomics analysis based on [...] Read more.
Chocolate quality is largely due to the presence of polyphenols and especially of flavan-3-ols and their derivatives that contribute to bitterness and astringency. The aim of the present work was to assess the potential of a quantitative polyphenol targeted metabolomics analysis based on mass spectrometry for relating cocoa bean polyphenol composition corresponding chocolate polyphenol composition and sensory properties. One-hundred cocoa bean samples were transformed to chocolates using a standard process, and the latter were attributed to four different groups by sensory analysis. Polyphenols were analyzed by an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system hyphenated to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A multiblock method called a Common Component and Specific Weights Analysis (CCSWA) was used to study relationships between the three datasets, i.e., cocoa polyphenols, chocolate polyphenols and sensory profiles. The CCSWA multiblock method coupling sensory and chocolate polyphenols differentiated the four sensory poles. It showed that polyphenolic and sensory data both contained information enabling the sensory poles’ separation, even if they can be also complementary. A large amount of variance in the cocoa bean and corresponding chocolate polyphenols has been linked. The cocoa bean phenolic composition turned out to be a major factor in explaining the sensory pole separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Metabolome)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effects of Water Deficit and Heat Stress on Nicotiana langsdorffii Metabolomic Pattern Modified by Insertion of rolD Gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080310 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Abiotic stresses are major factors that negatively affect plant growth and productivity. Plants have developed complex strategies to ensure their survival and reproduction under adverse conditions, activating mechanisms that involve changes at different metabolic levels. In order to select stress-resistant species, research has [...] Read more.
Abiotic stresses are major factors that negatively affect plant growth and productivity. Plants have developed complex strategies to ensure their survival and reproduction under adverse conditions, activating mechanisms that involve changes at different metabolic levels. In order to select stress-resistant species, research has focused on molecular studies and genetic engineering, showing promising results. In this work, the insertion of the rolD gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes into Nicotiana langsdorffii plants is investigated, in order to assess the potential of this genetic modification towards mitigating water and heat stresses. Different approaches were combined: a high-throughput metabolomics and ionomics study was performed, together with the determination of important plant phytohormones. The aim was to identify the influence of abiotic stresses on plants and to highlight the effects of the rolD genetic modification on plant stress response. The most relevant compounds for each kind of stress were identified, belonging mainly to the classes of lipids, acyl sugars, glycosides, and amino acid derivatives. Water stress (WS) determined a decrease of elements and secondary metabolites, while amino acids and their derivatives increased, proving to be key molecules in this type of stress. RolD plants exposed to high temperature stress (HS) presented higher dry weight levels than controls, as well as increased amounts of K and adenosine and lower levels of damage-associated metabolites, suggesting the increased resistance of rolD-modified plants toward HS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Metabolome)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Isolation of Three Lycorine Type Alkaloids from Rhodolirium speciosum (Herb.) Ravenna Using pH-Zone-Refinement Centrifugal Partition Chromatography and Their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080309 - 28 Jul 2020
Viewed by 850
Abstract
Preparative separation of three lycorine type alkaloids from Rhodolirum speciosum (Amaryllidaceae) was successfully carried out using pH-zone-refinement centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) using the solvent system methyl-tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in descending mode. Using this system, Alkaloid 1 (165.7 [...] Read more.
Preparative separation of three lycorine type alkaloids from Rhodolirum speciosum (Amaryllidaceae) was successfully carried out using pH-zone-refinement centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) using the solvent system methyl-tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in descending mode. Using this system, Alkaloid 1 (165.7 mg, 88.2%, purity), 2 (60.1 mg, 97.7% purity) and 3 (12.3 mg, 84.4% purity) were obtained in one step. For structure elucidation, the pure alkaloids were subjected to spectroscopy analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance experiments (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Alkaloids 1, 2, and 3 were identified as 1-O-acetyl-5,6-dehydrolycorine, 1-O-acetyl-lycorine, and 1,2-O-diacetyl-5,6-dehydrolycorine, respectively. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of these alkaloids was IC50 151.1 μg/mL, IC50 203.5 μg/mL, IC50 470.0 μg/mL, and IC50 17.1 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant and Derived Natural Product Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Evolution of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Romanian Obese Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: One Year Follow-Up
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080308 - 28 Jul 2020
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Geography is one of the key drivers of the significant variation in the etiopathogenic profile and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, therefore geographically based data are fundamental for implementing the appropriate interventions. Presently, the selection criteria of T2DM and [...] Read more.
Geography is one of the key drivers of the significant variation in the etiopathogenic profile and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, therefore geographically based data are fundamental for implementing the appropriate interventions. Presently, the selection criteria of T2DM and obesity patients for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) have not reached a worldwide consensus—highlighting the need for sharing experts’ guidance in the preoperative evaluation, choice of the interventional procedure, perioperative management and patient long-term care. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of LSG on T2DM (T2DM) remission in Romanian obese male patients, based on a multiparametric, prospective investigation. We have conducted a randomized controlled study on 41 obese male participants with the body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, aged 30–65 years, which were randomly divided in two study groups: one receiving conventional treatment and the second undergoing LSG. The clinical and anthropometrical parameters, resting metabolic rate, general biochemical status, adipocytes profile, gastrointestinal hormones levels, proinflammatory, oxidant and antioxidant profiles were determined at three time points: V1 (baseline), V2 (after six months) and V3 (after 12 months). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose levels, BMI, weight, visceral fat level, HDL-cholesterol, incretin hormones, proinflammatory and the oxidative stress status were significantly improved in the LSG versus conventional treatment group. This is the first study reporting on the evaluation of metabolic surgery impact on Romanian obese male patients with T2DM. Our results confirm that LSG could contribute to T2DM remission in patients with diabesity, but this beneficial effect seems to be critically influenced by the duration of T2DM rather than by the obesity status. Our results show that, in addition to the parameters included in the prediction algorithm, the proinsulin levels, proinsulin/insulin ratio and the visceral fat percentage could bring added value to the assessment of metabolic status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiometabolic Challenges-Present and Future)
Article
Profiling of Metabolomic Changes in Plasma and Urine of Pigs Caused by Illegal Administration of Testosterone Esters
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080307 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
The use of anabolic steroid hormones as growth promoters in feed for farm animals has been banned in the European Union since 1988 on the basis of Council Directive 96/22/EC. However, there is still ongoing monitoring and reporting of positive findings of these [...] Read more.
The use of anabolic steroid hormones as growth promoters in feed for farm animals has been banned in the European Union since 1988 on the basis of Council Directive 96/22/EC. However, there is still ongoing monitoring and reporting of positive findings of these banned substances in EU countries. The aim of this work was to investigate the efficacy and discriminatory ability of metabolic fingerprinting after the administration of 17β-testosterone esters to pigs. Plasma and urine samples were chromatographically separated on a Hypersil Gold C18 column. High resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic fingerprints were analysed on a hybrid mass spectrometer Q-Exactive. Three independent multivariate statistical methods, namely principal component analysis, clustre analysis, and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed significant differences between the treated and control groups of pigs even 14 days after the administration of the hormonal drug. Plasma samples were also analysed by a conventional quantitative analysis using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and a pharmacokinetic curve was constructed based on the results. In this case, no testosterone residue was detected 14 days after the administration. The results clearly showed that a metabolomics approach can be a useful and effective tool for the detection and monitoring of banned anabolic steroids used illegally in pig fattening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Applications in Animal Science)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Comparative Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis of the Psychostimulants 3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine (MDMA), Amphetamine, and the Novel Psychoactive Substance Mephedrone after Controlled Drug Administration to Humans
Metabolites 2020, 10(8), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10080306 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
Psychoactive stimulants are a popular drug class which are used recreationally. Over the last decade, large numbers of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the drug market and these pose a worldwide problem to human health. Metabolomics approaches are useful tools for simultaneous [...] Read more.
Psychoactive stimulants are a popular drug class which are used recreationally. Over the last decade, large numbers of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the drug market and these pose a worldwide problem to human health. Metabolomics approaches are useful tools for simultaneous detection of endogenous metabolites affected by drug use. They allow identification of pathways or characteristic metabolites, which might support the understanding of pharmacological actions or act as indirect biomarkers of consumption behavior or analytical detectability. Herein, we performed a comparative metabolic profiling of three psychoactive stimulant drugs 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), amphetamine and the NPS mephedrone by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in order to identify common pathways or compounds. Plasma samples were obtained from controlled administration studies to humans. Various metabolites were identified as increased or decreased based on drug intake, mainly belonging to energy metabolism, steroid biosynthesis and amino acids. Linoleic acid and pregnenolone-sulfate changed similarly in response to intake of all drugs. Overall, mephedrone produced a profile more similar to that of amphetamine than MDMA in terms of affected energy metabolism. These data can provide the basis for further in-depth targeted metabolome studies on pharmacological actions and search for biomarkers of drug use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Psychoactive Substances - Metabolism and Metabolomics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop