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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Shore-based video monitoring has been proved to be a valuable tool for coastal studies. As waves [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Motion Control for Autonomous Navigation in Blue and Narrow Waters Using Switched Controllers
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060196
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Autonomous ships represent one of the new frontiers of technological innovation in marine engineering, which demand the development of innovative control systems to guarantee efficient and safe navigation of vessels. A convenient control system should be able to command the several actuators installed [...] Read more.
Autonomous ships represent one of the new frontiers of technological innovation in marine engineering, which demand the development of innovative control systems to guarantee efficient and safe navigation of vessels. A convenient control system should be able to command the several actuators installed on board in different conditions—for instance, during oceanic navigation, harbor approach, narrow channels, and crowed areas. Such tasks are accomplished by different switching controllers for high and low speed motion, which have to be orchestrated to ensure an effective maneuvering. An approach to the design of hierarchies of controllers for maneuvering and navigation of ships equipped with a standard propulsion configuration in both blue and narrow water is proposed. Different levels of control, from global to local, are defined and integrated to steer the vessel in such a way to increase the maneuvering capability in various scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Dynamic Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Domain Decomposition Method for the Variational Assimilation of the Sea Level in a Model of Open Water Areas Hydrodynamics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060195
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
One of the modern fields in mathematical modelling of water areas is developing hybrid coastal ocean models based on domain decomposition. In coastal ocean modelling a problem to be solved is setting open boundary conditions. One of the methods dealing with open boundaries [...] Read more.
One of the modern fields in mathematical modelling of water areas is developing hybrid coastal ocean models based on domain decomposition. In coastal ocean modelling a problem to be solved is setting open boundary conditions. One of the methods dealing with open boundaries is variational data assimilation. The purpose of this work is to apply the domain decomposition method to the variational data assimilation problem. The method to solve the problem of restoring boundary functions at the liquid boundaries for a system of linearized shallow water equations is studied. The problem of determining additional unknowns is considered as an inverse problem and solved using well-known approaches. The methodology based on the theory of optimal control and adjoint equations is used. In the paper the theoretical study of the problem is carried out, unique and dense solvability of the problem is proved, an iterative algorithm is proposed and its convergence is studied. The results of the numerical experiments are presented and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Coring of Antarctic Subglacial Sediments
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060194
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
Coring sediments in subglacial aquatic environments offers unique opportunities for research on paleo-environments and paleo-climates because it can provide data from periods even earlier than ice cores, as well as the overlying ice histories, interactions between ice and the water system, life forms [...] Read more.
Coring sediments in subglacial aquatic environments offers unique opportunities for research on paleo-environments and paleo-climates because it can provide data from periods even earlier than ice cores, as well as the overlying ice histories, interactions between ice and the water system, life forms in extreme habitats, sedimentology, and stratigraphy. However, retrieving sediment cores from a subglacial environment faces more difficulties than sediment coring in oceans and lakes, resulting in low yields from the most current subglacial sediment coring methods. The coring tools should pass through a hot water-drilled access borehole, then the water column, to reach the sediment layers. The access boreholes are size-limited by the hot water drilling tools and techniques. These holes are drilled through ice up to 3000–4000 m thick, with diameters ranging from 10–60 cm, and with a refreezing closure rate of up to 6 mm/h after being drilled. Several purpose-built streamline corers have been developed to pass through access boreholes and collect the sediment core. The main coring objectives are as follows: (i) To obtain undisturbed water–sediment cores, either singly or as multi-cores and (ii) to obtain long cores with minimal stratigraphic deformation. Subglacial sediment coring methods use similar tools to those used in lake and ocean coring. These methods include the following: Gravity coring, push coring, piston coring, hammer or percussion coring, vibrocoring, and composite methods. Several core length records have been attained by different coring methods, including a 290 cm percussion core from the sub-ice-shelf seafloor, a 400 cm piston core from the sub-ice-stream, and a 170 cm gravity core from a subglacial lake. There are also several undisturbed water–sediment cores that have been obtained by gravity corers or hammer corers. Most current coring tools are deployed by winch and cable facilities on the ice surface. There are three main limitations for obtaining long sediment cores which determines coring tool development, as follows: Hot-water borehole radial size restriction, the sedimentary structure, and the coring techniques. In this paper, we provide a general view on current developments in coring tools, including the working principles, corer characteristics, operational methods, coring site locations, field conditions, coring results, and possible technical improvements. Future prospects in corer design and development are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Geomorphology of a Holocene Hurricane Deposit Eroded from Rhyolite Sea Cliffs on Ensenada Almeja (Baja California Sur, Mexico)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060193
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
This work advances research on the role of hurricanes in degrading the rocky coastline within Mexico’s Gulf of California, most commonly formed by widespread igneous rocks. Under evaluation is a distinct coastal boulder bed (CBB) derived from banded rhyolite with boulders arrayed in [...] Read more.
This work advances research on the role of hurricanes in degrading the rocky coastline within Mexico’s Gulf of California, most commonly formed by widespread igneous rocks. Under evaluation is a distinct coastal boulder bed (CBB) derived from banded rhyolite with boulders arrayed in a partial-ring configuration against one side of the headland on Ensenada Almeja (Clam Bay) north of Loreto. Preconditions related to the thickness of rhyolite flows and vertical fissures that intersect the flows at right angles along with the specific gravity of banded rhyolite delimit the size, shape and weight of boulders in the Almeja CBB. Mathematical formulae are applied to calculate the wave height generated by storm surge impacting the headland. The average weight of the 25 largest boulders from a transect nearest the bedrock source amounts to 1200 kg but only 30% of the sample is estimated to exceed a full metric ton in weight. The wave height calculated to move those boulders is close to 8 m. Additional localities with CBBs composed of layered rock types such as basalt and andesite are proposed for future studies within the Gulf of California. Comparisons with selected CBBs in other parts of the world are made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sediments: Processes, Transport and Environmental Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Tidal Stage on Sediment Concentrations and Turbulence by Vessel Wake in a Coastal Plain Saltmarsh
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060192
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
Vessel generated waves can impact shoreline stability and habitat structure in many waterways. Sheltered regions, such as coastal plain saltmarshes, support fragile ecosystems and can be particularly vulnerable to the effects of unregulated vessel operations. Instruments for measuring currents and sediment concentration were [...] Read more.
Vessel generated waves can impact shoreline stability and habitat structure in many waterways. Sheltered regions, such as coastal plain saltmarshes, support fragile ecosystems and can be particularly vulnerable to the effects of unregulated vessel operations. Instruments for measuring currents and sediment concentration were deployed in a coastal plain saltmarsh to examine the small-scale physical characteristics of the vessel wake generated by recreational craft typical of this environment. The response to vessel wake varied sharply depending upon the stage of the tide. At low tide, waves breaking on the exposed bank produced high concentrations of suspended material that were transported offshore through turbulent diffusion. When the water elevation exceeded the toe of the marsh scarp, the concentration and turbulent kinetic energy exhibited less of a statistically significant variation in response to vessel passage. For the most energetic flows, the vessel orbital velocities were dwarfed by turbulent fluctuations generated by the sheared tidal boundary layer. While further research is required, preliminary findings indicate that the dissipation of vessel wake energy may stimulate or enhance shear generated turbulence if the characteristic wave period is similar to the characteristic time scale of the energy containing eddies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Marine Energy Resources of Mexico
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060191
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
The Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Mexico offer a variety of marine energy sources for exploitation. Although the Mexican government has made important efforts to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels, national participation in clean energies is still limited in terms of electricity [...] Read more.
The Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Mexico offer a variety of marine energy sources for exploitation. Although the Mexican government has made important efforts to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels, national participation in clean energies is still limited in terms of electricity production. This paper presents a practical theoretical assessment of marine energy sources around Mexico, with the aim of identifying potential zones for subsequent, more detailed, technical evaluations and project implementations. The energy sources considered are ocean currents, waves, salinity, and thermal gradients. Using global databases, the percentages of energy availability for the defined thresholds were computed to establish the prospective regions with the most persistent power availability. This approach proved to offer more meaningful information than simple averaged values. Moreover, some environmental and socio-economic factors to be considered for future ocean energy resource assessments in Mexico were also discussed. The results show that the wave energy potential is highest in the northwest of Mexico (~2–10 kW/m for more than 50% of the time), and that there is a constant source of ocean current energy off Quintana Roo state (~32–215 W/m2 for more than 50% of the time). The thermal gradient power is more persistent in the southwest and southeast of the country, where ~100–200 MW can be found 70% of the time. The salinity gradient energy is strongest in the southeast of Mexico. The practical approach presented here can be extended to perform preliminary resources assessments in regions where information is scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of Marine Energy Extraction)
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Dynamics of Pipeline Buried in Dense Seabed Foundation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060190
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Submarine pipeline is a type of important infrastructure in petroleum industry used for transporting crude oil or natural gas. However, submarine pipelines constructed in high seismic intensity zones are vulnerable of attacks from seismic waves. It is important and meaningful in engineering design [...] Read more.
Submarine pipeline is a type of important infrastructure in petroleum industry used for transporting crude oil or natural gas. However, submarine pipelines constructed in high seismic intensity zones are vulnerable of attacks from seismic waves. It is important and meaningful in engineering design to comprehensively understand the seismic wave-induced dynamics characteristics of submarine pipelines. In this study, taking the coupled numerical model FSSI-CAS 2D as the tool, the seismic dynamics of a submarine steel pipeline buried in dense soil is investigated. Computational results indicate that submarine pipeline buried in dense seabed soil strongly responds to seismic wave. The peak acceleration could be double of that of input seismic wave. There is no residual pore pressure in the dense seabed. Significant resonance of the pipeline is observed in horizontal direction. Comparative study shows that the lateral boundary condition which can avoid wave reflection on it, such as laminar boundary and absorbing boundary should be used for seabed foundation domain in computation. Finally, it is proven that the coupled numerical model FSSI-CAS 2D is applicable to evaluate the seismic dynamics of submarine pipeline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Geohazard and Offshore Geotechnics)
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Open AccessArticle
Wave-Induced Seabed Response around a Dumbbell Cofferdam in Non-Homogeneous Anisotropic Seabed
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060189
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Cofferdams are frequently used to assist in the construction of offshore structures that are built on a natural non-homogeneous anisotropic seabed. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) integrated numerical model consisting of a wave submodel and seabed submodel was adopted to investigate the [...] Read more.
Cofferdams are frequently used to assist in the construction of offshore structures that are built on a natural non-homogeneous anisotropic seabed. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) integrated numerical model consisting of a wave submodel and seabed submodel was adopted to investigate the wave–structure–seabed interaction. Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were employed to simulate the wave-induced fluid motion and Biot’s poroelastic theory was adopted to control the wave-induced seabed response. The present model was validated with available laboratory experimental data and previous analytical results. The hydrodynamic process and seabed response around the dumbbell cofferdam are discussed in detail, with particular attention paid to the influence of the depth functions of the permeability K i and shear modulus G j . Numerical results indicate that to avoid the misestimation of the liquefaction depth, a steady-state analysis should be carried out prior to the transient seabed response analysis to first determine the equilibrium state caused by seabed consolidation. The depth function G j markedly affects the vertical distribution of the pore pressure and the seabed liquefaction around the dumbbell cofferdam. The depth function K i has a mild effect on the vertical distribution of the pore pressure within a coarse sand seabed, with the influence concentrated in the range defined by 0.1 times the seabed thickness above and below the embedded depth. The depth function K i has little effect on seabed liquefaction. In addition, the traditional assumption that treats the seabed parameters as constants may result in the overestimation of the seabed liquefaction depth and the liquefaction area around the cofferdam will be miscalculated if consolidation is not considered. Moreover, parametric studies reveal that the shear modulus at the seabed surface G z 0 has a significant influence on the vertical distribution of the pore pressure. However, the effect of the permeability at the seabed surface K z 0 on the vertical distribution of the pore pressure is mainly concentrated on the seabed above the embedded depth in front and to the side of the cofferdam. Furthermore, the amplitude of pore pressure decreases as Poisson’s ratio μ s increases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Wave Orbital Velocity Parameterization on Nearshore Sediment Transport and Decadal Morphodynamics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060188
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Nearshore morphological modelling is challenging due to complex feedback between hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphology bridging scales from seconds to years. Such modelling is, however, needed to assess long-term effects of changing climates on coastal environments, for example. Due to computational efficiency, the [...] Read more.
Nearshore morphological modelling is challenging due to complex feedback between hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphology bridging scales from seconds to years. Such modelling is, however, needed to assess long-term effects of changing climates on coastal environments, for example. Due to computational efficiency, the sediment transport driven by currents and waves often requires a parameterization of wave orbital velocities. A frequently used parameterization of skewness-only was found to overfeed the coast unrealistically on a timescale of years—decades. To improve this, we implemented a recently developed parameterization accounting for skewness and asymmetry in a morphodynamic model (Delft3D). The objective was to compare the effects of parameterizations on long-term coastal morphodynamics. We performed simulations with default and calibrated sediment transport settings, for idealized coastlines, and compared the results with measured data from analogue natural systems. The skewness-asymmetry parameterization was found to predict overall stable coastlines within the measured envelope with wave-related calibration factors within a factor of 2. In contrast, the original parameterization required stronger calibration, which further affected the alongshore transport rates, and yet predicted erosion in deeper areas and unrealistic accretion near the shoreline. The skewness-asymmetry parameterization opens up the possibility of more realistic long-term morphological modelling of complex coastal systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of the Coastal Zone)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Conical Permanent Magnet Couplings for Underwater Propulsion
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060187
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
Permanent magnet couplings (PMCs) are widely used in underwater propulsion because it can solve the deep-sea sealing problem effectively. In this paper, a new type of conical permanent magnet coupling (CPMC) is proposed, which is able to match the tail shape of the [...] Read more.
Permanent magnet couplings (PMCs) are widely used in underwater propulsion because it can solve the deep-sea sealing problem effectively. In this paper, a new type of conical permanent magnet coupling (CPMC) is proposed, which is able to match the tail shape of the underwater vehicle and make full use of the tail space to increase pull-out torque capability. Based on the three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM), the electromagnetic characteristics of an initial model for CPMC are analyzed. In order to facilitate the design and optimization of CPMC, an equivalent three-dimensional (3D) analytical method for the pull-out torque calculation is presented, and its accuracy is verified by comparison with the 3D finite element results. Finally, the influence of design parameters such as half-cone angle, pole pair, pole arc coefficient and permanent magnet thickness on maximum pull-out torque and torque density of CPMC is analyzed, and a preliminary optimization model is obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nearshore Wave Transformation Domains from Video Imagery
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060186
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Within the nearshore area, three wave transformation domains can be distinguished based on the wave properties: shoaling, surf, and swash zones. The identification of these distinct areas is relevant for understanding nearshore wave propagation properties and physical processes, as these zones can be [...] Read more.
Within the nearshore area, three wave transformation domains can be distinguished based on the wave properties: shoaling, surf, and swash zones. The identification of these distinct areas is relevant for understanding nearshore wave propagation properties and physical processes, as these zones can be related, for instance, to different types of sediment transport. This work presents a technique to automatically retrieve the nearshore wave transformation domains from images taken by coastal video monitoring stations. The technique exploits the pixel intensity variation of image acquisitions, and relates the pixel properties to the distinct wave characteristics. This allows the automated description of spatial and temporal extent of shoaling, surf, and swash zones. The methodology was proven to be robust, and capable of spotting the three distinct zones within the nearshore, both cross-shore and along-shore dimensions. The method can support a wide range of coastal studies, such as nearshore hydrodynamics and sediment transport. It can also allow a faster and improved application of existing video-based techniques for wave breaking height and depth-inversion, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Remote Sensing Methods to Monitor Coastal Zones)
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Open AccessArticle
Parallel Implementation of a PETSc-Based Framework for the General Curvilinear Coastal Ocean Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060185
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
The General Curvilinear Coastal Ocean Model (GCCOM) is a 3D curvilinear, structured-mesh, non-hydrostatic, large-eddy simulation model that is capable of running oceanic simulations. GCCOM is an inherently computationally expensive model: it uses an elliptic solver for the dynamic pressure; meter-scale simulations requiring memory [...] Read more.
The General Curvilinear Coastal Ocean Model (GCCOM) is a 3D curvilinear, structured-mesh, non-hydrostatic, large-eddy simulation model that is capable of running oceanic simulations. GCCOM is an inherently computationally expensive model: it uses an elliptic solver for the dynamic pressure; meter-scale simulations requiring memory footprints on the order of 10 12 cells and terabytes of output data. As a solution for parallel optimization, the Fortran-interfaced Portable–Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library was chosen as a framework to help reduce the complexity of managing the 3D geometry, to improve parallel algorithm design, and to provide a parallelized linear system solver and preconditioner. GCCOM discretizations are based on an Arakawa-C staggered grid, and PETSc DMDA (Data Management for Distributed Arrays) objects were used to provide communication and domain ownership management of the resultant multi-dimensional arrays, while the fully curvilinear Laplacian system for pressure is solved by the PETSc linear solver routines. In this paper, the framework design and architecture are described in detail, and results are presented that demonstrate the multiscale capabilities of the model and the parallel framework to 240 cores over domains of order 10 7 total cells per variable, and the correctness and performance of the multiphysics aspects of the model for a baseline experiment stratified seamount. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study on Fuel Gas Supply Systems for LNG Bunkering Using Carbon Dioxide and Glycol Water
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060184
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Liquified natural gas (LNG) fuel has received significant attention as an affordable and highly efficient fuel option due to strengthened regulations on the sulfur content of bunker oil put in place by the International Maritime Organization. The main component of the LNG fuel [...] Read more.
Liquified natural gas (LNG) fuel has received significant attention as an affordable and highly efficient fuel option due to strengthened regulations on the sulfur content of bunker oil put in place by the International Maritime Organization. The main component of the LNG fuel gas supply system (FGSS) is the heat exchanger that provides adequate gas temperatures and pressures required by the engine, which also has a large machinery volume compared with other equipment. Due to the volume limitation, most FGSS have been applied to new shipbuilding only. To reduce the volume of the FGSS, CO2 was considered to serve as the replacement heat medium for conventionally used glycol water during LNG gasification. The specific power consumption (SPC) in the CO2 and glycol water system was optimized using the Aspen HYSYS thermodynamic modeler toward adjusting the temperature and pressure, and the resulting sizes were compared. This study demonstrated that the CO2 heat medium resulted in a 14% improvement in efficiency and a 7% reduction in heat exchanger size concluding that it was the most advantageous heat medium for the LNG regasification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing Structural Casualties of the Ro-Ro Vessel Using Straight and Oblique Collision Incidents on the Car Deck
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060183
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
Roll on-roll off (Ro-Ro) ship is the preferable vessel for public transportation and also as a medium to distribute several commodities. Its operations are a straightforward process but traffic management is quite delicate, especially for cross-route. Moreover, maritime incidents sometimes occur, causing significant [...] Read more.
Roll on-roll off (Ro-Ro) ship is the preferable vessel for public transportation and also as a medium to distribute several commodities. Its operations are a straightforward process but traffic management is quite delicate, especially for cross-route. Moreover, maritime incidents sometimes occur, causing significant casualties and in the case of the Ro-Ro, collision with other ship is a possible threat with the ability to trigger immense damages. This research, therefore, was conducted to assess the structural casualties of a Ro-Ro vessel under collision. This was modelled with respect to a ship involved in a certain incident in Indonesia in the latest decade, and the designed collision problems were calculated using the finite element approach. The collision angle was selected as the main input parameter with the straight collision of angle 90° and oblique collision with different angles applied to the scenario. The results found the collision energy due to structural destruction to have distinct pattern and peak value under oblique cases with lower values observed for straight collision for all scenarios. It is, however, recommended that energy should be taken as an initial parameter in further investigation of structural damage and response contour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ocean Surface Anomalies after Strong Winds in the Western Mediterranean Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060182
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
The Western Mediterranean Sea is often subject to intense winds, especially during the winter season. Intense winds induce surface cooling associated with anomalous ocean heat loss, upwelling and diapycnal mixing. In this study we investigate the overall impact of extreme wind events on [...] Read more.
The Western Mediterranean Sea is often subject to intense winds, especially during the winter season. Intense winds induce surface cooling associated with anomalous ocean heat loss, upwelling and diapycnal mixing. In this study we investigate the overall impact of extreme wind events on the upper ocean in the Western Mediterranean sea using sea surface temperature and sea surface height observational data products over the period 1993–2014. We show that the largest thermal anomaly is observed a couple of days after the intense wind event and that it is dependent on the wind intensity. During winter, when deep water formation occurs, it persists for over a month. During summer, when the thermocline is very shallow, the recovery time scale is typically less than 10 days. The sea surface height signal reaches a minimum in correspondence to the intense wind, and normal conditions recover in about six weeks. Unlike for intense winds in the tropics associated to the passage of tropical cyclones, no long term sea surface height anomaly is observed, indicating that the water column heat content is not significantly modified. The observed recovery times suggest instead the possibility of feedbacks on the dynamics of intense cyclones at sub-monthly time scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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Open AccessArticle
Tripod-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines: Modal and Coupled Analysis and a Parametric Study Using X-SEA and FAST
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060181
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 9 June 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents theoretical aspects and an extensive numerical study of the coupled analysis of tripod support structures for offshore wind turbines (OWTs) by using X-SEA and FAST v8 programs. In a number of site conditions such as extreme and longer period waves, [...] Read more.
This paper presents theoretical aspects and an extensive numerical study of the coupled analysis of tripod support structures for offshore wind turbines (OWTs) by using X-SEA and FAST v8 programs. In a number of site conditions such as extreme and longer period waves, fast installation, and lighter foundations, tripod structures are more advantageous than monopile and jacket structures. In the implemented dynamic coupled analysis, the sub-structural module in FAST was replaced by the X-SEA offshore substructure analysis component. The time-histories of the reaction forces and the turbine loads were then calculated. The results obtained from X-SEA and from FAST were in good agreement. The pile-soil-structure interaction (PSSI) was included for reliable evaluation of OWT structural systems. The superelement concept was introduced to reduce the computational time. Modal, coupled and uncoupled analyses of the NREL 5MW OWT-tripod support structure including PSSI were carried out and the discussions on the natural frequencies, mode shapes and resulted displacements are presented. Compared to the uncoupled models, the physical interaction between the tower and the support structure in the coupled models resulted in smaller responses. Compared to the fixed support structures, i.e., when PSSI is not included, the piled-support structure has lower natural frequencies and larger responses attributed to its actual flexibility. The models using pile superelements are computationally efficient and give results that are identical to the common finite element models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on a Method for Simulating Multiview Ocean Wave Synchronization Data by Networked SAR Satellites
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060180
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
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Abstract
It is expected that the problem of the azimuth cutoff wavelength in single-satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations can be solved by means of the cooperative observation of networked SAR satellites. Multiview SAR wave synchronization data are required in the process. However, most [...] Read more.
It is expected that the problem of the azimuth cutoff wavelength in single-satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations can be solved by means of the cooperative observation of networked SAR satellites. Multiview SAR wave synchronization data are required in the process. However, most of the current orbiting satellites are geosynchronous orbit satellites; the simultaneous observation by multiple SARs in the same sea area cannot be achieved, and multiview synchronization data cannot be obtained. Therefore, this paper studies the simulation of the multiview SAR wave synchronization data. Ocean wave spectra were simulated by using the Pierson Moskowitz (PM) spectrum. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate two-dimensional (2D) ocean surfaces at different wind speeds. The two-scale electromagnetic scattering model was used to calculate the ocean surface backscattering coefficient, and the time-domain echo algorithm was used to generate echo signals. The echo signals were processed by the Range–Doppler (RD) imaging algorithm to obtain ocean SAR data. Based on the obtained single-SAR wave data, networked satellites consisting of three SARs were simulated, and the SAR wave data were synchronized. The results show that when SARs are used to observe the same sea area from different observation directions, the clarity of the wave fringes in the SAR images are different. For different azimuth angles, the degrees of azimuth cutoff are different. These results reflect the influences of different degrees of azimuth cutoff on SAR images. The simulated wave synchronization data can be used as the basic data source for subsequent azimuth cutoff wavelength compensation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Flow Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) Responses and Hydrodynamic Forces of a Long Flexible and Low Mass Ratio Pipe
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060179
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
Laboratory tests were carried out to investigate the cross-flow (CF) dynamic responses and hydrodynamic forces of a flexible pipe that subjected to vortex-induced vibration (VIV). The pipe had a critical mass ratio of 0.54 and an aspect ratio of 181.8. The uniform flow [...] Read more.
Laboratory tests were carried out to investigate the cross-flow (CF) dynamic responses and hydrodynamic forces of a flexible pipe that subjected to vortex-induced vibration (VIV). The pipe had a critical mass ratio of 0.54 and an aspect ratio of 181.8. The uniform flow environment was realized by towing the pipe along a towing tank. The towing velocity ranged from 0.1–1.0 m/s with an interval of 0.05 m/s. Two axial pre-tension cases (200 N and 300 N) were enforced. The structural strains were measured at seven positions evenly distributed along the pipe. Then a modal analysis method was applied to reconstruct the displacement responses. It is revealed that the maximum CF displacement amplitude reached up to 2.18 pipe diameter and the strain response exhibited higher harmonic components. The CF dominant frequency gradually rises with the increase of reduced velocity and up to a three-order vibration mode can be observed. In addition, mean drag coefficient, lift force coefficient and added mass coefficient were also calculated to further investigate the fluid force feature of a low mass flexible pipe undergoing VIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Image Registration for Underwater Optical Mapping Using Geometric Invariants
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060178
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
Image registration is one of the most fundamental and widely used tools in optical mapping applications. It is mostly achieved by extracting and matching salient points (features) described by vectors (feature descriptors) from images. While matching the descriptors, mismatches (outliers) do appear. Probabilistic [...] Read more.
Image registration is one of the most fundamental and widely used tools in optical mapping applications. It is mostly achieved by extracting and matching salient points (features) described by vectors (feature descriptors) from images. While matching the descriptors, mismatches (outliers) do appear. Probabilistic methods are then applied to remove outliers and to find the transformation (motion) between images. These methods work in an iterative manner. In this paper, an efficient way of integrating geometric invariants into feature-based image registration is presented aiming at improving the performance of image registration in terms of both computational time and accuracy. To do so, geometrical properties that are invariant to coordinate transforms are studied. This would be beneficial to all methods that use image registration as an intermediate step. Experimental results are presented using both semi-synthetically generated data and real image pairs from underwater environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Interdecadal Foredune Changes along the Southeast Australian Coastline: 1942–2014
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060177
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
Foredunes are important features within coastal landscapes, yet there are relatively few medium to long-term studies on how they evolve and change over time. This study of Australia’s New South Wales (NSW) foredunes has used 70 years of aerial photographs (or photogrammetry) and [...] Read more.
Foredunes are important features within coastal landscapes, yet there are relatively few medium to long-term studies on how they evolve and change over time. This study of Australia’s New South Wales (NSW) foredunes has used 70 years of aerial photographs (or photogrammetry) and recent Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) datasets to assess multi-decadal fluctuations in foredune morphology. It was shown that over the past 70 years NSW foredunes have exhibited considerable spatial variation, ranging from accretion/aggradation to recession. Those sites that accreted predominantly extended seaward as new incipient dunes, gaining a maximum of 235 m3 m−1 in sand volume over the study period (for the entire dune system). These sites were commonly found in the north of the state, within closed sediment compartments, and with strong onshore (and alongshore) wind climates present (increasing the potential for aeolian sand transport). Stable foredunes were those that remained within +/− 50 m3 m−1 of their initial volume and managed to recover from the various storm impacts over the study period. The majority of these sites were found within the central to southern half of the state, behind embayed beaches, and within leaky sediment compartments, or those that have estuarine sinks. Finally, those foredunes in recession have retreated landwards and/or have reduced in height or width, and lost up to 437 m3 m−1 of sand volume over the study period. There was no clear spatial trend for these sites; however, generally they were found in compartments that had unusual orientations, had disruptions in longshore drift/cross shore sand delivery (i.e., rocky reefs), or were being impacted by humans (i.e., the installation of river training walls, sand bypassing systems, or coastal management programs). This study has shown that NSW foredunes have undergone substantial recent changes and, by understanding their past history, will provide better insight into how they can be managed into the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Dune Dynamics and Management)
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Open AccessReview
The Biotechnological Potential of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacteria
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060176
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 25 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
Marine habitats are a rich source of molecules of biological interest. In particular, marine bacteria attract attention with their ability to synthesize structurally diverse classes of bioactive secondary metabolites with high biotechnological potential. The last decades were marked by numerous discoveries of biomolecules [...] Read more.
Marine habitats are a rich source of molecules of biological interest. In particular, marine bacteria attract attention with their ability to synthesize structurally diverse classes of bioactive secondary metabolites with high biotechnological potential. The last decades were marked by numerous discoveries of biomolecules of bacterial symbionts, which have long been considered metabolites of marine animals. Many compounds isolated from marine bacteria are unique in their structure and biological activity. Their study has made a significant contribution to the discovery and production of new natural antimicrobial agents. Identifying the mechanisms and potential of this type of metabolite production in marine bacteria has become one of the noteworthy trends in modern biotechnology. This path has become not only one of the most promising approaches to the development of new antibiotics, but also a potential target for controlling the viability of pathogenic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnological Valorization of Marine Resources and By-products)
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Analysis and Parametric Study of Spudcan Footing Geometries Penetrating Clay Near Existing Footprints
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060175
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
Most existing research on the stability of spudcans during reinstallation nearing footprints is based on centrifuge tests and theoretical analyses. In this study, the reinstallation of the flat base footing, fusimform spudcan footing and skirted footing near existing footprints are simulated using the [...] Read more.
Most existing research on the stability of spudcans during reinstallation nearing footprints is based on centrifuge tests and theoretical analyses. In this study, the reinstallation of the flat base footing, fusimform spudcan footing and skirted footing near existing footprints are simulated using the coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) method. The effects of footprints’ geometry, reinstallation eccentricity (0.25D–2.0D) and the roughness between spudcan and soil on the profiles of the vertical force, horizontal force and bending moment are discussed. The results show that the friction condition of the soil–footing interface has a significant effect on H profile but much less effect on M profile. The eccentricity ratio is a key factor to evaluate the H and M. The results show that the geometry shape of the footing also has certain effects on the V, H, and M profiles. The flat base footing gives the lowest peak value in H but largest in M, and the performances of the fusiform spudcan footing and the skirted footing are similar. From the view of the resultant forces, the skirted footing shows a certain potential in resisting the damage during reinstallation near existing footprints by comparing with commonly used fusiform spudcan footings. The bending moments on the leg–hull connection section of different leg length at certain offset distances are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Marine Engineering Geology)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification and Analysis of Vulnerability in Traffic-Intensive Areas of Water Transportation Systems
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060174
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 2 June 2019
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Abstract
Water transportation accidents have occurred frequently in recent years. In order to improve the emergency response capability of water transportation systems under traffic-intensive conditions, this paper identifies and analyzes the vulnerability in traffic-intensive areas of water transportation systems. Firstly, the vulnerability identification model [...] Read more.
Water transportation accidents have occurred frequently in recent years. In order to improve the emergency response capability of water transportation systems under traffic-intensive conditions, this paper identifies and analyzes the vulnerability in traffic-intensive areas of water transportation systems. Firstly, the vulnerability identification model was constructed based on the analysis of characteristics and the vulnerability-influencing factors of water transportation systems. The newly proposed model is composed of three parts including the DEMATEL (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) method, ISM (interpretative structural modeling) model, and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)–entropy weight method. Finally, a case study of the Yangtze River was conducted to test the logicality and feasibility of the proposed model. The research results reveal that traffic flow density, ship traffic, tides, fog, and bad weather are the key factors affecting the vulnerability of water transportation in traffic-intensive areas of the Yangtze River estuary. However, the influence of navigation aid configuration, berth, anchorage, and obstruction on the system vulnerability is relatively lower. The findings of this study can provide helpful references for maritime administration authorities on the management of water transportation safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Nourishment Performance Index for Beach Erosion/Accretion at Saadiyat Island in Abu Dhabi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060173
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
The present paper proposes a methodology to optimise the design of a beach protection intervention at Saadiyat Island, of the Abu Dhabi city in the United Arab Emirates. In particular, a nourishment performance index (NPI) has been introduced to select among different design [...] Read more.
The present paper proposes a methodology to optimise the design of a beach protection intervention at Saadiyat Island, of the Abu Dhabi city in the United Arab Emirates. In particular, a nourishment performance index (NPI) has been introduced to select among different design alternatives of a coastal engineering intervention related to the ongoing development of the island. The NPI is based on general factors such as the initial volume of sand necessary for the nourishment, the beach surface loss after the intervention and the closure depth. The proposed index, properly integrated with a numerical simulation of the beach morphodynamics, is shown to be promising in the evaluation of the feasibility for the planned coastal defence interventions. The adoption of different design scenarios has showed that the NPI value depends mainly on the built nourishment shoreline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Shore Suspended Sediment Transport in Relation to Topographic Changes in the Intertidal Zone of a Macro-Tidal Beach (Mariakerke, Belgium)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060172
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Sediment transport is a key element in intertidal beach morphodynamics, but measurements of sediment transport are often unreliable. The aim of this study is to quantify and investigate cross-shore sediment transport and the resulting topographic changes for a tide-dominated, sandy beach. Two fortnight-long [...] Read more.
Sediment transport is a key element in intertidal beach morphodynamics, but measurements of sediment transport are often unreliable. The aim of this study is to quantify and investigate cross-shore sediment transport and the resulting topographic changes for a tide-dominated, sandy beach. Two fortnight-long field experiments were carried out during which hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics were measured with optical and acoustic sensors, while the beach topography was surveyed with a permanent terrestrial laser scanner. Suspended sediment was generally well-mixed and currents were largest at approximately 1.5 m above the bed, which resulted in a peak in sediment transport at 1/3 of the high tide level. The mean transport direction was onshore during calm conditions (wave height <0.6 m) thanks to tidal currents and offshore during energetic conditions due to undertow. Oscillatory transport was always onshore because of wave asymmetry but it was subordinate to mean transport. The intertidal zone showed an alternation of erosion and accretion with formation of morphological features during energetic (no storm) conditionsand smoothening of the morphology during calm conditions. A good qualitative and quantitative agreement was found between the daily cross-shore suspended load and beach volume changes, especially during calm conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Analysis of a Novel Adaptively Counter-Rotating Wave Energy Converter for Powering Drifters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060171
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays, drifters are used for a wide range of applications for researching and exploring the sea. However, the power constraint makes it difficult for their sampling intervals to be smaller, meaning that drifters cannot transmit more accurate measurement data to satellites. Furthermore, due [...] Read more.
Nowadays, drifters are used for a wide range of applications for researching and exploring the sea. However, the power constraint makes it difficult for their sampling intervals to be smaller, meaning that drifters cannot transmit more accurate measurement data to satellites. Furthermore, due to the power constraint, a modern Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter lives an average of 400 days before ceasing transmission. To overcome the power constraint of SVP drifters, this article proposes an adaptively counter-rotating wave energy converter (ACWEC) to supply power for drifters. The ACWEC has the advantages of convenient modular integration, simple conversion process, and minimal affection by the crucial sea environment. This article details the design concept and working principle, and the interaction between the wave energy converter (WEC) and wave is presented based on plane wave theory. To verify the feasibility of the WEC, the research team carried out a series of experiments in a wave tank with regular and irregular waves. Through experiments, it was found that the power and efficiency of the ACWEC are greatly influenced by parameters such as wave height and wave frequency. The maximum output power of the small scale WEC in a wave tank is 6.36 W, which allows drifters to detect ocean data more frequently and continuously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocean Wave Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle
Scour Effects on the Lateral Behavior of a Large-Diameter Monopile in Soft Clay: Role of Stress History
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060170
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Scouring of soil around large-diameter monopile will alter the stress history, and therefore the stiffness and strength of the soil at shallow depth, with important consequence to the lateral behavior of piles. The existing study is mainly focused on small-diameter piles under scouring, [...] Read more.
Scouring of soil around large-diameter monopile will alter the stress history, and therefore the stiffness and strength of the soil at shallow depth, with important consequence to the lateral behavior of piles. The existing study is mainly focused on small-diameter piles under scouring, where the soil around a pile is analyzed with two simplified approaches: (I) simply removing the scour layers without changing the strength and stiffness of the remaining soils, or (II) solely considering the effects of stress history on the soil strength. This study aims to investigate and quantify the scour effect on the lateral behavior of monopile, based on an advanced hypoplastic model considering the influence of stress history on both soil stiffness and strength. It is revealed that ignorance about the stress history effect (due to scouring) underestimates the extent of the soil failure wedge around the monopile, while overestimates soil stiffness and strength. As a result, a large-diameter pile (diameter D = 5 m) in soft clay subjected to a souring depth of 0.5 D has experienced reductions in ultimate soil resistance and initial stiffness of the p-y curves by 40% and 26%, and thus an increase of pile head deflection by 49%. Due to the inadequacy to consider the stress history effects revealed above, the existing approach (I) has led to non-conservative estimation, while the approach (II) has resulted in an over-conservative prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Geohazard and Offshore Geotechnics)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of an Ultra-Large Semi-Submersible Floating Wind Turbine
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060169
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
An initial design of the platform for the moderate water depth (100 m) is performed by upscaling of an existing 5 MW braceless semi-submersible platform design to support the DTU (Danish University of Science and Technology) 10 MW wind turbine. To investigate the [...] Read more.
An initial design of the platform for the moderate water depth (100 m) is performed by upscaling of an existing 5 MW braceless semi-submersible platform design to support the DTU (Danish University of Science and Technology) 10 MW wind turbine. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the ultra-large semi-submersible floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT), an aero-hydro-servo-elastic numerical modeling is applied to carry out the fully coupled time-domain simulation analysis. The motion responses of the ultra-large semi-submersible FOWT are presented and discussed for selected environmental conditions. Based on the quasi-static and dynamic analysis methods, the influence of the dynamic effects of the mooring lines on the platform motion responses and mooring line tension responses are discussed. Subsequently, the difference in the motion responses and structural dynamics of the DTU 10 MW and NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 5 MW FOWT is studied due to the difference in turbine properties. The simulation results reveal that the excitation of the low-frequency wind loads on the surge and pitch motions, the tower-base fore-aft bending moments and the mooring line tension response becomes more prominent when the size of the wind turbine increases, but the excitation action of the 3P effect on the structural dynamics of the 5 MW FOWT is more obvious than those of the 10 MW FOWT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Large-Scale Electric Propulsion Systems in Ships Using an Active Front-End Rectifier
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060168
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
In the case of the electric propulsion system on the vessel, Diode Front End (DFE) rectifiers have been applied for large-sized ships and Active Front End (AFE) rectifiers have been utilized for small and medium-sized ships as a part of the system. In [...] Read more.
In the case of the electric propulsion system on the vessel, Diode Front End (DFE) rectifiers have been applied for large-sized ships and Active Front End (AFE) rectifiers have been utilized for small and medium-sized ships as a part of the system. In this paper, we design a large electric propulsion ship system using AFE rectifier with the proposed phase angle detector and verify the feasibility of the system by simulation. The phase angle derived from the proposed phase angle detection method is applied to the control of the AFE rectifier instead of the zero-crossing method used to detect the phase angle in the control of the conventional AFE rectifier. We compare and analyze the speed control, Direct Current (DC)-link voltage, harmonic content and measurement data of heat loss by inverter switch obtained from the simulation of the electric propulsion system with the 24-pulse DFE rectifier, the conventional AFE rectifier, and the proposed AFE rectifier. As a result of the simulation, it was confirmed that the proposed AFE rectifier derives a satisfactory result similar to that of a 24-pulse DFE rectifier with a phase shifting transformer installed according to the speed load of the ship, and it can be designed and applied as a rectifier of a large-sized vessel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Lifecycle)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Estimating Connectivity of Hard Clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Larvae in Barnegat Bay
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060167
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Many marine organisms have a well-known adult sessile stage. Unfortunately, our lack of knowledge regarding their larval transient stage hinders our understanding of their basic ecology and connectivity. Larvae can have swimming behavior that influences their transport within the marine environment. Understanding the [...] Read more.
Many marine organisms have a well-known adult sessile stage. Unfortunately, our lack of knowledge regarding their larval transient stage hinders our understanding of their basic ecology and connectivity. Larvae can have swimming behavior that influences their transport within the marine environment. Understanding the larval stage provides insight into population connectivity that can help strategically identify areas for restoration. Current techniques for understanding the larval stage include modeling that combines particle attributes (e.g., larval behavior) with physical processes of water movement to contribute to our understanding of connectivity trends. This study builds on those methods by using a previously developed retention clock matrix (RCM) to illustrate time dependent connectivity of two species of shellfish between areas and over a range of larval durations. The RCM was previously used on physical parameters but we expand the concept by applying it to biology. A new metric, difference RCM (DRCM), is introduced to quantify changes in connectivity under different scenarios. Broad spatial trends were similar for all behavior types with a general south to north progression of particles. The DRCMs illustrate differences between neutral particles and those with behavior in northern regions where stratification was higher, indicating that larval behavior influenced transport. Based on these findings, particle behavior led to small differences (north to south movement) in transport patterns in areas with higher salinity gradients (the northern part of the system) compared to neutral particles. Overall, the dominant direction for particle movement was from south to north, which at times was enhanced by winds from the south. Clam and oyster restoration in the southern portion of Barnegat Bay could serve as a larval supply for populations in the north. These model results show that coupled hydrodynamic and particle tracking models have implications for fisheries management and restoration activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Coastal Hydrodynamics and Wetland Modeling)
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