Next Article in Journal
Domain Decomposition Method for the Variational Assimilation of the Sea Level in a Model of Open Water Areas Hydrodynamics
Previous Article in Journal
Geomorphology of a Holocene Hurricane Deposit Eroded from Rhyolite Sea Cliffs on Ensenada Almeja (Baja California Sur, Mexico)
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Coring of Antarctic Subglacial Sediments

1
Polar Research Center, Jilin University, Changchun 130026, China
2
College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, 2699 Qianjin St., Changchun 130012, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China
4
Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Postfach 120161, 27515 Bremerhaven, Germany
5
Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
6
Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Telegrafenberg A45, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
7
Federal Institutefor Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Geozentrum Hannover, D-30655 Hannover, Germany
8
Department of Crystallography, Geoscience Centre, University of Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060194
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)

Abstract

Coring sediments in subglacial aquatic environments offers unique opportunities for research on paleo-environments and paleo-climates because it can provide data from periods even earlier than ice cores, as well as the overlying ice histories, interactions between ice and the water system, life forms in extreme habitats, sedimentology, and stratigraphy. However, retrieving sediment cores from a subglacial environment faces more difficulties than sediment coring in oceans and lakes, resulting in low yields from the most current subglacial sediment coring methods. The coring tools should pass through a hot water-drilled access borehole, then the water column, to reach the sediment layers. The access boreholes are size-limited by the hot water drilling tools and techniques. These holes are drilled through ice up to 3000–4000 m thick, with diameters ranging from 10–60 cm, and with a refreezing closure rate of up to 6 mm/h after being drilled. Several purpose-built streamline corers have been developed to pass through access boreholes and collect the sediment core. The main coring objectives are as follows: (i) To obtain undisturbed water–sediment cores, either singly or as multi-cores and (ii) to obtain long cores with minimal stratigraphic deformation. Subglacial sediment coring methods use similar tools to those used in lake and ocean coring. These methods include the following: Gravity coring, push coring, piston coring, hammer or percussion coring, vibrocoring, and composite methods. Several core length records have been attained by different coring methods, including a 290 cm percussion core from the sub-ice-shelf seafloor, a 400 cm piston core from the sub-ice-stream, and a 170 cm gravity core from a subglacial lake. There are also several undisturbed water–sediment cores that have been obtained by gravity corers or hammer corers. Most current coring tools are deployed by winch and cable facilities on the ice surface. There are three main limitations for obtaining long sediment cores which determines coring tool development, as follows: Hot-water borehole radial size restriction, the sedimentary structure, and the coring techniques. In this paper, we provide a general view on current developments in coring tools, including the working principles, corer characteristics, operational methods, coring site locations, field conditions, coring results, and possible technical improvements. Future prospects in corer design and development are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: subglacial aquatic environments; hot-water access borehole; sediment corers; water–sediment interface subglacial aquatic environments; hot-water access borehole; sediment corers; water–sediment interface
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gong, D.; Fan, X.; Li, Y.; Li, B.; Zhang, N.; Gromig, R.; Smith, E.C.; Dummann, W.; Berger, S.; Eisen, O.; Tell, J.; Biskaborn, B.K.; Koglin, N.; Wilhelms, F.; Broy, B.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, A.; Talalay, P. Coring of Antarctic Subglacial Sediments. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7, 194.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top