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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Geomorphology of a Holocene Hurricane Deposit Eroded from Rhyolite Sea Cliffs on Ensenada Almeja (Baja California Sur, Mexico)

1
Geosciences Department, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
2
Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada 22800, Baja California, Mexico
3
Anthropology Department, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70018, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060193
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sediments: Processes, Transport and Environmental Aspects)
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Abstract

This work advances research on the role of hurricanes in degrading the rocky coastline within Mexico’s Gulf of California, most commonly formed by widespread igneous rocks. Under evaluation is a distinct coastal boulder bed (CBB) derived from banded rhyolite with boulders arrayed in a partial-ring configuration against one side of the headland on Ensenada Almeja (Clam Bay) north of Loreto. Preconditions related to the thickness of rhyolite flows and vertical fissures that intersect the flows at right angles along with the specific gravity of banded rhyolite delimit the size, shape and weight of boulders in the Almeja CBB. Mathematical formulae are applied to calculate the wave height generated by storm surge impacting the headland. The average weight of the 25 largest boulders from a transect nearest the bedrock source amounts to 1200 kg but only 30% of the sample is estimated to exceed a full metric ton in weight. The wave height calculated to move those boulders is close to 8 m. Additional localities with CBBs composed of layered rock types such as basalt and andesite are proposed for future studies within the Gulf of California. Comparisons with selected CBBs in other parts of the world are made. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal boulder deposit; hurricane storm surge; hydrodynamic equations; Gulf of California (Mexico) coastal boulder deposit; hurricane storm surge; hydrodynamic equations; Gulf of California (Mexico)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Johnson, M.E.; Guardado-France, R.; Johnson, E.M.; Ledesma-Vázquez, J. Geomorphology of a Holocene Hurricane Deposit Eroded from Rhyolite Sea Cliffs on Ensenada Almeja (Baja California Sur, Mexico). J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7, 193.

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