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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 156 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Non-indigenous species (NIS) establishment and proliferation can be partially regulated by local predation and grazing. Understanding if, which, and how local species play a part on this top-down control and which fouling species are affected by it is crucial to assess and predict vulnerability to NIS settlement in natural habitats. In this study, a novel approach is described that uses settlement plates as bait in a remote video rig, thus enabling the study of real-time foraging behavior and interactions, paired with pre- and post-grazing quantitative assessments of the fouling communities. As managers, decision-makers, and scientists continue to race against time to predict and minimize potentially catastrophic biological invasions, the remote video foraging system (RVFS) can be a key addition to the toolbox. View this paper
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Article
Damage Estimation of a Concrete Pier When Exposed to Extreme Flood and Debris Loading
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050710 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The structural safety and serviceability during extreme weather, such as floods and storms, is critical. Due to global warming in the last decades, the increase in the intensity of natural disasters, i.e., flood loading and the durability of the road structures and infrastructures, [...] Read more.
The structural safety and serviceability during extreme weather, such as floods and storms, is critical. Due to global warming in the last decades, the increase in the intensity of natural disasters, i.e., flood loading and the durability of the road structures and infrastructures, is becoming critical. Bridges and structures lose their capacity because of ageing over time. On the other hand, the load intensity is another reason for the structural damage. Debris loading due to the flooding on bridges is one of the reasons for the increase in flood loading and eventually structural damage. Measuring the level of structural damage under extreme events is vital in determining the vulnerability and resilience of structures during a disaster. A damage index (DI) can be defined as a measurement tool for the levels of structural damage. Oftentimes, damage indices are developed to measure the deterioration of the system under earthquake loading. Little work has been published on damage indices (DIs) under flood loading, where a uniform pressure is applied to a structure. This paper presents a comprehensive review of DIs published in the literature and compares two approaches to assess the system’s damage utilising finite element methodologies. The structure model developed in the ABAQUS software package is used to predict the failure of a concrete component under applied lateral loading. The model is validated using published experimental work. The model is verified, and then it is used to compute the damage indicators using two primary techniques, including a deflection-based method and an energy loss-based approach. Using the two offered DIs, the change in damage levels is displayed underwater flow uniform loading. A comparison of the two methods is conducted. In this paper, differences between the two concepts are analysed and presented. Full article
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Article
eIF2α Phosphorylation in Response to Nutritional Deficiency and Stressors in the Aquaculture Fish, Rachycentron canadum
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050709 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The present study investigates the response of the marine fish cobia, Rachycentron canadum, to stressors as measured by phosphorylation of the α-subunit of the translational initiation factor, eIF2. eIF2α is the target of phosphorylation by a family of kinases that respond to [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the response of the marine fish cobia, Rachycentron canadum, to stressors as measured by phosphorylation of the α-subunit of the translational initiation factor, eIF2. eIF2α is the target of phosphorylation by a family of kinases that respond to a range of physiological stressors. Phosphorylation of eIF2α inhibits overall protein synthesis, but also facilitates the reprogramming of gene expression to adapt to, and recover from, stress. The deduced coding sequence of cobia eIF2α has 94% identity to both zebrafish (Danio rerio) and human eIF2α sequences with identical phosphorylation and kinase docking sites. Here we use cobia larvae and a cobia cell line derived from muscle (Cm cells) to investigate the response of cobia eIF2α to various stressors. In Cm cells, phosphorylation of eIF2α is increased by nutrient deficiency and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), consistent with the activation of the eIF2 kinases, GCN2, and PERK. In cobia juveniles, diet and water temperature affect the phosphorylation state of eIF2α. We conclude that evaluation of eIF2α phosphorylation could function as an early marker to evaluate diet, environmental stressors, and disease in cobia and may be of particular use in optimizing conditions for rearing cobia larvae and juveniles. Full article
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Article
Numerical Simulation of Vortex-Induced Vibration of TTR and SCR
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050708 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Top tensioned risers (TTRs) and steel catenary risers (SCRs) have been widely used in the field of marine engineering. They are commonly used to transport fluids from subsea wells to surface platforms. Under the action of ocean currents, these risers are often subjected [...] Read more.
Top tensioned risers (TTRs) and steel catenary risers (SCRs) have been widely used in the field of marine engineering. They are commonly used to transport fluids from subsea wells to surface platforms. Under the action of ocean currents, these risers are often subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs), which might lead to serious fatigue damage. In this study, VIV around TTR and SCR were numerically simulated using the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT when the Reynolds number was 4000. In the calculations, the full hexahedron grid and large eddy simulation were used to ensure calculation accuracy from the boundary conditions, as well as solution control. The shape, frequency, and amplitude of VIV produced by TTRs and SCRs at different times and depths were simulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Oxidative Stress in Far Eastern Mussel Mytilus trossulus (Gould, 1850) Exposed to Combined Polystyrene Microspheres (µPSs) and CuO-Nanoparticles (CuO-NPs)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050707 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 465
Abstract
The ingress of nanoparticles of metal oxides and microfragments of synthetic polymers (microplastics) into a marine environment causes unpredictable consequences. The effects of such particles cannot be predicted due to a lack of ecotoxicological information. In this research, a series of laboratory experiments [...] Read more.
The ingress of nanoparticles of metal oxides and microfragments of synthetic polymers (microplastics) into a marine environment causes unpredictable consequences. The effects of such particles cannot be predicted due to a lack of ecotoxicological information. In this research, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted on the combined effects of CuO-nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) and polystyrene microspheres (µPSs) on the development of oxidative stress processes in the marine filter-feeder mollusk Mytilus trossulus. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including the lysosome membrane stability of hematocytes (LMS), the index of antioxidant activity (IAA), the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PCs), and DNA damage in digestive gland cells, were measured after 5 days of exposure. Based on a battery of biochemical markers, it was shown that oxidative stress was induced at varying degrees in the experimental mollusks when exposed to CuO-NPs and µPSs both separately and in combination. In contrast, the single-treatment effect on the lysosomal membrane was enhanced by the combined CuO-NPs and µPSs (from 77.14 ± 8.56 to 42 ± 4.26 min). In addition, exposure to both the compounds alone and in combination decreased the IAA (from 22.87 ± 1.25, to 19.55 ± 0.21, 10.73 ± 0.53, and 12.06 ± 1.62 nM/mg protein, respectively). The PC level significantly increased only after CuO-NP exposure (from 0.496 ± 0.02 to 0.838 ± 0.03 μM/mg protein). Furthermore, the results showed that the investigated particles, both alone and in combination, promoted DNA damage in digestive gland cells (from 2.02 ± 0.52 to 5.15 ± 0.37, 18.29 ± 2.14, and 10.72 ± 2.53%, respectively), indicating that these compounds are genotoxic. Overall, the results obtained suggest that oxidative stress is the leading factor in the negative effects of CuO-NPs and µPSs. Considering the exceptional role of genome integrity in the functioning of biological systems, the revealed damages in the DNA molecule structure should be attributed to the most important manifestations of the toxicity of these two forms of marine pollution. Full article
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Article
A SOM−RBFnn-Based Calibration Algorithm of Modeled Significant Wave Height for Nearshore Areas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050706 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
In this paper, a calibration algorithm for forecasting the significant wave height (SWH) in nearshore areas is proposed, based on artificial neural networks. The algorithm has two features: first, it is based on SOM−BRFnn (self−organizing map–radial basis function neural network) to better reflect [...] Read more.
In this paper, a calibration algorithm for forecasting the significant wave height (SWH) in nearshore areas is proposed, based on artificial neural networks. The algorithm has two features: first, it is based on SOM−BRFnn (self−organizing map–radial basis function neural network) to better reflect the clustering characteristics of the input parameters regarding wind and wave. In addition, the high-frequency variation part and the low-frequency variation part of SWH are separated by a threshold of 24 h to better describe the diurnal variation of SWH under the influence of tidal current. The algorithm is applied to the nearshore region of Nan-ao Island in the northeastern South China Sea. The results show that the algorithm can effectively correct the modeling results of nearshore SWH. Compared with the original outputs of the ERA5 model, the correlation coefficient is increased from 0.472 to 0.774, the root mean square error is reduced from 0.252 m to 0.103 m, and the mean relative error is reduced from 41% to 17.6%, respectively. Further analysis indicates that the frequency division is crucial in realizing the correction of the high-frequency variation of SWH. The results have reference significance for the application of wave numerical models in coastal areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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Article
Evaluation Simulator Platform for Extended Collision Risk of Autonomous Surface Vehicles
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050705 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Autonomous surface vehicles need to be at least as safe as conventional vessels, if not safer, when navigating on waters. With a great deal of navigation algorithms for surface vessels out there, the safety of their produced paths is questionable, and, in most [...] Read more.
Autonomous surface vehicles need to be at least as safe as conventional vessels, if not safer, when navigating on waters. With a great deal of navigation algorithms for surface vessels out there, the safety of their produced paths is questionable, and, in most cases, complicated to assess and compare. Hence, this paper proposes a method for extended collision risk assessment for paths generated by autonomous navigation algorithms as follows: (1) static, dynamic, and historic risk factors are calculated; (2) individual risk value is determined using a fuzzy inference system; (3) the extended collision risk assessment (ECRA) score is acquired using a root-mean-square method. Finally, a comparison of the ECRA score of each path determines the path with the lowest risk. The validation results show that the proposed method is able to detect lower/higher risk scenarios and assign an adequate risk value in most cases. Risk reduction for cautious paths varies up to 8.43%, while risk increases for incautious paths—up to 57.98%. The results indicate that the method could be used for navigation algorithm evaluation and comparison with some improvements. This research also reveals several promising future directions and applications of the method. Full article
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Article
Desktop Research into Historic Automation Projects of Brownfield Container Terminals
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050704 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 479
Abstract
There is a global trend of automation of container terminals. However, there is a lack of literature to guide automation projects for brownfield terminals. Therefore, the experiences and lessons learnt from historical brownfield automation of container terminals are a valuable source of information [...] Read more.
There is a global trend of automation of container terminals. However, there is a lack of literature to guide automation projects for brownfield terminals. Therefore, the experiences and lessons learnt from historical brownfield automation of container terminals are a valuable source of information to guide future projects. This paper describes the brownfield container terminal automation projects carried out in recent years. For each project, the drivers, challenges, benefits, and drawbacks of automation were gathered using a questionnaire directed to operators of brownfield converted container terminals. The characteristics as to the terminal sizes and implemented solutions were gathered via a desk study. It was found that the main drivers for automation are operational cost reductions and higher productivity. However, the desired levels are not always reached and depend on the terminal conditions and the solutions adopted. The continuity of operations was also identified as a major challenge. Terminals have dealt with it either by following a phased, greenfield-like, or big bang approach. Most terminals have opted for semi-automated solutions (automation of yard equipment only); this resulted in fewer labor problems, improved vessel productivity, less required space, and better agility in dealing with disruptions. Most terminals have chosen either automated RMG or the automated version of their manned equipment for yard operations, although exceptions were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-Art in Ports and Terminal Management and Engineering)
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Article
Energetic and Ecological Effects of the Slow Steaming Application and Gasification of Container Ships
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050703 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 392
Abstract
One of the short-term operational measures for fuel savings and reducing CO2 emissions from ships at sea is sailing at reduced speed, i.e., slow steaming, while the gasification of the ship represents an important mid-term technical measure. In this study, the energetic [...] Read more.
One of the short-term operational measures for fuel savings and reducing CO2 emissions from ships at sea is sailing at reduced speed, i.e., slow steaming, while the gasification of the ship represents an important mid-term technical measure. In this study, the energetic and ecological benefits of slow steaming and gasification are studied for a container ship sailing between Shanghai and Hamburg. Resistance and propulsion characteristics in calm water are calculated using computational fluid dynamics based on the viscous flow theory for a full-scale ship, while the added resistance in waves is calculated by applying potential flow theory. The propeller operating point is determined for the design and slow steaming speeds at sea states with the highest probability of occurrence through the investigated sailing route. Thereafter, the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are calculated for a selected dual fuel engine in fuel oil- and gas-supplying modes complying with IMO Tier II and Tier III requirements. The results demonstrate a significant reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for various slow steaming speeds compared to the design speed at different sea states, and for the gasification of a container ship. For realistic weather conditions through the investigated route, the potential reduction in CO2 emissions per year could be up to 11.66 kt/year for fuel oil mode and 8.53 kt/year for gas-operating mode. CO2 emission reduction per year due to gasification under realistic weather conditions could be up to 22 kt/year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation)
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Article
The Force Exerted by Surface Wave on Cylinder and Its Parameterization: Morison Equation Revisited
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050702 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 366
Abstract
The Morison equation is widely used to estimate the loads by surface waves on cylinders. The formulation and coefficients determination method of the original work by Morison et al. are revisited, it is found that there exist some issues yet to be explained, [...] Read more.
The Morison equation is widely used to estimate the loads by surface waves on cylinders. The formulation and coefficients determination method of the original work by Morison et al. are revisited, it is found that there exist some issues yet to be explained, e.g., the larger uncertainties in drag coefficient and the underestimated maximum moments. Numerical simulation with a similar configuration is used to reproduce these issues and the results help discover the reason and mechanism for these phenomena. The analysis shows that the larger uncertainties in drag coefficient are caused by the introduction of linear wave theory, which is used to derive the velocity and acceleration at cylinder location as direct measurements are not available. The results also show that the underestimation of maximum moments is induced by the wave run-up process, which is neglected in the Morison equation. The scale of wave run-up is approximately the length of cylinder diameter. The results indicate although most recent studies are focusing on the high-frequency loads on cylinders by nonlinear waves, there still exist some issues to be resolved in the linear wave regime. Further studies are required to parameterize the additional loads by wave run-up to strengthen the robustness of the Morison equation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Analysis in Ocean Engineering)
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Review
Critique on Ecological Methodologies Used in Water Quality Studies and Coastal Management: A Review
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050701 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The subject of ecology is the understanding of the relations among living organisms and their interactions with the abiotic environment. The need to quantify ecological phenomena requires the development of mathematical tools, including ecological indices, statistical procedures and simulation models. Some of these [...] Read more.
The subject of ecology is the understanding of the relations among living organisms and their interactions with the abiotic environment. The need to quantify ecological phenomena requires the development of mathematical tools, including ecological indices, statistical procedures and simulation models. Some of these tools have been found to be convenient by many scientists and policy makers in related scientific disciplines to express marine pollution levels, marine water quality and future trends; they have, therefore, been adopted in coastal management methodologies and practices. In the present work, a number of ecological tools are reviewed regarding their relevance to supporting water quality studies, as well as their suitability to be included in the toolkit of coastal management practices. Their problems and weaknesses, together with the science–policy misconnection, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Support Systems and Tools in Coastal Areas)
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Article
Risk Assessment of Navigation Safety for Ferries
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050700 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 364
Abstract
This study aims to discuss a risk assessment of navigation safety for ferries. In this research, the risk factors (RFs) for the navigation safety of ferries are first investigated from relevant literature and ferry operational features. A fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchical Process) approach [...] Read more.
This study aims to discuss a risk assessment of navigation safety for ferries. In this research, the risk factors (RFs) for the navigation safety of ferries are first investigated from relevant literature and ferry operational features. A fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchical Process) approach is then proposed to weight those RFs, after which a continuous risk-matrix model is then developed to determine the RFs’ risk levels. Finally, to validate the practical application of the proposed model, ferries traveling across the Taiwan Strait were empirically investigated. The results may provide practical information for ferry operators to improve their safety performances. Further, the proposed risk assessment approach may provide references for related research in the safety management of short-distance passenger ships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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Review
Bioactive Compounds for Quorum Sensing Signal-Response Systems in Marine Phycosphere
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050699 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Quorum sensing in the phycosphere refers to a sensor system in which bacteria secrete bioactive compounds to coordinate group behavior relying on cell density. It is an important way for algae and bacteria to communicate with each other and achieve interactions. It has [...] Read more.
Quorum sensing in the phycosphere refers to a sensor system in which bacteria secrete bioactive compounds to coordinate group behavior relying on cell density. It is an important way for algae and bacteria to communicate with each other and achieve interactions. It has been determined that quorum sensing is widely presented in the marine phycosphere, which involves a variety of bioactive compounds. Focused on these compounds in marine phycosphere, this review summarizes the types and structures of the compounds, describes the methods in detection and functional evaluation, discusses the ecological functions regulated by the compounds, such as modulating microbial colonization, achieving algae–bacteria mutualism or competition and contributing to marine biogeochemical cycles. Meanwhile, the application prospects of the compounds are also proposed, including controlling harmful algal blooms and producing biofuel. Future research should focus on improving detection techniques, developing more model systems and investigating the effects of climate change on the quorum-sensing pathway to further understand the mechanism and application potential of quorum sensing compounds. This review aims to present an overview of current research carried out in order to provide the reader with perspective on bioactive compounds involved in quorum sensing. Full article
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Article
Volatile Characteristics of Apatite in Dacite from the Eastern Manus Basin and Their Geological Implications
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050698 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 368
Abstract
As one of the youngest back-arc basins, the evolutionary behavior of magmatic volatiles in the Eastern Manus Basin has been poorly studied. Recently, apatite has received widespread attention for its powerful function in recording information on magmatic volatiles. In this paper, by determining [...] Read more.
As one of the youngest back-arc basins, the evolutionary behavior of magmatic volatiles in the Eastern Manus Basin has been poorly studied. Recently, apatite has received widespread attention for its powerful function in recording information on magmatic volatiles. In this paper, by determining the major element compositions and primary volatile abundances (F, Cl, SO3) of apatites in dacite, we analyze the compositions of volatiles before magma eruption in the Eastern Manus Basin, as well as their indications for magmatic oxygen fugacity and petrogenesis, so as to improve the study about the evolution of magmatic volatiles in this region. Experimental data indicate that apatite saturation temperatures range from 935 to 952 °C. All the apatites are magmatic apatites with F contents of 0.87−1.39 wt.%, Cl contents of 1.24−1.70 wt.%, and SO3 ≤ 0.06 wt.%. Analysis reveals that the apatites in this study crystallized from volatile-undersaturated melts, so their chemical compositions can be used as indicators of magmatic compositions. According to calculations, the minimum S concentrations of the host melts range from 2−65 ppm or 8−11 ppm. The crystallization and separation of magnetite caused the reduction state of melts, and the relatively low oxygen fugacity (ΔFMQ = −0.2 ± 0.9) caused low SO3 contents in apatites. In addition, F and Cl contents of the host melt were calculated to be 185−448 ppm and 1059−1588 ppm, corresponding to the H2O contents of 1.4−2.1% and 1.2−1.5% (error ± 30−40%), respectively. The high Cl/F ratio and H2O contents of samples indicate the addition of slab-derived fluids in the mantle source region of the Eastern Manus Basin. High F contents of the melts may be influenced by F-rich sediments, as well as the release of F from lawsonite and phengite decomposition. High Cl appears to originate from the dual influence of subduction-released fluids and Cl-rich seawater-derived components. Further, it is estimated that 14−21% of the total Cl concentrations in melts were added directly from subduction-released fluids, or higher. Full article
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Editorial
Extreme Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050697 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 375
Abstract
The occurrence of exceptionally large waves in regions of high maritime traffic has severe consequences, ranging from complicating navigation routes to the loss of ships and human lives [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Waves)
Article
Statistical Damage Model of Rock Based on Compaction Stage and Post-Peak Shape under Chemical-Freezing-Thawing-Loading
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050696 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The deterioration of rock mechanical properties under chemical-freezing-thawing-loading will seriously threaten the stability and safety of engineering rock mass, so the study of its constitutive model has very important theoretical and engineering application significance. In view of the deficiency that the existing statistical [...] Read more.
The deterioration of rock mechanical properties under chemical-freezing-thawing-loading will seriously threaten the stability and safety of engineering rock mass, so the study of its constitutive model has very important theoretical and engineering application significance. In view of the deficiency that the existing statistical damage constitutive model cannot describe the nonlinear characteristics of the compaction stage and the post-peak shape, the compaction index is introduced to measure the stress-strain nonlinear characteristics caused by the iso-compression of the pores in the rock, and the post-peak correction coefficient is introduced to optimize the post-peak shape of rock loading. Assuming that the strength and failure of rock microunits obey the Weibull distribution, on the basis of using the Drucker-Prager strength criterion to measure the strength of rock microunits, a statistical damage model for rock considering the compaction stage and post-peak shape under chemical-freezing-thawing-loading is established. Finally, it is compared with the test curve. The results show that the calculation curve of the established chemical-freezing-thawing-loading rock statistical damage model has the same trend as the rock uniaxial compression test curve. Furthermore, it can better describe the rock stress-strain law with different chemical solutions and different freeze-thaw cycles, which fully reflects the rationality and accuracy of the constructed constitutive model. The research results can provide a theoretical basis for the calculation of deformation and failure of rocks under chemical-freezing-thawing-loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Dynamic Appointment Rescheduling of Trucks under Uncertainty of Arrival Time
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050695 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 361
Abstract
The uncertainty of the arrival time of trucks has increased the complexity of terminal operations. The truck appointment system (TAS) cannot respond to this problem in time, which can easily cause appointment invalidation and reduce the efficiency of truck operations and terminal operations. [...] Read more.
The uncertainty of the arrival time of trucks has increased the complexity of terminal operations. The truck appointment system (TAS) cannot respond to this problem in time, which can easily cause appointment invalidation and reduce the efficiency of truck operations and terminal operations. This paper comprehensively considers the related constraints of truck re-scheduling costs, gate waiting costs, and idle emission costs. With the goal of minimizing the comprehensive operating costs of truck companies and port companies, a dynamic appointment rescheduling model for external trucks based on mixed integer nonlinear programming is established. This paper designs an adaptive quantum revolving door update mechanism and proposes a double-chain real quantum genetic algorithm. The simulation experiment results show that compared with the traditional scheduling, the truck dynamic appointment rescheduling model can effectively reduce the comprehensive operating costs of the truck company and the port company and alleviate the congestion of the port. The probability that the truck cannot arrive at the port on time, the advance time for the truck to confirm the arrival time, and the length of time that the external truck cannot arrive at the port on time have a significant impact on the cost of the reschedule of the TAS. This paper favorably supports the manager’s operational decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-Art in Ports and Terminal Management and Engineering)
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Article
Organic Carbon Oxidation in the Sediment of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050694 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
We characterized the biogeochemical organic carbon (Corg) cycles in the surface sediment layer of the Ulleung Basin (UB) of the East Sea. The total oxygen uptake (TOU) rate and the diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) rate of the sediment were measured using [...] Read more.
We characterized the biogeochemical organic carbon (Corg) cycles in the surface sediment layer of the Ulleung Basin (UB) of the East Sea. The total oxygen uptake (TOU) rate and the diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) rate of the sediment were measured using an autonomous in situ benthic lander equipped with a benthic chamber (KIOST BelcII) and a microprofiler (KIOST BelpII). The TOU rate was in the range of 1.51 to 1.93 mmol O2 m−2 d−1, about double the DOU rate. The high TOU/DOU ratio implies that the benthic biological activity in the upper sediment layer is one of the important factors controlling benthic remineralization. The in situ oxygen exposure time was about 20 days, which is comparable to the values of other continental margin sediments. The sedimentary Corg oxidation rates ranged from 6.4 to 6.5 g C m−2 yr−1, which accounted for ~2% of the primary production in UB. The Corg burial fluxes ranged from 3.14 ± 0.12 to 3.48 ± 0.60 g C m−2 yr−1, corresponding to more than 30% of the deposited Corg buried into the inactive sediment deep layer. Full article
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Article
Utilizing Marine Cultural Heritage for the Preservation of Coastal Systems in East Africa
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050693 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 607
Abstract
This paper presents the key contributions of marine cultural heritage to the survival of coastal ecosystems and the communities that rely on them in East Africa. Marine cultural heritage (MCH) describes the evidence of past human interactions with coastal and marine space, encompassing [...] Read more.
This paper presents the key contributions of marine cultural heritage to the survival of coastal ecosystems and the communities that rely on them in East Africa. Marine cultural heritage (MCH) describes the evidence of past human interactions with coastal and marine space, encompassing tangible material culture remains and associated intangible cultural expressions within coastal communities. By incorporating the protection of MCH into local and regional environmental frameworks, we gain an essential indicator to monitor change dynamics in natural habitats, the cumulative impacts of climate change, and the development of social adaptation strategies. An essential aspect of this development is the move away from global sustainability strategies towards community-centric management and stewardship. Such processes utilise a combination of traditional knowledge systems and scientific approaches designed to harness targeted economic, ecological, and social sustainable development. To argue for the incorporation of MCH into local and regional environmental frameworks in the area, this paper presents four case studies from the Rising from the Depths Network, a challenge-led research network focusing on harnessing the potential of MCH to bring sustainable development strategies to East Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Systems: Monitoring, Protection and Adaptation Approaches)
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Article
Natural Feed Supplements Improve Growth, Non-Specific Immune Responses and Resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Lates calcarifer
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050692 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 393
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary natural feed supplement on the growth performance, non-specific responses, and disease resistance in Lates calcarifer. Three commercial products (A, B, and C) containing a basal probiotic mixture were tested. Product A contained a [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary natural feed supplement on the growth performance, non-specific responses, and disease resistance in Lates calcarifer. Three commercial products (A, B, and C) containing a basal probiotic mixture were tested. Product A contained a basal mixture of Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (107 cfu/g for each probiotic); product B contained additional Lactobacillus plantarum (1010 cfu/g); and product C contained additional soybean peptides (500 g/kg) and garlic powder (1 g/kg). Each product was supplemented into subject diets at dosages of 1 or 2 g/kg (designated as the A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and C2 groups, respectively). Following an eight-week trial, growth parameters (specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio), non-specific immune responses (O2 production, phagocytic rate, and phagocytic index), and the results of a challenge test against Vibrio alginolyticus were evaluated. The results show that all probiotic supplement groups exhibited an improvement in growth performance compared to the control group (non-probiotic diet). In terms of non-specific immunity parameters, a significant improvement in O2 production was found in the C2 group, whereas significant improvements in phagocytic activity were found in all the B and C groups. The C2 group displayed optimal O2 production, phagocytic rate, and phagocytic index results. For the challenge test, the C groups showed higher Vibrio resistance than the other experimental groups and the control group. These results suggest that product C, given at dosages of 2 g/kg, may serve as a growth-promoting and immunostimulatory additive for the cultivation of Asian seabass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Immunity for Sustainable Aquaculture Development)
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Article
Seabed Sediment Classification Using Spatial Statistical Characteristics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050691 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Conventional sediment classification methods based on Multibeam Echo System (MBES) data have low accuracy since the correlation between features and sediment has not been fully considered. Moreover, their poor resistance to the residual error of MBES backscatter strength (BS) processing also degrades their [...] Read more.
Conventional sediment classification methods based on Multibeam Echo System (MBES) data have low accuracy since the correlation between features and sediment has not been fully considered. Moreover, their poor resistance to the residual error of MBES backscatter strength (BS) processing also degrades their performances. Toward these problems, we propose a seabed sediment classification method using spatial statistical features extracted from angular response curve (ARC), topography, and geomorphology. First, to reduce interference of noise and residual error of beam pattern correction, we propose a robust method combining the Generic Seafloor Acoustic Backscatter (GSAB) model and Huber loss function to estimate the parameters of ARC which is strongly correlated with seabed sediments. Second, a feature set is constructed by AR features composed of GSAB parameters, BS mosaic and its derivatives, and seabed topography and its derivatives to characterize seabed sediments. After that, feature selection and probability map acquisition are employed based on the random forest algorithm (RF). Finally, a denoising and final sediment map generation method is proposed and applied to probability maps to obtain the sediment map with reasonable sediment distribution and clear boundaries between classes. We implement experiments and achieve the classification accuracy of 93.3%, which verifies the validity of our method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Coastal/Ocean Sensors and Systems)
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Correction
Correction: Collins et al. Altimeter Observations of Tropical Cyclone-Generated Sea States: Spatial Analysis and Operational Hindcast Evaluation. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 216
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050690 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Soon after the publication of the original manuscript [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Waves)
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Article
Seaweed Beds and Community Structure in the East and South Coast of Korea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050689 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
This study conducted a community investigation via scuba-diving excursions into the subtidal regions of seven sea areas on the eastern coasts and three sea areas on the southern coasts, from October to December 2017, to determine the characteristics of seaweed communities and the [...] Read more.
This study conducted a community investigation via scuba-diving excursions into the subtidal regions of seven sea areas on the eastern coasts and three sea areas on the southern coasts, from October to December 2017, to determine the characteristics of seaweed communities and the current status of barren ground in natural seaweed beds in Korea. The results showed that species composition and average biomass in the sea area were 5–48 species and an average of 114.42 g/m2 (0.29–273.60 g/m2) in the eastern coasts, where red algae—an annual opportunity species—were dominant, and 21–48 species and an average of 1056.84 g/m2 (53.03–2683.02 g/m2) in the southern coasts, where perennial large brown algae were dominant. Using Orfanidis’ EEI-c model, evaluations of the community states showed they varied significantly depending on the inclusion of melobesidean algae, and this model was determined to be inappropriate for direct application in sea areas with a low coverage of all macroalgae. A comprehensive review of the seaweed community characteristics of seaweed beds, the marine environment, the coverage of melobesidean algae, and the analysis results regarding the density of grazers showed that a decrease in the seaweed community, according to the barren ground phenomenon, was more severe in the eastern than southern coasts. Furthermore, there were also significant differences in seaweed community characteristics according to sea area and barren ground. Therefore, suitable countermeasures corresponding to the characteristics of each sea area are necessary; for example, the creation of growth substrates for the colonization of macroalgae in Deoksin and Saido Is., the transplantation of large brown algae in Gangyang and Daedurado Is., action plans for marine forest monitoring in Geomundo Is., and an improvement in substrates in Yeongjin, Mangsang, Daejin, Chogok, and Geundeok are possible countermeasures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Ecology)
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Article
A Method for Identifying the Key Performance Shaping Factors to Prevent Human Errors during Oil Tanker Offloading Work
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050688 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Oil tanker offloading is a human-related and high-risk task. A small operational error may trigger catastrophic accidents such as fire and explosion. It is recognised that more than 70% of industrial accidents are blamed for human errors, so preventing them is crucial. As [...] Read more.
Oil tanker offloading is a human-related and high-risk task. A small operational error may trigger catastrophic accidents such as fire and explosion. It is recognised that more than 70% of industrial accidents are blamed for human errors, so preventing them is crucial. As human error is associated with a variety of Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs), it is meaningful to identify key PSFs for safe operations during oil tanker offloading process. However, some issues are obstacles to finding the crucial PSFs. The recording data of most PSFs are always incomplete and imperfect. Moreover, the standard for ranking PSFs should be rational. In addition, the performance of each PSF at the different stages is oil offloading is usually unstable and may change with time. As a result, this study aims to conduct a method that mainly relies on Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), the definition of “Risk” (combination of likelihood and impact), and Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) to find several significant PSFs to prevent human errors. GRA deals with the incomplete and imperfect data; the definition of “Risk” provides a rational basis for ranking PSFs; and HTA gives support for considering the PSFs’ changes at different stages of a task. The proposed approach is tested on a real engineering case of oil tanker offloading work at offshore terminal. The result indicates that the method can be applied to identify key PSFs, which in turn provides recommendations for human error prevention to ensure the safety both on board and at terminal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Traffic Behaviour Evaluation of Ships)
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Article
Quantifying Background Magnetic Fields at Marine Energy Sites: Challenges and Recommendations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050687 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Unknowns around the environmental effects of marine renewable energy have slowed the deployment of this emerging technology worldwide. Established testing methods are necessary to safely permit and develop marine energy devices. Magnetic fields are one potential cause of environmental effects and are created [...] Read more.
Unknowns around the environmental effects of marine renewable energy have slowed the deployment of this emerging technology worldwide. Established testing methods are necessary to safely permit and develop marine energy devices. Magnetic fields are one potential cause of environmental effects and are created when electricity is generated and transmitted to shore. Further, the existing variation of the background magnetic field at sites that may be developed for marine energy is largely unknown, making it difficult to assess how much additional stress or impact the anthropogenic magnetic field may have. This study investigates two instruments for their ability to characterize the background magnetic fields at a potential marine energy site in Sequim Bay, WA. Based on this evaluation, this study recommends an Overhauser magnetomer for assessing the background magnetic field and demonstrates the use of this sensor at a potential marine energy site. Full article
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Article
NURBS-Based Parametric Design for Ship Hull Form
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050686 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Recently, the NURBS technique has been widely used in the 3D design software for ships. However, in most research, the NURBS technique is only applied to the mathematical representation of hull curves and surfaces, and the parametric deformation of hull surfaces based on [...] Read more.
Recently, the NURBS technique has been widely used in the 3D design software for ships. However, in most research, the NURBS technique is only applied to the mathematical representation of hull curves and surfaces, and the parametric deformation of hull surfaces based on geometric feature parameters is less understood. The aims of this paper are to establish the parametric design process of hull surfaces through the classification of geometric feature parameters and the design of feature curves, apply the NURBS technique to the parametric geometric modeling of hull curves and surfaces, and finally achieve the parametric deformation of hull surfaces driven by geometric feature parameters and develop the parametric deformation software. Taking the Series 60 ship as an example, we first analyze the hull geometric features and parameters, then design the longitudinal feature curves and cross-section curves based on the NURBS technique and establish the correlation between them, and finally generate the smooth hull surface by the skinning technique to achieve the parametric geometric deformation of the Series 60 ship. The research in this paper shows that the smoothness of the surfaces generated by the NURBS-based parametric design method is good. Additionally, the extracted feature parameters have a clear geometric meaning and can automatically generate hull forms to meet the design requirements quickly and effectively, which has some practical engineering value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime and Ship Design)
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Article
First Estimates of Age and Growth of the Lusitanian Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera marginata) from the Mediterranean Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050685 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Within the eastern Mediterranean, increased fishing pressure coupled with a lack of basic biological information is threatening the sustainability of the rare Lusitanian cownose ray (Rhinoptera marginata). To provide baseline life-history data for this species, age estimates were obtained from vertebral [...] Read more.
Within the eastern Mediterranean, increased fishing pressure coupled with a lack of basic biological information is threatening the sustainability of the rare Lusitanian cownose ray (Rhinoptera marginata). To provide baseline life-history data for this species, age estimates were obtained from vertebral band counts of 224 rays (size range: 210–998 mm disc width and 140 to 13,600 g weight) collected from Iskenderun Bay. Females ranged in size from 210 to 998 mm disc width and 238 to 13,600 g weight, while males ranged from 130 to 866 mm disc width and 140 to 8250 g weight. The index of average percent error (2.8%) and age-bias plot suggest that the aging method used represents a precise and non-biased approach. Marginal increment analysis indicated that a single opaque band is deposited annually between August and September. The oldest ages obtained for R. marginata were 9 years for males and 19 years for females, which corresponded to total lengths of 866 and 998 mm disc width, respectively. For males, limited samples prevented the accurate calculation of growth rates; however, for combined sexes, observed and disc width-at-age data resulted in the following von Bertalanffy growth parameters: DW = 1102.16 mm, k = 0.148 and t0 = −0.2167. Although additional samples are necessary to determine growth rates in males, the results of the present study indicate that R. marginata females exhibit life history characteristics similar to other Rhinoptera species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Fish Research II)
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Article
An Improved Framework of Marine Major Function-Oriented Zoning in Advancing Ecosystem-Based Management
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050684 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Planning and zoning of marine areas is a common practice worldwide. In China, marine major function-oriented zoning (MMFOZ) is an effective geographical method for ensuring sustainable marine resource and ecosystems development; however, ecosystem-based management (EBM) has neither been considered in MMFOZ research nor [...] Read more.
Planning and zoning of marine areas is a common practice worldwide. In China, marine major function-oriented zoning (MMFOZ) is an effective geographical method for ensuring sustainable marine resource and ecosystems development; however, ecosystem-based management (EBM) has neither been considered in MMFOZ research nor in practice. Thus, the current MMFOZ evaluation system does not consider integration between the terrestrial and marine components, and the administrative boundaries are adopted as those of research areas and spatial zoning units. Here, an improved MMFOZ framework is presented through an ecosystem-based delimitation of the research area and subregions and a novel indicator system integrating land- and sea-based impacts, to assess and discriminate MMFOZ. A bay ecosystem and nearby land catchment units were selected as the research object. The results revealed two marine optimized development zones, one marine significant development zone, and six marine restricted development zones were divided, with areas of 358.11 km2 (24.63% of the total zoning area), 605.95 km2 (41.69%), and 489.54 km2 (33.68%), respectively. The improved MMFOZ framework coupled with EBM effectively addressed the limitations of marine spatial planning (MSP), while providing a new practical tool for a novel paradigm of sea governance based on an EBM–MSP coupling framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Support Systems and Tools in Coastal Areas)
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Article
Research on COD Soft Measurement Technology Based on Multi-Parameter Coupling Analysis Method
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050683 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
This paper presents a soft measurement technique for COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) based on the multiparameter coupling analysis method. First, through mechanism analysis and correlation analysis of historical data during the measurement process, water quality parameters, such as hydrogen potential (PH), dissolved oxygen [...] Read more.
This paper presents a soft measurement technique for COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) based on the multiparameter coupling analysis method. First, through mechanism analysis and correlation analysis of historical data during the measurement process, water quality parameters, such as hydrogen potential (PH), dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity (TU), and electrical conductivity (EC), can be used to estimate COD values. To further improve the estimation accuracy of the water quality parameter model, we adopted a modeling method combining a BP neural network and support vector machine, which showed an average relative error of 6.13% and an absolute coefficient of up to 0.9605. Finally, experiments in a lake environment demonstrate that this method shows excellent performance, with highly reliable and accurate prediction results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies and Methods in Coastal Observing)
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Review
Organic Matter Burial in Deep-Sea Fans: A Depositional Process-Based Perspective
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050682 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Organic matter burial in the deep-sea fan sediments is an important component of the long-term carbon cycle. Although there is increasing recognition of the importance of organic matter in deep-sea sediments, a major focus has been on mudstones, commonly interpreted as the background [...] Read more.
Organic matter burial in the deep-sea fan sediments is an important component of the long-term carbon cycle. Although there is increasing recognition of the importance of organic matter in deep-sea sediments, a major focus has been on mudstones, commonly interpreted as the background sediments, deposited by pelagic or hemipelagic vertical suspension fallout in low-energy fan environments. Emerging evidence suggests that relatively coarse-grained sediment gravity flow deposits (e.g., turbidites and hybrid event beds) can also store a significant quantity of organic carbon, implying that a wide range of depositional processes can result in the concentration and enrichment of organic matter in submarine fans. However, the role of these processes on carbon burial is still not fully understood. This review aims to discuss the impact of three widely documented deep-sea depositional mechanisms/processes, namely vertical suspension settling, grain-by-grain (incremental aggradation), and the en-masse deposition on distribution, burial, and preservation of organic matter in deep-marine deposits. Organic matter accumulated from slowly settling suspension in mud caps (Te or H5 divisions of turbidites and hybrid beds, respectively) is prone to higher oxidation compared to the carbon buried in sandy components of turbidity currents (Ta-Tc units) and hybrid beds (H2/H3 divisions). The burial of organic matter in sandy parts of the deposits has important implications for understanding the fundamental physical processes that control carbon accumulation and preservation in deep-marine rock record. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Influence of Commercial-Scale Seaweed Cultivation on Water Quality: A Case Study in a Typical Laver Culture Area of the Yellow Sea, North China
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050681 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 403
Abstract
Seaweeds are important to marine ecosystems through biogeochemical processes. Laver are the most widely farmed seaweeds with the largest culture area in China. This study analyzes the water quality characteristics in a large-scale laver culture area (Taoluo) by comparing a small-scale laver culture [...] Read more.
Seaweeds are important to marine ecosystems through biogeochemical processes. Laver are the most widely farmed seaweeds with the largest culture area in China. This study analyzes the water quality characteristics in a large-scale laver culture area (Taoluo) by comparing a small-scale laver culture area and non-culture areas, thereby assessing the changes in water quality due to large-scale laver cultivation. Particulate organic carbon and/or dissolved organic carbon decreased while the total suspended solid increased seasonally or with the distance from the coast. The concentrations of total nitrogen as well as dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus were generally higher near the shore and decreased seasonally in Taoluo. Substantial spatial variation in nutrient parameters between culture and non-culture sites was observed. Moreover, significant variations between culture and non-culture sites on a spatio-temporal scale were mostly observed in December compared with September and October. Furthermore, more clusters were found in December based on the water quality characteristics in various sampling sites using a hierarchical clustering analysis. These results suggested that more spatial deviation in water quality parameters between culture and non-culture sites were found in December; thus it can be hypothesized that the changes in water quality due to large-scale cultivation for laver was likely to occur in northern China in winter, i.e., the period of best growth status for the cold-temperate species of laver (e.g., Neopyropia yezoensis). We hope that this study can help to further understand the effects of seaweed farming on marine environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Cultivation and Breeding)
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