Performance of Transportation Systems Subjected to Extreme Hydrodynamic Events

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2023) | Viewed by 33824

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Interests: waves; flooding; tsunami; dam-break; coastal structures; offshore; bridge; pier; debris; damming; wave loads; SPH; ports; wharves; jetties; breakwaters; decks; bores; ocean; CFD; FSI; wave energy converter; hydraulic; hydrodynamic; WEC; flow; floating
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA
Interests: tsunami performance of coastal bridges and structures; seismic performance of embedded structures and deep foundations; earthquake protective systems in general and seismic isolation in particular

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Guest Editor
School of Civil and Construction Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
Interests: nonlinear structural analysis and dynamics; structural response sensitivity; object-oriented software design; parallel computing and numerical methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last two decades, major water-related natural hazards, such as tsunamis and hurricanes (tropical cyclones) have led to extreme flooding of coastal communities, causing unprecedented loss of human lives, extensive infrastructure damage, and significant economic losses. By washing out bridge decks, piers, and roadways, these extreme hydrodynamic events paralyze entire transportation networks hindering rescue efforts and recovery. In addition to coastal systems, inland transportation systems are also vulnerable to water hazards, as observed in recent flash floods that caused extensive damage to riverine bridges. Given their socio-economic importance, the vulnerability of transportation systems has become a major topic of interest for communities around the world.

The intensity and frequency of extreme flash floods and hurricanes are projected to increase due to climate change and sea-level rise, while major tsunamis, which were traditionally considered rare events, have occurred several times in the last two decades. These trends indicate the need for more research efforts in improving the resilience of transportation systems against such hazards. Therefore, the objective of this Special Issue is to bring together coastal scientists, hydrologists, civil engineers, and risk assessment experts, who aim to understand the effects of extreme hydrodynamic events on bridges and other transportation systems. This Special Issue will document the state-of-the-art in transportation system resilience during extreme hydrodynamic events and identify future needs. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to experimental, numerical, and statistical studies focusing on the following:

  • Hydrodynamic loading on transportation systems
  • Structural performance and failure modes during extreme hydrodynamic events
  • Climate-change effects on transportation infrastructure
  • Impulsive and damming effects of debris on bridges
  • Hydrodynamic scour of bridge piers and roadways
  • Computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction
  • Numerical methods, such as FEM, FVM, PFEM, and SPH
  • Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methodologies
  • Vulnerability and resilience assessment of bridges and transportation networks
  • Flood protection and mitigation strategies both at the structural and network level

Asst. R. Prof. Dr. Denis Istrati
Prof. Dr. Ian Buckle
Prof. Dr. Michael Scott
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Extreme hydrodynamic loading
  • Tsunamis, hurricanes, tropical cyclones
  • Climate-change and flash floods
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Fluid-structure interaction
  • Water-borne debris loading
  • Hydrodynamic scour
  • Structural performance
  • Risk assessment methodologies
  • Infrastructure resilience
  • Flooding protection strategies

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 7442 KiB  
Article
A Pioneering Integration of Structural Health Assessments and Dynamic Analyses: Bridge Pier Responses to the Impact of Floating Objects during Extreme Floods
by Maryam Nasim and Sujeeva Setunge
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(4), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12040526 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
This study presents a transformative dynamic amplification factor for assessing the resilience of over-river bridges, informed by the real-world conditions of flood events. Through advanced finite element analysis, we unveil how the interplay between mass and velocity of floating objects significantly influences bridge [...] Read more.
This study presents a transformative dynamic amplification factor for assessing the resilience of over-river bridges, informed by the real-world conditions of flood events. Through advanced finite element analysis, we unveil how the interplay between mass and velocity of floating objects significantly influences bridge pier responses, challenging conventional assessment methods. Our findings reveal potential inadequacies in current design standards, such as AASHTO and AS5100, and introduces a dynamic multiplier that enhances structural health assessment algorithms. The core contribution of this research is a data-driven analysis approach, which is critical for the proactive maintenance and risk assessment of bridge infrastructures in areas prone to flooding. By redefining the parameters for damage-level identification, our work advocates for a shift towards more resilient infrastructure systems in the face of global climate change. Full article
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17 pages, 8514 KiB  
Article
Probability Distribution Analysis of Hydrodynamic Wave Pressure on Large-Scale Thin-Walled Structure for Sea-Crossing Bridge
by Junzhi Pan, Zilong Ti and Hengrui You
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010081 - 3 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Evaluation of hydrodynamic wave pressure on large-scale structure is an important task in the wave load design of thin-walled components used in sea-crossing bridge. This study focuses on the probability distribution of hydrodynamic wave pressure on a large-scale thin-walled structure using on-site measurement [...] Read more.
Evaluation of hydrodynamic wave pressure on large-scale structure is an important task in the wave load design of thin-walled components used in sea-crossing bridge. This study focuses on the probability distribution of hydrodynamic wave pressure on a large-scale thin-walled structure using on-site measurement data. An in-situ observation project is conducted to collect the wave elevation and the wave pressure on a rectangle cofferdam during a tropical cyclone event. With the measured data, the wave conditions and the fluctuating wave pressure are extracted, and the corresponding statistical characteristics such as the cumulative density function (CDF) are derived. In addition, a time domain boundary element model (TDBEM) is introduced to provide the statistical comparison. Several wave conditions derived by the statistical wave indicators during the cyclone event are fed to the numerical model for pressure investigation. Based on the statistical indicators and the modeling results, the comparison of wave pressure spatial distribution between TDBEM and the on-site measurement is presented. The pressure probability distribution is presented to further reveal the differences on the statistical characteristics. The resultant bias mainly occurs in the low-exceeding-probability range on the up-wave side and the high-exceeding-probability range on the down-wave side. Full article
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19 pages, 8377 KiB  
Article
Digital Filter Design for Force Signals from Eulerian–Lagrangian Analyses of Wave Impact on Bridges
by Arsalan Majlesi, Adnan Shahriar, Reza Nasouri, Hamid Khodadadi Koodiani, Arturo Montoya, Ao Du and Adolfo Matamoros
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111751 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Finite element (FE) models that simulate wave–superstructure interactions with the coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) technique provide a viable and economical solution to estimate wave impact forces on bridge superstructures. One of the main drawbacks of CEL FE models is that they produce solutions distorted [...] Read more.
Finite element (FE) models that simulate wave–superstructure interactions with the coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) technique provide a viable and economical solution to estimate wave impact forces on bridge superstructures. One of the main drawbacks of CEL FE models is that they produce solutions distorted by numerical artifacts with very high frequencies that make it difficult to quantify the magnitude of hydrodynamic forces on superstructures. This paper investigated digital filter parameters for horizontal forces extracted from CEL FE models. The optimal filter configuration was evaluated by comparing unfiltered and filtered horizontal force signals with experimentally measured values from a reduced-scale superstructure specimen tested at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University. It was found that digital filters with cutoff frequencies below the fundamental frequency of the superstructure produced the best results and that optimizing Eulerian–Lagrangian surface interactions significantly improved the quality of the calculated force signals. Full article
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20 pages, 10070 KiB  
Article
Influence of Dynamic Woody Debris Jam on Single Bridge Pier Scour and Induced Hydraulic Head
by Wenjun Zhang, Ioan Nistor, Colin D. Rennie and Husham Almansour
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101421 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
A woody debris jam around a bridge pier causes a change in flow structure and results in additional scour and an increase in the hydraulic head upstream of the pier, threatening its stability and safety. In the present paper, the spatio-temporal formation of [...] Read more.
A woody debris jam around a bridge pier causes a change in flow structure and results in additional scour and an increase in the hydraulic head upstream of the pier, threatening its stability and safety. In the present paper, the spatio-temporal formation of a dynamic woody debris jam formed piece by piece of debris wood was used to investigate the influence of woody debris jams from a life-cycle perspective which included the processes of its formation, growth, failure, and rebirth. Several debris jams were formed in sequence during each experimental test. The results showed that the additional scour generated by the first woody debris jam compared with the scour depth without debris was a function of blockage ratio of the first debris jam, while the influence of the subsequent woody debris jams depended on their dimensions compared with the previous jam. When the subsequent debris jam’s dimensions were larger than the previous one, the scour further increased; otherwise, the scour remained constant and equal to the previous one. In addition, the debris-induced hydraulic head was analyzed and found to be correlated with the Froude number and the debris jam dimensions. Full article
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31 pages, 3044 KiB  
Article
Explaining the Flood Behavior for the Bridge Collapse Sites
by Fahmidah Ashraf, Hristos Tyralis and Georgia Papacharalampous
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091241 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Given the increasing intensity and frequency of flood events, and the casualties and cost associated with bridge collapse events, explaining the flood behavior for the collapse sites would be of great necessity. In this study, annual peak flows of two hundred and five [...] Read more.
Given the increasing intensity and frequency of flood events, and the casualties and cost associated with bridge collapse events, explaining the flood behavior for the collapse sites would be of great necessity. In this study, annual peak flows of two hundred and five watersheds, associated with two hundred and ninety-seven collapse sites, are analyzed. Generalized Extreme Value distribution together with other statistical analyses are used to derive and analyze the shape parameters of the distributions which represent the extremeness of flood events. Random forest mechanism is employed in order to identify the predictor variables (and the associated importance levels) for the shape parameters. Peak flows are also classified in order to find the extremes and the associated return periods. The results indicate that most of the bridge collapse sites across different physiographic regions, i.e., Appalachian Highland, Central Lowland, Coastal Plain, and Interior Highlands, exhibit common characteristics such as (a) variation of important predictor variables, (b) human interference, (c) extremeness of flood events similar to the regions with hydrologic heterogeneity, and (d) frequent occurrence of extreme flows. These results indicate a commonality in flood behavior, as stems from specific settings, for the collapse sites studied. The findings instigate the revisiting of the bridge design practices and guidelines and provide some basis to assess the risk of future collapse. Full article
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20 pages, 4229 KiB  
Article
Importance of Pre-Storm Morphological Factors in Determination of Coastal Highway Vulnerability
by Jorge E. Pesantez, Adam Behr and Elizabeth Sciaudone
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081158 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
This work considers a database of pre-storm morphological factors and documented impacts along a coastal roadway. Impacts from seven storms, including sand overwash and pavement damage, were documented via aerial photography. Pre-storm topography was examined to parameterize the pre-storm morphological factors likely to [...] Read more.
This work considers a database of pre-storm morphological factors and documented impacts along a coastal roadway. Impacts from seven storms, including sand overwash and pavement damage, were documented via aerial photography. Pre-storm topography was examined to parameterize the pre-storm morphological factors likely to control whether stormwater levels and waves impact the road. Two machine learning techniques, K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and ensemble of decision trees (EDT), were employed to identify the most critical pre-storm morphological factors in determining the road vulnerability, expressed as a binary variable to impact storms. Pre-processing analysis was conducted with a correlation analysis of the predictors’ data set and feature selection subroutine for the KNN classifier. The EDTs were built directly from the data set, and feature importance estimates were reported for all storm events. Both classifiers report the distances from roadway edge-of-pavement to the dune toe and ocean as the most important predictors of most storms. For storms approaching from the bayside, the width of the barrier island was the second most important factor. Other factors of importance included elevation of the dune toe, distance from the edge of pavement to the ocean shoreline, shoreline orientation (relative to predominant wave angle), and beach slope. Compared to previously reported optimization techniques, both machine learning methods improved using pre-storm morphological data to classify highway vulnerability based on storm impacts. Full article
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15 pages, 4600 KiB  
Article
Vulnerability Analysis of Structural Systems under Extreme Flood Events
by Fabrizio Greco and Paolo Lonetti
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081121 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Vulnerability analyses of coastal or inland bridges in terms of flood actions and structural and fluid flow characteristics are carried out. In particular, a numerical model based on a two-phase fluid flow is implemented for the multiphase fluid system, whereas a three-dimensional formulation [...] Read more.
Vulnerability analyses of coastal or inland bridges in terms of flood actions and structural and fluid flow characteristics are carried out. In particular, a numerical model based on a two-phase fluid flow is implemented for the multiphase fluid system, whereas a three-dimensional formulation based on shell/volume finite elements is adopted for the structure. The governing equations can simulate the interaction between fluids and the structures, by using the Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) strategy. The results of the hydrodynamic forces, bridge displacements and dynamic amplification factors (DAFs) show that the existing formulas, available in the literature or in structural design codes, do not accurately predict the maximum design effects. For the investigated cases, the DAFs may vary from 1 to 4.5. The worst scenarios are observed for the upload vertical direction. Finally, the performance of the protection fairing system is investigated. The results show that such devices are able to efficiently reduce the effects of the wave load in terms of the applied hydraulic forces on the structure and bridge deformability, in particular, with 40% more accuracy than the unprotected configuration. Full article
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25 pages, 5168 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Lateral Restraining Stiffness on the Box-Girder Superstructure under Unbroken Solitary Waves
by Minglin Chen, Bo Huang, Zhiying Yang, Qingyang Ren and Bing Zhu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081019 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
At present, box-girder superstructures are commonly used in coastal bridges, and their hydrodynamic performance under extreme waves such as tsunamis has attracted a lot of attention. There is a lack of research focusing on the effect of lateral restraining stiffness on box-girder superstructures [...] Read more.
At present, box-girder superstructures are commonly used in coastal bridges, and their hydrodynamic performance under extreme waves such as tsunamis has attracted a lot of attention. There is a lack of research focusing on the effect of lateral restraining stiffness on box-girder superstructures under the extreme wave condition. In this paper, a two-dimensional numerical model based on the RANS equation and SST k-ω turbulence model is established. Combined with the dynamic mesh updating technique, the effect of lateral restraining stiffness on the superstructure of a box-girder and the dynamic characteristics of the movable box-girder under the solitary waves were investigated. To ensure the mesh quality, the numerical computational domain is divided into several regions that correspond to specific types of body motion. The numerical model is verified by comparing it with other numerical simulation results and experimental results. The dynamic characteristics and the wave forces of the box-girder superstructure under the effect of lateral restraining stiffness under the unbroken solitary waves are discussed. The results show that the horizontal and vertical forces on the box-girder superstructure under the action of unbroken solitary waves can be reduced by reducing the lateral restraining stiffness. However, with the decrease in lateral restraining stiffness, the lateral displacement of the box-girder superstructure would increase. Therefore, the lateral restraining stiffness and lateral displacement limit of the box-girder superstructure should be fully considered in practical engineering, and the appropriate lateral restraining stiffness should be selected to reduce the wave forces on the box-girder superstructure under extreme wave action, so as to improve the safety of the coastal box-girder superstructure. It is of great importance to study the interaction between the box-girder superstructure and unbroken solitary waves, which will help to have a deeper understanding to improve the disaster resistance of bridges. Full article
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21 pages, 5103 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Floating Large Woody Debris Impact on a Masonry Arch Bridge
by Eda Majtan, Lee S. Cunningham and Benedict D. Rogers
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070911 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
Masonry arch bridges form an essential part of existing transport infrastructure around the world, including mainland Europe and the northeastern US. Recent extreme flood events highlight that masonry arch bridges spanning watercourses are vulnerable to flood-induced hydrodynamic and debris impact loads. When the [...] Read more.
Masonry arch bridges form an essential part of existing transport infrastructure around the world, including mainland Europe and the northeastern US. Recent extreme flood events highlight that masonry arch bridges spanning watercourses are vulnerable to flood-induced hydrodynamic and debris impact loads. When the flow interacts with the bridge superstructure, with or without discrete floating debris, a complex interaction is observed. This paper presents both experimental and numerical studies to investigate this complex phenomenon, including fluid–structure and structure–structure interactions. A typical single-span masonry arch bridge and large woody debris representing a tree log are investigated. Experimental observations from a scaled hydraulic model, with and without debris in the flow, are first presented for the case where the abutment of the bridge is fully submerged. Next, the capability of the numerical method smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in simulating the hydrodynamic behaviour and debris impact observed in the experiment is discussed. Following this, both hydrodynamic and debris-induced pressure–time histories on the bridge are obtained using the SPH model. Results reveal that the debris impact leads to a significantly more localised load on the bridge compared to the situation with hydrodynamic load only. Full article
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14 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
3D Numerical Modeling and Quantification of Oblique Wave Forces on Coastal Bridge Superstructures
by Lei Jia, Yu Zhang, Deming Zhu and You Dong
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070860 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Simply supported bridges comprise the majority of bridge systems in coastal communities and are susceptible to severe damage from extreme waves induced by storms or tsunamis. However, the effects of oblique wave impacts have been less investigated due to the lack of appropriate [...] Read more.
Simply supported bridges comprise the majority of bridge systems in coastal communities and are susceptible to severe damage from extreme waves induced by storms or tsunamis. However, the effects of oblique wave impacts have been less investigated due to the lack of appropriate numerical models. To address this issue, this study investigates the effects of wave incident angles on coastal bridge superstructures by developing an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Different wave scenarios, including wave height, relative clearance, incident angle, and wavelength are tested. It is found that the maximum wave forces in the horizontal and longitudinal directions could reach 1901 and 862 kN under extreme conditions, respectively, destroying bearing connections. Three surrogate models, i.e., the Gaussian Kriging surrogate model, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and the Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE), are established by correlating the wave parameters with the maximum wave forces. Through comparisons among the three surrogate models, it is found that the 3-order PCE model has better performance in predicting loads in vertical and horizontal directions, while the ANN model is more suitable for results in the longitudinal direction. This study contributes to the optimized design of coastal bridges and also offers an opportunity for future studies to investigate hazard damage-mitigation measures. Full article
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27 pages, 13591 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Breaking Focused Waves and Forces on Coastal Deck Structure with Girders
by Rameeza Moideen and Manasa Ranjan Behera
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060768 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
In the present study, breaking focused wave groups were simulated using open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics model REEF3D in order to investigate the breaking wave impact on scaled (1:10) two-dimensional coastal deck structure with girder. The effect of environmental parameters, such as bottom slope [...] Read more.
In the present study, breaking focused wave groups were simulated using open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics model REEF3D in order to investigate the breaking wave impact on scaled (1:10) two-dimensional coastal deck structure with girder. The effect of environmental parameters, such as bottom slope and wave steepness on the breaking and geometric properties of high-crested spilling breakers, was investigated. The effect of the wave breaking location on the impact forces acting on the deck structure located at different airgap positions was studied for three wave impact scenarios: (i) when the wave breaking starts, (ii) when a slightly overturning crest is formed, and (iii) when the wave breaks and a fully overturning crest is formed just before hitting the preceding trough. The peak horizontal impact force was found to be higher when the wave breaks ahead of the structure and the overturning wave crest hits the deck positioned above the still water level. Additionally, the peak vertical impact force attains the peak when the deck is placed at the still water level for different stages of breaking. The peak horizontal impact force shows a parabolic trend, whereas the peak vertical impact forces show a decreasing linear trend with an increase in airgap. Finally, force coefficients are derived for calculating the peak impact force on deck with girders subjected to high-crested spilling breakers. Full article
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21 pages, 4307 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Barrier Island Highway and Marsh Vulnerability to Bay-Side Flooding and Erosion
by Tori Tomiczek, Elizabeth J. Sciaudone, Liliana Velásquez-Montoya, Elizabeth Smyre, Anna Wargula, Kelly Fawcett and Joshua Torres
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060734 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
Coastal highways along narrow barrier islands are vulnerable to flooding due to ocean and bay-side events, which create hazardous travel conditions and may restrict access to surrounding communities. This study investigates the vulnerability of a segment of highway passing through the Pea Island [...] Read more.
Coastal highways along narrow barrier islands are vulnerable to flooding due to ocean and bay-side events, which create hazardous travel conditions and may restrict access to surrounding communities. This study investigates the vulnerability of a segment of highway passing through the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in the Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Publicly available data, computational modeling, and field observations of shoreline change are synthesized to develop fragility models for roadway flooding and marsh conditions. At 99% significance, peak daily water levels and significant wave heights at nearby monitoring stations are determined as significant predictors of roadway closure due to flooding. Computational investigations of bay-side storms identify peak water levels and the buffer distance between the estuarine shoreline and the roadway as significant predictors of roadway transect flooding. To assess the vulnerability of the marsh in the buffer area, a classification scheme is proposed and used to evaluate marsh conditions due to long-term and episodic (storm) stressors. Marsh vulnerability is found to be predicted by the long-term erosion rate and distance from the shoreline to the 5 m depth contour of the nearby flood tidal channel. The results indicate the importance of erosion mitigation and marsh conservation to enhance the resilience of coastal transportation infrastructure. Full article
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17 pages, 5038 KiB  
Article
Damage Estimation of a Concrete Pier When Exposed to Extreme Flood and Debris Loading
by Maryam Nasim and Sujeeva Setunge
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050710 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
The structural safety and serviceability during extreme weather, such as floods and storms, is critical. Due to global warming in the last decades, the increase in the intensity of natural disasters, i.e., flood loading and the durability of the road structures and infrastructures, [...] Read more.
The structural safety and serviceability during extreme weather, such as floods and storms, is critical. Due to global warming in the last decades, the increase in the intensity of natural disasters, i.e., flood loading and the durability of the road structures and infrastructures, is becoming critical. Bridges and structures lose their capacity because of ageing over time. On the other hand, the load intensity is another reason for the structural damage. Debris loading due to the flooding on bridges is one of the reasons for the increase in flood loading and eventually structural damage. Measuring the level of structural damage under extreme events is vital in determining the vulnerability and resilience of structures during a disaster. A damage index (DI) can be defined as a measurement tool for the levels of structural damage. Oftentimes, damage indices are developed to measure the deterioration of the system under earthquake loading. Little work has been published on damage indices (DIs) under flood loading, where a uniform pressure is applied to a structure. This paper presents a comprehensive review of DIs published in the literature and compares two approaches to assess the system’s damage utilising finite element methodologies. The structure model developed in the ABAQUS software package is used to predict the failure of a concrete component under applied lateral loading. The model is validated using published experimental work. The model is verified, and then it is used to compute the damage indicators using two primary techniques, including a deflection-based method and an energy loss-based approach. Using the two offered DIs, the change in damage levels is displayed underwater flow uniform loading. A comparison of the two methods is conducted. In this paper, differences between the two concepts are analysed and presented. Full article
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18 pages, 6576 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Probability of Different Wave Impact Types on a Vertical Wall with Horizontal Slab by Separation of Quasi-static Wave Impacts
by Jianjun Huang, Guoping Chen and Ryan J. Lowe
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050615 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
When the fundamental natural frequency of marine structures is comparable to the dominant frequency of incident waves, the response of the load on the structure will be amplified. Accurately quantifying how wave loads can be amplified by incident wave conditions must thus be [...] Read more.
When the fundamental natural frequency of marine structures is comparable to the dominant frequency of incident waves, the response of the load on the structure will be amplified. Accurately quantifying how wave loads can be amplified by incident wave conditions must thus be considered in any structural analysis, given how sensitive these characteristics are to different wave impact types. Systematic physical model tests of wave impacts on the simple horizontal plate and the vertical wall with a horizontal overhanging cantilever slab were performed. By first comparing quasi-static wave load estimates along a simple horizontal plate (obtained by low-pass filtering the pressure time series at different cut-off frequencies) with quasi-static uplift pressures from established predictive formulations, a cut-off frequency of 7 Hz was found to accurately separate the quasi-static component from impulsive wave impacts. By applying the low-pass filtering approach with the selected cut-off frequency to the pressure measurements for the vertical wall with a horizontal cantilever slab case, the impulsive and quasi-static peaks were attained, which were then used to quantify the probabilities of individual impulsive, dynamic, and quasi-static wave impacts. Incoming wave conditions and structural clearance had a significant effect on the probabilities of different wave impacts. With the increasing wave height and wave steepness, wave impacts on the horizontal slab and vertical wall were increasingly of the impulsive type and less frequently of the quasi-static type, while the probability of dynamic impact types were relatively stable. As the overhanging slab was shifted from elevated to submerged, the dominant type of wave impact on the structure was variable, ranging from impulsive to dynamic to quasi-static as its elevation was lowered. The results indicated that up to 90% of the impacts were of the impulsive type when the overhanging slab was on or slightly over the still water level. Moreover, the presence of the vertical wall increased the magnitude of wave loads and the occurring frequency of impulsive wave impacts for the horizontal slab. Full article
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16 pages, 4792 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Wave-Induced Forces on a Large Quasi-Elliptical Cylinder during Extreme Events
by Zhiying Yang, Hao Ding, Ke Li, Liang Cheng, Bo Huang and Qingyang Ren
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(4), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10040540 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
Large quasi-elliptical cylinders are extensively used in ocean engineering. To enhance a better understanding of the hydrodynamic wave force on such quasi-elliptical cylinders during extreme events, a series of experiments on extreme wave interaction with a quasi-elliptical cylinder were conducted. A series of [...] Read more.
Large quasi-elliptical cylinders are extensively used in ocean engineering. To enhance a better understanding of the hydrodynamic wave force on such quasi-elliptical cylinders during extreme events, a series of experiments on extreme wave interaction with a quasi-elliptical cylinder were conducted. A series of waves with various wave heights, wave periods, and wave incident directions were tested to investigate the wave parameter effect and wave directionality effect on the wave forces on the quasi-elliptical structure. The experimental results indicate that the extreme wave-induced forces on the quasi-elliptical cylinder are strongly correlated to the wave period and wave incident direction. The peak forces on the quasi-elliptical model do not vary monotonically with the increasing wave period but show an increase followed by a decrease. Both the longitudinal and transversal forces are significantly increased when the wave incident direction changes from 0° to 45° and the wave directionality effect is enhanced when the wave period is decreased. Additionally, the inertial force equation was applied to the wave force estimation for such quasi-elliptical cylinders, and the inertia coefficient CM was fitted based on the experimental results of α = 0°. Full article
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33 pages, 12259 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Extreme Wave Impact on Coastal Decks with Different Geometries via the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method
by Tao Xiang and Denis Istrati
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121342 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 3900
Abstract
Given the documented wave-induced damage of elevated coastal decks during extreme natural hazards (e.g., hurricanes) in the last two decades, it is of utmost significance to decipher the wave-structure-interaction of complex deck geometries and quantify the associated loads. Therefore, this study focuses on [...] Read more.
Given the documented wave-induced damage of elevated coastal decks during extreme natural hazards (e.g., hurricanes) in the last two decades, it is of utmost significance to decipher the wave-structure-interaction of complex deck geometries and quantify the associated loads. Therefore, this study focuses on the assessment of solitary wave impact on open-girder decks that allow the air to escape from the sides. To this end, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) numerical method with a multi-phase compressible formulation is used for the development of three-dimensional hydrodynamic models, which are validated against a large-scale experimental dataset of a coastal deck. Using the validated model as a baseline, a parametric investigation of different deck geometries with a varying number of girders Ng and three different widths, was conducted. The results reveal that the Ng of a superstructure has a complex role and that for small wave heights the horizontal and uplift forces increase with the Ng, while for large waves the opposite happens. If the Ng is small the wave particles accelerate after the initial impact on the offshore girder leading to a more violent slamming on the onshore part of the deck and larger pressures and forces, however, if Ng is large then unsynchronized eddies are formed in each chamber, which dissipate energy and apply out-of-phase pressures that result in multiple but weaker impacts on the deck. The decomposition of the total loads into slamming and quasi-static components, reveals surprisingly consistent trends for all the simulated waves, which facilitates the development of predictive load equations. These new equations, which are a function of Ng and are limited by the ratio of the wavelength to the deck width, provide more accurate predictions than existing empirical methods, and are expected to be useful to both engineers and researchers working towards the development of resilient coastal infrastructure. Full article
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