Marine Policy

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Environmental Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 September 2022) | Viewed by 51013

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Guest Editor
Division of Business and Hospitality Management, College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Interests: cruise ships; ferries; impacts of climate change; shipping education and training; transport history; sustainability issues; resilient supply chain management; health logistics; human remains and regional development
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Guest Editor
Department of Systems Innovation, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
Interests: supply chain management (SCM); value chain management (VCM); logistics systems optimization; graph analysis; big data analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Maritime transport contributes over 80% of global trading volumes. As such, marine policy has received a large amount of attention from industrial practitioners, researchers, policymakers, and the local community. In general, marine policy covers a wide-ranging area, including governance, international relations, economics, environmental, and operations, to name but a few. To a certain extent, marine policy fosters the sustainable development of the maritime industry. There has been a wide range of research in different disciplines of marine policy.

The purpose of the invited Special Issue is to publish the most exciting research with respect to the above subjects and to provide a rapid turn-around time regarding reviewing and publishing, and to disseminate articles freely for research, teaching, and reference purposes. Further, the Special Issue aims to keep readers up to date with the latest developments and research in maritime affairs.

High-quality papers are encouraged, for publication, directly related to various aspects, as mentioned below.

Dr. Yui-yip Lau
Dr. Tomoya Kawasaki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • safety and accident
  • coastal management and shipping
  • marine pollution and environment
  • waste management of marine resources
  • disaster and natural hazards
  • adaptation and resilience of maritime logistics in the post-pandemic world
  • cruise
  • ferry
  • port governance

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Marine Policy
by Yui-yip Lau and Tomoya Kawasaki
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(3), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030467 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 968
Abstract
The volume of international maritime transport is continuously increasing due to worldwide economic growth and the sophistication of the global supply chain [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)

Research

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13 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Shipboard Safety Factors on Quality of Safety Supervision: Croatian Seafarer’s Attitudes
by Darijo Mišković, Renato Ivče, Mirano Hess and Žarko Koboević
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091265 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2168
Abstract
According to the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), 70% of accidents on board were caused by human error, and almost one-fifth of these accidents have been related to inadequate supervision. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate which of the safety [...] Read more.
According to the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), 70% of accidents on board were caused by human error, and almost one-fifth of these accidents have been related to inadequate supervision. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate which of the safety factors can influence the quality of safety supervision. For this purpose, a questionnaire with 24 statements was distributed to professional seafarers. Two exploratory factor analyses were conducted to identify the underlying factor structure. The first analysis yielded one factor, quality of safety supervision, and the second analysis yielded four factors, namely: safety communication, safety training, safety compliance, and safety rules and procedures. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of seafarers’ demographic characteristics and the four identified factors on the quality of safety supervision. The results revealed the following two statistically significant predictors of safety supervision quality: safety communication and safety training. The theoretical and practical implications of the results in terms of improving the quality of safety supervision in the maritime industry were discussed and compared with results in other industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
22 pages, 2072 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Carbon Emission and Carbon Sink Capacity of China’s Marine Fishery under Carbon Neutrality Target
by Zhi Li, Liuyue Zhang, Wenju Wang and Wenwu Ma
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091179 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
Excessive carbon emissions will cause irreversible damage to the human living environment. Therefore, carbon neutrality has become an inevitable choice for sustainable development. Marine fishery is an essential pathway for biological carbon sequestration. However, it is also a source of carbon emissions. From [...] Read more.
Excessive carbon emissions will cause irreversible damage to the human living environment. Therefore, carbon neutrality has become an inevitable choice for sustainable development. Marine fishery is an essential pathway for biological carbon sequestration. However, it is also a source of carbon emissions. From this perspective, an in-depth assessment of the performance of carbon emissions and sinks from marine fisheries is required to achieve the goal of carbon neutrality. This paper measured the carbon emissions, carbon sinks, and net carbon emissions of marine fisheries in nine coastal provinces of China from 2005 to 2020 for the first time. Based on the calculation results, the log-mean decomposition index method was used to analyze the driving factors of net carbon emissions. The results suggested that, from 2005 to 2020, both the carbon emissions and carbon sinks of China’s marine fisheries increased, and the net carbon emissions showed a downward trend. There were variations in the performance of carbon emissions, carbon sinks, and net carbon emissions in different provinces, and only Shandong could consistently achieve carbon neutrality. Fujian and Liaoning achieved carbon neutrality in 2020. In terms of the contribution of each factor, the industrial structure was the main positive driver, and carbon intensity was the main negative driver. Based on the empirical results, this paper suggested increasing the implementation of the carbon tax policy, establishing a farming compensation mechanism and promoting carbon emissions trading and international blue carbon trading. The results could give a reference for the energy conservation and emission reduction of marine fisheries while enhancing the ecological benefits of their carbon sinks and helping to achieve the carbon neutrality target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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16 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Have Non-Native English-Speaking Marine Cadet Engineers Been Educated Appropriately?
by Tae-Youl Jeon, Bu-Gi Kim, Nooree Kim and Young-Chan Lee
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081018 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
Freight transport via ships is the cheapest and most effective way to transfer more than 80% of the global cargo volume. Seafarers have always been multinational, and accordingly, non-English-speaking crew members are becoming an increasing presence on board. Although marine engineers comprise half [...] Read more.
Freight transport via ships is the cheapest and most effective way to transfer more than 80% of the global cargo volume. Seafarers have always been multinational, and accordingly, non-English-speaking crew members are becoming an increasing presence on board. Although marine engineers comprise half of the crews among all seafarers on board ships, Standard English guides, such as SMCP for navigation officers designed to reduce communication barriers, are unavailable for marine engineers. IMO conventions require marine engineers to possess adequate English skills. However, marine accidents due to inappropriate communication between crew members continue to occur. In this paper, 185 marine engineer cadets enrolled in two universities who had completed 12 months of training on a commercial ship or school training ship were surveyed in terms of the adequacy of English courses for marine engineers in class. This paper investigated whether the marine engineer English subjects are reviewed and analyzed and whether the English examination for the Certificate of Competence is suitable for the content taught in international maritime instruments and for the actual work of engineers. Finally, this paper aimed to establish a need to develop Standard English for engineers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
13 pages, 1272 KiB  
Article
Craft Product Export Promotion Competitiveness: The Mediating Effect between Niche Differentiation Strategy and Export Performance
by Saksuriya Traiyarach and Jantima Banjongprasert
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070999 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Export competitiveness is an important factor for national development and economic growth. The craft product market is one of the commodities with high growing value. Thus, many craft product companies are encouraged to export their products to foreign markets. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Export competitiveness is an important factor for national development and economic growth. The craft product market is one of the commodities with high growing value. Thus, many craft product companies are encouraged to export their products to foreign markets. This study aims to examine the strategies and competitiveness of exporting craft products. The sample of 400 respondents who completed the questionnaires represents people working in craft product export companies using marine transport in Thailand. The data analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings show that the niche differentiation strategy of craft products positively relates to export promotion competitiveness. Moreover, a niche differentiation strategy positively affects export performance. The results indicate that export promotion competitiveness partially mediates the relationship between niche differentiation strategy and export performance. This study contributes to the craft product export business using marine transport and helps the companies to improve their competitiveness and export performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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13 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Export Promotion Programs on Export Competitiveness and Export Performance of Craft Products
by Saksuriya Traiyarach and Jantima Banjongprasert
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070892 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2975
Abstract
International trade is defined as economic transactions between countries worldwide. Promoting the export of craft products, which are valued products, is critical for international business as the sales growth increases worldwide. Moreover, the export of craft products has increased international trade and maximized [...] Read more.
International trade is defined as economic transactions between countries worldwide. Promoting the export of craft products, which are valued products, is critical for international business as the sales growth increases worldwide. Moreover, the export of craft products has increased international trade and maximized economic value in the highly competitive global market. Therefore, businesses need to be promoted to increase their competitiveness. This study explores the impact of export promotion programs on export competitiveness and the performance of craft products. A self-administered questionnaire was used to correct the data. There were 400 respondents completing the questionnaires, who were working in craft product export companies using marine transport. The data analysis is conducted by using Structure Equation Modelling (SEM). The findings show that the export promotion program has a significant positive relationship with export competitiveness. A positive relationship between export competitiveness and export performance is also found. The results indicate that export competitiveness fully mediates the relationship between export promotion programs and export performance. The findings from this study contribute to craft product export businesses and provide a practical exporting approach. Marine transport is one of the critical international entry modes many companies use to expand businesses. It should be noted that shipping cost savings are related to export efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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15 pages, 4836 KiB  
Article
Scientific Mapping of Coastal Governance: Global Benchmarks and Trends
by Alejandro Vega-Muñoz, Guido Salazar-Sepúlveda, Nicolás Contreras-Barraza and Lorena Araya-Silva
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060751 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
This research panoramically and empirically reviews the scientific production on coastal governance studies, mapping global networks of countries, organizations, authors, themes, and journals as referents for this topic. The articles were examined through a bibliometric/scientometric approach based on 2043 articles corpus stored in [...] Read more.
This research panoramically and empirically reviews the scientific production on coastal governance studies, mapping global networks of countries, organizations, authors, themes, and journals as referents for this topic. The articles were examined through a bibliometric/scientometric approach based on 2043 articles corpus stored in the Web of Science (JCR), applying the bibliometric laws of Price, Lotka, and Zipf to add further validity to the use of VOSviewer for data and metadata processing. The results highlight an uninterrupted exponential increase in publications since 1991, with a high concentration in 29 countries (21%), 461 organizations (18%), 99 authors (1.45%), and 4 growing journals (1%). The emerging topics observed in the literature are related to coastal sustainability and coastal management. Complementing previous studies on coastal zone management and marine territorial planning, we add coastal systems governance as a topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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17 pages, 2070 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Navigation Safety for Ferries
by Wen-Kai K. Hsu, Jun-Wen Chen, Nguyen Tan Huynh and Yan-You Lin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050700 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2762
Abstract
This study aims to discuss a risk assessment of navigation safety for ferries. In this research, the risk factors (RFs) for the navigation safety of ferries are first investigated from relevant literature and ferry operational features. A fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchical Process) approach [...] Read more.
This study aims to discuss a risk assessment of navigation safety for ferries. In this research, the risk factors (RFs) for the navigation safety of ferries are first investigated from relevant literature and ferry operational features. A fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchical Process) approach is then proposed to weight those RFs, after which a continuous risk-matrix model is then developed to determine the RFs’ risk levels. Finally, to validate the practical application of the proposed model, ferries traveling across the Taiwan Strait were empirically investigated. The results may provide practical information for ferry operators to improve their safety performances. Further, the proposed risk assessment approach may provide references for related research in the safety management of short-distance passenger ships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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19 pages, 1943 KiB  
Article
Strategic Crisis Response of Shipping Industry in the Post COVID-19 Era: A Case of the Top 10 Shipping Lines
by Zhikuan Sun and Yan Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050635 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5711
Abstract
Shipping has played a pivotal role during the epidemic, ensuring that the global logistics functions without disruption. COVID-19 hit various industries around the world, and shipping was no exception. How the shipping industry responds to the crisis and simultaneously shoulders its respective responsibility [...] Read more.
Shipping has played a pivotal role during the epidemic, ensuring that the global logistics functions without disruption. COVID-19 hit various industries around the world, and shipping was no exception. How the shipping industry responds to the crisis and simultaneously shoulders its respective responsibility in the world’s battling the crisis is thus worth exploring in depth. This study takes the top 10 global container shipping capacity liners, which account for 84.7% of the worldwide capacity, as research objects. A corpus for text analysis was constructed collecting press releases and advisories issued on official websites of these 10 container shipping companies from January 2020 to July 2021. Comparison studies were made horizontally among ten shipping companies and longitudinally for crisis evolution patterns into three sub-corpora of Pre/early-Crisis, Crisis-in-Progression, and Post-COVID-19-Era. Quantitative findings were explored and elaborated further under a comprehensive theoretical framework integrating crisis management and communication, corporate social responsibility (CSR), and maritime management (MM). The extracted positive and negative keywords revealed textual characteristics and emergency response strategies on the part of shipping lines in the Pre/early-Crisis, Crisis-in-Progression, and Post-COVID-19-Era. The inclusion of the themes of pursuing sustainability in the shipping lines’ responses to such worldwide crisis as COVID-19 is out of the common knowledge of crisis management but reveals the commitment and strategies on the part of the industry. The findings provide a reasonably comprehensive picture of the efforts made by large container shipping companies to respond to COVID-19 and the measures taken to soothe stakeholders. This paper extends and relearns crisis management, CSR, and MM theories through integrating the fulfilling of cooperate social responsibilities in maritime management as the cooperate crisis responses, thus proposing the integrity of the three topics. Moreover, management recommendations are provided for shipping company management, IMO, and port authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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14 pages, 1293 KiB  
Article
Resilience Analysis of Maritime Silk Road Shipping Network Structure under Disruption Simulation
by Yanbin Yang and Wei Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050617 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3291
Abstract
As an important hub in the maritime transportation system, ports are vulnerable to events such as terrorist attacks, security accidents and bad weather. The failure of port nodes to function effectively affects the connectivity and efficiency of the shipping network and impedes trade [...] Read more.
As an important hub in the maritime transportation system, ports are vulnerable to events such as terrorist attacks, security accidents and bad weather. The failure of port nodes to function effectively affects the connectivity and efficiency of the shipping network and impedes trade between countries. In view of this, in this paper, we constructed the Maritime Silk Road shipping network based on route data and used transmissibility and diversity to represent the resilience of the network and nodes. Then, we analyzed the variation characteristics of resilience using disruption simulation and identified 9 dominant nodes and 15 vulnerable nodes that could help to accurately determine the factors that affect the resilience of the MSR shipping network structure. The results show that the Maritime Silk Road shipping network structure is vulnerable, and the failure of ports to function has different effects on network transmissibility and diversity. In terms of node transmissibility and diversity, there are differences in the resistance of port nodes to interventions. In addition, the failure of dominant ports to function and the emergence of vulnerable ports are significant factors that weaken the resilience of the network structure. When dominant ports are interrupted, this greatly affects the resilience of the network structure. It is necessary to reduce the possibilities of the failure of dominant ports. Vulnerable ports are weaknesses in the resilience of the network structure, which weaken the ability of the network to function. The centrality of these ports should be strengthened, and their relation to regional and trans-regional links should be enriched. The research results provide a scientific basis for ensuring the structural resilience of the Maritime Silk Road shipping network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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20 pages, 8806 KiB  
Article
Global Maritime Container Shipping Networks 1969–1981: Emergence of Container Shipping and Reopening of the Suez Canal
by Tomohiro Saito, Ryuichi Shibasaki, Shinsuke Murakami, Kenmei Tsubota and Takuma Matsuda
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050602 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
This study applied graph theory to conduct an empirical analysis of the evolution of global maritime container shipping networks, mainly focusing on the 1970s. In addition to analyzing the change in overall structures of the networks over the long term (from the 1970s [...] Read more.
This study applied graph theory to conduct an empirical analysis of the evolution of global maritime container shipping networks, mainly focusing on the 1970s. In addition to analyzing the change in overall structures of the networks over the long term (from the 1970s to the present) and midterm (in the 1970s), the authors examined the changes in the container shipping networks before and after the reopening of the Suez Canal in 1975. As a result, it was confirmed that the initial single polar network structure, in which New York and other North American ports were placed at the center, changed to a multipolar structure, finally forming a hub-and-spoke structure. Subsequently, the authors confirmed discontinuous changes in inter-regional density from 1975 to 1976 caused by an increase in the average number of ports of call in 1976, because the recession caused by the first oil crisis in 1973 decreased the maritime container shipping demand, and the reopening of the Suez Canal caused a surplus of containerships. This study would contribute to accumulating empirical knowledge on the vulnerability analysis of the present and future maritime container shipping networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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18 pages, 1249 KiB  
Article
Vessel Deployment and De-Hubbing in Maritime Networks: A Case Study on Colombo Port and Its Feeder Market
by Tomoya Kawasaki, Hoshi Tagawa and Chathumi Ayanthi Kavirathna
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10030304 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3059
Abstract
Generally, vessels are deployed as hub-and-spoke networks to achieve high slot utilization and cost efficiency for shipping lines in global maritime container shipping networks. At the Port of Colombo, most transhipment containers originate from and are destined for Indian ports, the export/import container [...] Read more.
Generally, vessels are deployed as hub-and-spoke networks to achieve high slot utilization and cost efficiency for shipping lines in global maritime container shipping networks. At the Port of Colombo, most transhipment containers originate from and are destined for Indian ports, the export/import container volume of which has been rapidly increasing, and Indian ports have been developed to accommodate vessel enlargement. In such circumstances, the partial or complete abandonment of a hub (Colombo port) in this region is expected, which is known as “de-hubbing.” This study aims to clarify the impact of port developments and an increase in container cargo demand from the source country on maritime network selection from the perspective of shipping lines. We develop a mixed integer linear programming model to describe vessel deployment, including transhipment via the Colombo port and direct shipment in Indian ports. As a result of the analysis, the number of direct services to Indian ports is expected to increase when the cargo demand of Indian ports increases and the port development of Indian ports is conducted. The progress of the de-hubbing phenomenon decreases vessel size at Colombo port because the container demand at Indian ports is mostly satisfied by newly deployed trunk lines to Indian ports. This study suggests that if Colombo port expects to maintain its hub status, it is critical to consider various other incentives to attract and retain mainline carriers in addition to expanding its port infrastructure. Similarly, if India expects to receive direct calls from mainlines, it is important not only to develop their port infrastructure but also to increase their cargo demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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11 pages, 542 KiB  
Article
Chinese Cruisers’ Preference, Travel Constraints, and Behavioural Intention: Experience from the Arctic Cruise Market
by Yui-Yip Lau, Xiaodong Sun, Wenli Yang and Maneerat Kanrak
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10020156 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2712
Abstract
Global climate change accelerates ice melting in the Arctic region, making Arctic shipping possible and revealing a new door to develop cruise tourism. The rapid expansion of cruise tourism into the Arctic region has posed substantial implications for the cruise industry, including opportunities [...] Read more.
Global climate change accelerates ice melting in the Arctic region, making Arctic shipping possible and revealing a new door to develop cruise tourism. The rapid expansion of cruise tourism into the Arctic region has posed substantial implications for the cruise industry, including opportunities and challenges. This study investigates the Chinese cruise industry and the encounters and obstacles that have unfolded in the Arctic cruise market. The study also explores the Chinese cruisers’ travel constraints, preferences, and behavioral intention to the Arctic region. The implications of the findings are drawn to develop the entire Arctic cruise market. This study also provides invaluable insight into the cruise industry’s adaptation strategies and practices and relevant supporting business sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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11 pages, 393 KiB  
Article
Developing Countries’ Concerns Regarding Blockchain Adoption in Maritime
by Nexhat Kapidani, Sanja Bauk and Innocent E. A. Davidson
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121326 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
This paper deals with challenges of implementing blockchain (BC) technology in maritime at developing countries, with a research focus on Montenegro and South Africa. Research design and categories analyzed in the paper are chosen due to the search of relevant secondary literature resources. [...] Read more.
This paper deals with challenges of implementing blockchain (BC) technology in maritime at developing countries, with a research focus on Montenegro and South Africa. Research design and categories analyzed in the paper are chosen due to the search of relevant secondary literature resources. Selected experts in Information Technology (IT) and maritime from aforementioned developing countries were asked about their perception of BC as disruptive technology, its implementation, and implications on maritime and other industries, through a questionnaire, which contains both quantitative and qualitative parts. The results should give the readers insights into the experts’ standpoints concerning rational blockchain adoption in maritime and other industries in developing and transitional economies. The paper is organized into six sections: (1) introduction, (2) literature review on blockchain in maritime, (3) research problem and design, (4) results, (5) discussion, and (6) conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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17 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
The Coevolutionary Process of Maritime Management of Shipping Industry in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Yan Zhang and Zhikuan Sun
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111293 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3109
Abstract
This study investigates how international organizations, International Maritime Organization (IMO) member states, and associate members have embarked on maritime management (MM) measures to address dire situations in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It explores the evolution of MM practices from international organizations, [...] Read more.
This study investigates how international organizations, International Maritime Organization (IMO) member states, and associate members have embarked on maritime management (MM) measures to address dire situations in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It explores the evolution of MM practices from international organizations, IMO member states, and associate members to ensure the resilience and sustainability of the shipping industry. Corpus linguistics was employed as a computer-assisted method to assess a large number of naturally occurring texts. Circular letters from international organizations and member states listed on the IMO website from January 2020 to July 2021 were curated and built into three corpora. Through corpus linguistic analysis of circulars from three different crisis phases (Pre-/early-crisis, Crisis in progress, Post-COVID-19 crisis phase), we discovered an MM progression mechanism developed between stakeholders in conjunction with the post-crisis period. The study presented the “MM-as-process” vision to emphasize the time-varying dynamic nature of MM development during the disruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

42 pages, 4208 KiB  
Review
Uncertainties in Liner Shipping and Ship Schedule Recovery: A State-of-the-Art Review
by Zeinab Elmi, Prashant Singh, Vamshi Krishna Meriga, Krzysztof Goniewicz, Marta Borowska-Stefańska, Szymon Wiśniewski and Maxim A. Dulebenets
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050563 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 4882
Abstract
Each shipping line is expected to establish a reliable operating model, and the design of ship schedules is a key operational consideration. Long-term profits for shipping lines can be expected from a well-designed ship schedule. In today’s liner service design, managing the time [...] Read more.
Each shipping line is expected to establish a reliable operating model, and the design of ship schedules is a key operational consideration. Long-term profits for shipping lines can be expected from a well-designed ship schedule. In today’s liner service design, managing the time factor is critical. Shipping schedules are prone to different unexpected disruptions. Such disruptions would necessitate a near-real-time analysis of port capacity and re-design of the original ship schedule to offset the negative externalities. Ship schedule recovery strategies should be implemented to mitigate the effects caused by disruptions at ports or at sea, which may include, but are not limited to, ship sailing speed adjustment, handling rate adjustment at ports, port skipping, and port skipping with container diversion. A proper selection of ship schedule recovery strategies is expected to minimize deviations from the original ship schedule and reduce delays in the delivery of cargoes to the destination ports. This article offers a thorough review of the current liner shipping research primarily focusing on two major themes: (1) uncertainties in liner shipping operations; and (2) ship schedule recovery in response to disruptive events. On the basis of a detailed review of the available literature, the obtained results are carefully investigated, and limitations in the current state-of-the-art are determined for every group of studies. Furthermore, representative mathematical models are provided that could be further used in future research efforts dealing with uncertainties in liner shipping and ship schedule recovery. Last but not least, a few prospective research avenues are suggested for further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Policy)
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