Special Issue "Research on Submarine Hydrothermal Activity and Its Material Circulation, Magmatic Setting, and Seawater, Sedimentary, Biologic Effects"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Geological Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 11516

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Zhigang Zeng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity Laboratory of the Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China
Interests: submarine hydrothermal activity; hydrothermal sulfide and sulfate; hydrothermal plume; metalliferous sediment; rock-fluid interaction; mineralization; biologic record of hydrothermal process
Dr. Yuxiang Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China
Interests: magmatic process; magmatic contributions to hydrothermal system; subduction zone process
Dr. Zuxing Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity Laboratory of the Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China
Interests: magmatic volatile; magmatic sulfide; magma duration; magma evolution

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Submarine hydrothermal activities distribute in the mid-ocean ridge, back-arc basin, island-arc, and hot spot region, which forms hydrothermal sulfide deposit, metalliferous sediment, and hydrothermal system (including seawater, rock, magma, sediment, hydrothermal fluid, sulfide, sulfate, hydrothermal plume, and organisms, etc.), contributing heat and mass to seawater environments. Seafloor hydrothermal activity has been a research hotspot in multiple disciplines for the past few decades. Recent improvements in technology have greatly promoted the development of research on the topic. Hydrothermal sulfide deposits with vent fluids, hydrothermal plumes, metalliferous sediments, biological species, and volcanic rocks provide new windows for understanding subseafloor fluid and magmatic processes, as well as the impact of seafloor hydrothermal activities on seawater, sediment, and ecological environments. However, there are still questions surrounding about the heat and mass flux of global hydrothermal activity, the effect of hydrothermal activity on the seawater, sediment and ecologic environment, the hydrothermal ore-forming condition and process, and the controls of tectonic and magmatism on hydrothermal activity.

The aim of this Special Issue is to advance the understanding of the latest research progress of seafloor hydrothermal activity and its material circulation, magmatic setting, and seawater, sedimentary, and biologic effects. We welcome original research papers relevant to seafloor hydrothermal activity, which will contribute to the understanding of the submarine hydrothermal geologic processes, hydrothermal mineralization, rock–fluid interaction, seawater-fluid mixing, the effect of hydrothermal fluid on seawater, sediment, and ecologic environment, the heat and mass flux of hydrothermal activity, and the control mechanism of tectonics and magmatism on hydrothermal activity. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Submarine hydrothermal geology;
  • Hydrothermal ore-forming condition and process;
  • Tectonic and magmatic controls on hydrothermal activity;
  • Effect of hydrothermal activity on seawater, sediment, rock, ecologic environment;
  • Heat and mass flux of hydrothermal system;
  • Technology for using to research on seafloor hydrothermal activity.

Prof. Dr. Zhigang Zeng
Dr. Yuxiang Zhang
Dr. Zuxing Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Magmatism
  • Tectonics
  • Vent fluid
  • Hydrothermal sulfide and sulfate
  • Hydrothermal mineralization
  • Metalliferous sediment
  • Hydrothermal plume
  • Vent organism
  • Technology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Geochemical Features and Genesis of Ferromanganese Deposits from Caiwei Guyot, Northwestern Pacific Ocean
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091275 - 09 Sep 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
The ferromanganese deposit is a type of marine mineral resource rich in Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. Its growth process is generally multi-stage, and the guyot environment and seawater geochemical characteristics have a great impact on the growth process. Here, we use [...] Read more.
The ferromanganese deposit is a type of marine mineral resource rich in Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. Its growth process is generally multi-stage, and the guyot environment and seawater geochemical characteristics have a great impact on the growth process. Here, we use a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to test and analyze the texture morphology, microstructure, mineralogical features, geochemical features of ferromanganese crusts deposits at different distribution locations on Caiwei Guyot. The ferromanganese deposits of Caiwei Guyot are ferromanganese nodules on the slope and board ferromanganese crusts on the mountaintop edge, which are both of hydrgenetic origin. Hydrgenetic origin reflects that the metal source is oxic seawater. Global palaeo-ocean events control the geochemistry compositions and growth process of ferromanganese crusts and the nodule. Ferromanganese crusts that formed from the late Cretaceous on the mountaintop edge have a rough surface with black botryoidal shapes, showing an environment with strong hydrodynamic conditions, while the ferromanganese nodule that formed from the Miocene on the slope has an oolitic surface as a result of water depth. What is more, nanoscale or micron-scale diagenesis may occur during the growth process, affecting microstructure, mineralogical and geochemical features. Full article
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Article
Strontium, Hydrogen and Oxygen Behavior in Vent Fluids and Plumes from the Kueishantao Hydrothermal Field Offshore Northeast Taiwan: Constrained by Fluid Processes
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070845 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
Strontium (Sr), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) in vent fluids are important for understanding the water–rock interaction and hydrothermal flux in hydrothermal systems. We have analyzed the Sr, H and O isotopic compositions of seawater, vent fluid and hydrothermal plume samples in the [...] Read more.
Strontium (Sr), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) in vent fluids are important for understanding the water–rock interaction and hydrothermal flux in hydrothermal systems. We have analyzed the Sr, H and O isotopic compositions of seawater, vent fluid and hydrothermal plume samples in the Kueishantao hydrothermal field, as well as their calcium (Ca), total sulfur (S), Sr, arsenic (As), stibium (Sb), chlorine (Cl) and manganese (Mn) concentrations for understanding the origin and processes of fluids. The results suggest that most As, Sb and Mn are leached from andesitic rocks into the fluids, and most Ca and Cl remained in the deep reaction zone during the fluid–andesitic rock interaction. The ranges of 87Sr/86Sr, δDV-SMOW and δ18OV-SMOW values in the yellow spring, white spring and plumes are small. The 87Sr/86Sr, δDV-SMOW and δ18OV-SMOW values of fluids and plumes are like those of ambient seawater, indicating that the Sr, H and O of vent fluids and hydrothermal plumes are derived primarily from seawater. This suggests that the interaction of andesite and subseafloor fluid is of short duration and results in the majority of As, Sb and Mn being released into fluids, while most Ca and Cl remained in the deep reaction zone. In addition, there was no significant variation of Sr, H and O isotopic compositions in the upwelling fluid, keeping the similar isotopic compositions of seawater. There are obvious correlations among the pH values, As and Sb concentrations, and H isotopic compositions of the vent fluids and hydrothermal plumes, implying that the As and Sb concentrations and H isotopic compositions can trace the dispersion of plumes in the ambient seawater. According to the Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr values, the water/rock ratios are 3076~8124, which is consistent with the idea that the interaction between fluid and andesite at the subseafloor is of short duration. The hydrothermal flux of Sr discharged from the yellow spring into the seawater is between 2.06 × 104 and 2.26 × 104 mol/yr, and the white spring discharges 1.18 × 104~1.26 × 104 mol/yr Sr if just andesites appear in the reaction zone. Full article
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Article
Volatile Characteristics of Apatite in Dacite from the Eastern Manus Basin and Their Geological Implications
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050698 - 20 May 2022
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Abstract
As one of the youngest back-arc basins, the evolutionary behavior of magmatic volatiles in the Eastern Manus Basin has been poorly studied. Recently, apatite has received widespread attention for its powerful function in recording information on magmatic volatiles. In this paper, by determining [...] Read more.
As one of the youngest back-arc basins, the evolutionary behavior of magmatic volatiles in the Eastern Manus Basin has been poorly studied. Recently, apatite has received widespread attention for its powerful function in recording information on magmatic volatiles. In this paper, by determining the major element compositions and primary volatile abundances (F, Cl, SO3) of apatites in dacite, we analyze the compositions of volatiles before magma eruption in the Eastern Manus Basin, as well as their indications for magmatic oxygen fugacity and petrogenesis, so as to improve the study about the evolution of magmatic volatiles in this region. Experimental data indicate that apatite saturation temperatures range from 935 to 952 °C. All the apatites are magmatic apatites with F contents of 0.87−1.39 wt.%, Cl contents of 1.24−1.70 wt.%, and SO3 ≤ 0.06 wt.%. Analysis reveals that the apatites in this study crystallized from volatile-undersaturated melts, so their chemical compositions can be used as indicators of magmatic compositions. According to calculations, the minimum S concentrations of the host melts range from 2−65 ppm or 8−11 ppm. The crystallization and separation of magnetite caused the reduction state of melts, and the relatively low oxygen fugacity (ΔFMQ = −0.2 ± 0.9) caused low SO3 contents in apatites. In addition, F and Cl contents of the host melt were calculated to be 185−448 ppm and 1059−1588 ppm, corresponding to the H2O contents of 1.4−2.1% and 1.2−1.5% (error ± 30−40%), respectively. The high Cl/F ratio and H2O contents of samples indicate the addition of slab-derived fluids in the mantle source region of the Eastern Manus Basin. High F contents of the melts may be influenced by F-rich sediments, as well as the release of F from lawsonite and phengite decomposition. High Cl appears to originate from the dual influence of subduction-released fluids and Cl-rich seawater-derived components. Further, it is estimated that 14−21% of the total Cl concentrations in melts were added directly from subduction-released fluids, or higher. Full article
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Article
Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Sulfide Minerals from the Noho Hydrothermal Field in the Okinawa Trough
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050678 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Studies of the element contents and isotopic characteristics of sulfide minerals from seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits are a significant method of investigating seawater-fluid mixing and fluid-rock and/or sediment interactions in hydrothermal systems. The seafloor hydrothermal sulfide ores from the Noho hydrothermal field (NHF) [...] Read more.
Studies of the element contents and isotopic characteristics of sulfide minerals from seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits are a significant method of investigating seawater-fluid mixing and fluid-rock and/or sediment interactions in hydrothermal systems. The seafloor hydrothermal sulfide ores from the Noho hydrothermal field (NHF) in the Okinawa Trough (OT) consist of pyrrhotite, isocubanite, sphalerite, galena, and amorphous silica. The Rh, Ag, Sb, and Tl contents mostly increase in galena as the fluid temperature decreases in the late ore-forming stage. In the sulfide minerals, the rare earth elements are mainly derived from the hydrothermal fluids, while the volcanic rocks and/or sediments are the sources of the sulfur and lead in the sulfide minerals. After the precipitation of galena, the redox state becomes oxidizing, and the pH value of the fluid increases, which is accompanied by the formation of amorphous silica. Finally, neither pyrite nor marcasite has been observed in association with pyrrhotite in the NHF sulfides, likely indicating that the amount of sulfur was limited in this hydrothermal system, and most of the residual Fe was incorporated into the sphalerite. This suggests that the later pyrite and/or marcasite precipitation in the seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposit is controlled by the sulfur content of the fluid. Furthermore, it is possible to use hydrothermal sulfides and their inclusions to trace subseafloor fluid circulation processes. Full article
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Article
Detrital Zircon Provenance in the Sediments in the Southern Okinawa Trough
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10020142 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
The provenance of sediments in the Southern Okinawa Trough since the late Holocene has been a controversial scientific issue during the past 20 years. Previous studies based on isotope proxies generally indicated Taiwanese rivers as the primary source in the Southern Okinawa Trough [...] Read more.
The provenance of sediments in the Southern Okinawa Trough since the late Holocene has been a controversial scientific issue during the past 20 years. Previous studies based on isotope proxies generally indicated Taiwanese rivers as the primary source in the Southern Okinawa Trough since the late Holocene. Based on the zircon U-Pb geochronology, this study identified how sediments from the Yangtze River/East China Sea shelf had contributed significantly to the Southern Okinawa Trough in the past 624 a BP. Notably, this study found two Paleoarchean zircon grains, which indicated they originated from older orogenic belts. These data shed new light on the provenance of sediments, and a partial supply from the mainland of China cannot be excluded. Full article
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Article
Simultaneous Determination of Fluorine and Chlorine in Marine and Stream Sediment by Ion Chromatography Combined with Alkaline Digestion in a Bomb
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10010093 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Fluorine and chlorine are important tracers for geochemical and environmental studies. In this study, a rapid alkaline digestion (NaOH) method for the simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine in marine and stream sediment reference samples using ion chromatography is developed. The proposed method [...] Read more.
Fluorine and chlorine are important tracers for geochemical and environmental studies. In this study, a rapid alkaline digestion (NaOH) method for the simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine in marine and stream sediment reference samples using ion chromatography is developed. The proposed method suppresses the volatilization loss of fluorine and chlorine and decreases the matrix effects. The results are in good agreement with fluorine ~100%, chlorine ranging from 90 to 95% of the expected concentrations. The detection limits of this method were 0.05 μg/g for fluorine and 0.10 μg/g for chlorine. This method is simple, economical, precise and accurate, which shows great potential for the rapid simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine in large batches of geological and environmental samples commonly analyzed for environmental geochemistry studies. Full article
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Article
Lithium, Oxygen and Magnesium Isotope Systematics of Volcanic Rocks in the Okinawa Trough: Implications for Plate Subduction Studies
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10010040 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3277
Abstract
Determining the influence of subduction input on back-arc basin magmatism is important for understanding material transfer and circulation in subduction zones. Although the mantle source of Okinawa Trough (OT) magmas is widely accepted to be modified by subducted components, the role of slab-derived [...] Read more.
Determining the influence of subduction input on back-arc basin magmatism is important for understanding material transfer and circulation in subduction zones. Although the mantle source of Okinawa Trough (OT) magmas is widely accepted to be modified by subducted components, the role of slab-derived fluids is poorly defined. Here, major element, trace element, and Li, O and Mg isotopic compositions of volcanic lavas from the middle OT (MOT) and southern OT (SOT) were analyzed. Compared with the MOT volcanic lavas, the T9-1 basaltic andesite from the SOT exhibited positive Pb anomalies, significantly lower Nd/Pb and Ce/Pb ratios, and higher Ba/La ratios, indicating that subducted sedimentary components affected SOT magma compositions. The δ7Li, δ18O, and δ26Mg values of the SOT basaltic andesite (−5.05‰ to 4.98‰, 4.83‰ to 5.80‰ and −0.16‰ to −0.09‰, respectively) differed from those of MOT volcanic lavas. Hence, the effect of the Philippine Sea Plate subduction component, (low δ7Li and δ18O and high δ26Mg) on magmas in the SOT was clearer than that in the MOT. This contrast likely appears because the amounts of fluids and/or melts derived from altered oceanic crust (AOC, lower δ18O) and/or subducted sediment (lower δ7Li, higher δ18O and δ26Mg) injected into magmas in the SOT are larger than those in the MOT and because the injection ratio between subducted AOC and sediment is always >1 in the OT. The distance between the subducting slab and overlying magma may play a significant role in controlling the differences in subduction components injected into magmas between the MOT and SOT. Full article
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Article
Two Processes of Anglesite Formation and a Model of Secondary Supergene Enrichment of Bi and Ag in Seafloor Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10010035 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
The in situ element concentrations and the sulfur (S), and lead (Pb) isotopic compositions in anglesite were investigated for samples from seafloor hydrothermal fields in the Okinawa Trough (OT), Western Pacific. The anglesite grains are of two kinds: (1) low Pb/high S primary [...] Read more.
The in situ element concentrations and the sulfur (S), and lead (Pb) isotopic compositions in anglesite were investigated for samples from seafloor hydrothermal fields in the Okinawa Trough (OT), Western Pacific. The anglesite grains are of two kinds: (1) low Pb/high S primary hydrothermal anglesite (PHA), which is formed by mixing of fluid and seawater, and (2) high Pb/low S secondary supergene anglesite (SSA), which is the product of low-temperature (<100 °C) alteration of galena in the seawater environment. The Ag and Bi in the SSA go through a second enrichment process during the formation of high Pb/low S anglesite by galena alteration, indicating that the SSA and galena, which may be the major minerals host for considerable quantities of Ag and Bi, are potentially Ag-Bi-enriched in the back-arc hydrothermal field. Moreover, REEs, S and Pb in the OT anglesite are likely to have been leached by fluids from local sub-seafloor volcanic rocks and/or sediments. A knowledge of the anglesite is useful for understanding the influence of volcanic rocks, sediments and altered subducted oceanic plate in hydrothermal systems, showing how trace metals behave during the formation of secondary minerals. Full article
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A Novel Device for the In Situ Enrichment of Gold from Submarine Venting Fluids
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060724 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Gold and other metals (Cu, Zn, Ag, etc.) are enriched in vent fluids, approximately 3–5 orders of magnitude higher than those in seawater, and this leads to the formation of sulfide enrichment in Cu, Zn, Au, and Ag deposited on the mid-ocean ridge [...] Read more.
Gold and other metals (Cu, Zn, Ag, etc.) are enriched in vent fluids, approximately 3–5 orders of magnitude higher than those in seawater, and this leads to the formation of sulfide enrichment in Cu, Zn, Au, and Ag deposited on the mid-ocean ridge and island arcs, as well as in back-arc basins. We developed a device that can extract the elements such as Cu, Zn, Au, and Ag from the vent fluids before the formation of the hydrothermal plume, sulfide deposit, and metalliferous sediment at the seafloor over a long period, which is beneficial to collecting hydrothermal resources effectively and avoiding the damage of ecological environments caused by mining the polymetallic sulfide resources. The application of this device will have significance for the development and utilization of seafloor hydrothermal resources, the sustainable development and implementation of the blue economy, and the construction of the marine ecological civilization in the future. Full article
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