Special Issue "Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Geological Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2022) | Viewed by 23427

Special Issue Editors

Dr. George Kontakiotis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Science, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, Department of Historical Geology-Paleontology, Athens, Greece
Interests: marine geology; climate changes; paleoceanography; geochemistry; petroleum geology; basin analysis; sapropels; coastal and open marine systems; environmental reconstruction; marine sediment dynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Assimina Antonarakou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Science, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, Department of Historical Geology Paleontology, Athens, Greece
Interests: paleoclimatology; paleoceanographic proxies; micropaleontology; integrated stratigraphy; marine geology; ocean dynamics; sea-level changes; marginal seas; astronomical frequencies in paleoclimates; extreme geological events
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Dmitry A. Ruban
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Southern Federal University, 344019 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Interests: stratigraphy; paleontology; tectonics; management of natural and mineral resources; geoconservation; geotourism; ecological law and climate change policy at local, national, and international levels
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geological oceanography has remained an important direction of international research, and the related investigations have significantly extended our understanding of the marginal seas and open oceans. On the one hand, these investigations add a geological time dimension to oceanography. On the other hand, they facilitate tracing the links between water objects and solid Earth, its dynamics, and life evolution. The scope of this Special issue includes (but is not limited to): marine geology, palaeoceanographic reconstructions and modeling, living and ancient marine organisms of all groups and ages, tectonic evolution of marine settings, marine geophysics and geochemistry, deep sea sediments, coastal processes, ocean dynamics, and marine resources (ores, hydrocarbons, and geoheritage). Topics such as stratigraphical correlations, geological hazards, and human influence as a geological force (if linked to marine environments) also fit the scope of this Special Issue. The freshest, most methodologically innovative and internationally appealing contributions are welcomed. These can be both global and regional in scope, and these can deal with all time periods—from the Archean to the Quaternary. It is expected that these research and review papers will mark the recent advances in the geological oceanography and indicate new ideas, problems, and ways of investigation.

This will be a dynamic Special Issue, and articles will be published as soon as the Reviewers and Editors are ready to accept them, without waiting for the deadline for the entire Special Issue to arrive.

Dr. George Kontakiotis
Prof. Dr. Assimina Antonarakou
Dr. Dmitry A. Ruban
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Marine Geology
  • Paleoceanography
  • Paleontology
  • Marine Sedimentary Basins
  • Oceanic Floor
  • Tectonics
  • Seismic Stratigraphy
  • Marine Geophysics
  • Marine Geochemistry
  • Coastal Zone
  • Offshore Hydrocarbons
  • Marine Geoheritage

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Published Papers (22 papers)

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Article
Seasonal Variability in Present-Day Coccolithophore Fluxes in Deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A Multi-Year Study (2015–2017) of Coccolithophore Export in SE Ionian Sea at 4300 m Depth
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111761 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 422
Abstract
This study is the first attempt to understand the coccolith flux and its seasonal variability at the deepest part of the Mediterranean Sea. Samples were obtained from the deepest Mediterranean time-series sediment trap (4300 m) moored in the SE Ionian Sea (Nestor site) [...] Read more.
This study is the first attempt to understand the coccolith flux and its seasonal variability at the deepest part of the Mediterranean Sea. Samples were obtained from the deepest Mediterranean time-series sediment trap (4300 m) moored in the SE Ionian Sea (Nestor site) from January 2015 to November 2017. Throughout the study period, the coccolith fluxes displayed a seasonality signal with high values during the late winter–early spring convective mixing period (February to April) and low flux values during summer except for some solitary peaks in June. The maximum coccolith flux was observed in March 2015 while the minimum value was recorded in November 2017. Among the nineteen identified species of heterococcoliths, the dominant species in all the samples was Emiliania huxleyi reaching up to 79%, followed by Florisphaera profunda that comprised up to 33% of the total coccolith count. For the annual cycle of 2015, the average coccolith flux for the Nestor Site at a relatively shallower depth (2000 m) was comparable and for some time intervals was lower than the coccolith flux recorded in the present study at 4300 m, while coccolith flux peaks appeared simultaneously in both traps indicating a fast sinking rate. The higher E. huxleyi, F. profunda, Gladiolithus flabellatus, and Calciosolenia brasiliensis coccolith flux at 4300 m compared with their corresponding fluxes at 2000 m can be attributed to lateral advection, resuspension, and/or the influence of Eastern Mediterranean Deep Waters (EMDWs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
New Model of Coastal Evolution in the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain) from MIS2 to Present Day Based on the Aeolian Sedimentary Record
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101350 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Galician Rias are fluvial valleys that were flooded during the last marine transgression in the Atlantic margin. The study of fossil dunes in the Cies Islands, a small archipelago in the mouth of the one of the rias (Ria de Vigo), allowed us [...] Read more.
Galician Rias are fluvial valleys that were flooded during the last marine transgression in the Atlantic margin. The study of fossil dunes in the Cies Islands, a small archipelago in the mouth of the one of the rias (Ria de Vigo), allowed us to reconstruct the coastal evolution from the end of the Late Pleistocene to the present day. During this period, sea-level was 100 metres below the present one and the shoreline located about 5–10 kilometres away. About 15,000 years ago, sea-level rise began, radically modifying the coastline. This started with a gradual advance of large dune fields on both sides of the valley. The aeolian accretion continued until the Late Holocene, finishing when the sea reached its present level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Organic Geochemical Signatures of the Upper Miocene (Tortonian—Messinian) Sedimentary Succession Onshore Crete Island, Greece: Implications for Hydrocarbon Prospectivity
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091323 - 18 Sep 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
The definition of pre-Messinian source rocks in the eastern Mediterranean is of paramount importance for hydrocarbon exploration because of the ability of salt to act as a high-quality seal rock. This research evaluates the organic geochemical features of the Upper Miocene (Tortonian—Messinian) sedimentary [...] Read more.
The definition of pre-Messinian source rocks in the eastern Mediterranean is of paramount importance for hydrocarbon exploration because of the ability of salt to act as a high-quality seal rock. This research evaluates the organic geochemical features of the Upper Miocene (Tortonian—Messinian) sedimentary succession onshore Crete Island, Greece. The study employs original (Messinian, Agios Myron Fm) and published (Tortonian, Viannos Fm, Skinias Fm, Moulia Fm, and Messinian Ploutis section) results from organic geochemical analyses of mudstone samples. One hundred and one samples were examined using standard organic geochemistry methodology (Rock-Eval II and VI-TOC) to define the origin, type, and degree of organic matter maturity. The data indicate that the studied samples have poor to fair gas-prone source rock potential. These possible source rock units have not experienced great temperatures during burial, and, thus, their organic matter is thermally immature. The sub-salt (Tortonian—Messinian) source rock units are likely to be of higher thermal maturity in the western and eastern south Cretan trenches because of tectonic subsidence and a thicker sedimentary overburden. Several traps can grow in these regions, associated with normal faults, rotated blocks and unconformities (both below and above the unconformities). This research provides a basis for the further evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential in Crete Island. It is an area that shares geological similarities with the surrounding regions that contain proven reserves and is of crucial economic and strategic importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Fragmentation Characteristics of Seafloor Massive Sulfides: A Coupled Fluid-Particle Flow Simulation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091306 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The research on the fragmentation mechanism of seabed minerals under high ambient pressure significantly contributes to the exploitation of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS). In this paper, the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test and triaxial compressive strength (TCS) test were carried out on two [...] Read more.
The research on the fragmentation mechanism of seabed minerals under high ambient pressure significantly contributes to the exploitation of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS). In this paper, the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test and triaxial compressive strength (TCS) test were carried out on two kinds of SMS samples to obtain the key mechanical properties of minerals, including cohesion, internal friction angle, compressive strength, and elastic modulus. Then, based on these mechanical parameters, the fluid-solid coupling cutting model of two SMS samples at high ambient pressure is established by using the coupling method of discrete elements and smooth particles. A mixed-bond model is selected, and the microscopic parameters are determined by a repeated calibration process. Meanwhile, the cutting force and debris information are monitored and collected in real time during the whole cutting process. The results show that under different confining pressure environments, the model shows the transformation of minerals from brittleness to ductility. The cutting force increases with the increasing ambient pressure. Due to the fluid pressure, the crushing mechanism tends to shear failure, which is more likely to produce mud and finer fragments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Islands in the Caucasian Sea in Three Mesozoic Time Slices: Novel Dimension of Geoheritage and Geotourism
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091300 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Framing geoheritage thematically is important to reveal its diversity. Field investigations in the western part of the Greater Caucasus orogen have allowed for the characterization of three localities representing palaeoislands of the Caucasian Sea, which evolved as a semi-enclosed, marginal palaeosea during the [...] Read more.
Framing geoheritage thematically is important to reveal its diversity. Field investigations in the western part of the Greater Caucasus orogen have allowed for the characterization of three localities representing palaeoislands of the Caucasian Sea, which evolved as a semi-enclosed, marginal palaeosea during the Mesozoic. The Gosh locality represents coarse siliciclastics formed on the cliffed shore of the early Induan (Early Triassic) island. The Lipovy locality exhibits conglomerates accumulated on the shore of the early Toarcian (Early Jurassic) island due to erosion of the uplifted crystalline rocks. The Shakhan locality boasts a representative section of cross-bedded sandstones deposited on the alluvial plain of the Hauterivian (Early Cretaceous) island. All these localities are interpreted as geoheritage points, which are parts of larger geosites. Taken together, these points constitute thematic geoheritage sites reflecting the existence of palaeoislands in all Mesozoic periods, which is essential for the understanding of the evolution of the Caucasian Sea during this era. These localities are perfectly accessible, but visiting them requires professional interpretation. The importance of the thematic geoheritage makes its adequate management urgent (particularly, maintenance of geoheritage points, the installation of interpretive panels, and promotion). A geoexcursion route is proposed to facilitate geotouristic exploitation of the characterized geoheritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Prediction of Overpressure Zones in Marine Sediments Using Rock-Physics and Other Approaches
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081127 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
The paper discusses the problem of localizing zones of high pore pressure in sub-bottom sediments (first tens of meters under the seafloor). Prediction of the overpressure zones in the near-surface is required for the mitigation of risks at the early stages of the [...] Read more.
The paper discusses the problem of localizing zones of high pore pressure in sub-bottom sediments (first tens of meters under the seafloor). Prediction of the overpressure zones in the near-surface is required for the mitigation of risks at the early stages of the offshore hydrocarbon field exploration and development. The results of seismic data interpretation generally serve as the main source of information for this kind of problems, yet there are other methods to predict overpressure zones in the subsurface. The paper presents the results of the overpressure zone prediction using a set of methods including empirical ones, and the approach based on rock-physics modeling that features the soft-sand model of unconsolidated media effective properties. While the rock-physics modeling grants the most reliable result, it is also the most demanding method to the input data. Hence, it can be used to verify other methods of the overpressure zone prediction. We present the results of the overpressure zone prediction at the research site on the Black Sea shelf. The mitigation of the drilling risks via changing the drilling conditions is discussed in detail. As the drilling through the overpressure zones is often a necessity, the engineering solutions proposed in the paper can be applied elsewhere when facing similar problems typical for offshore exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Simulation of the Nearshore Sediment Transport Pattern and Beach Morphodynamics in the Semi-Enclosed Bay of Myrtos, Cephalonia Island, Ionian Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081015 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Myrtos Beach (Cephalonia Island, Ionian Sea, Greece) represents a pocket beach with strong touristic, economic and natural interest. In this research, the morphodynamic behavior of the coastal area (e.g., hydrodynamic and sedimentary state, morphology, orientation, etc.), the current wave conditions (extreme and dominant [...] Read more.
Myrtos Beach (Cephalonia Island, Ionian Sea, Greece) represents a pocket beach with strong touristic, economic and natural interest. In this research, the morphodynamic behavior of the coastal area (e.g., hydrodynamic and sedimentary state, morphology, orientation, etc.), the current wave conditions (extreme and dominant waves, wave exposure), and also external factors, such as human impact and the geotechnical condition of the wider area, are examined. Short- and medium-to-long-term analysis took place, such as mapping, sediment analysis, wave/wind analysis, numerical modeling, and satellite monitoring, in order to identify the dynamic forcing parameters related to geomorphology, sedimentology, and hydrology that prevail in the area. Additionally, the intense tectonics, the karstified limestones, and the steep slopes of the cliffs in combination with the frequent seismic events on the island set up a geotechnically unstable area, which often cause landslides on the beach of Myrtos; these supply the beach with a large amount of aggregates, constituting the main sediment supply. Wave exposure forcing conditions, longshore–rip current direction, and other hydrodynamic processes are stable with high values in the area, causing notable sediment transport within the bay boundaries. As a result, at Myrtos Bay there is a dynamic balance of the natural system, which is directly affected by human interventions. Taking also into consideration that Myrtos is one of the most famous beaches in Greece and one of the main attractions of Cephalonia Island with thousands of visitors every year, beach management must be focused on preserving the natural system of the coastal area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Contourite and Turbidite Features in the Middle Caspian Sea and Their Connection to Geohazards Derived from High-Resolution Seismic Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070990 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
High fluvial input combined with specific topographic and oceanographic settings in the Caspian Sea create favorable conditions for contourite deposition. For the first time in its middle portion, contourite deposits have been observed in high-resolution seismic profiles. Various types of contourite drifts and [...] Read more.
High fluvial input combined with specific topographic and oceanographic settings in the Caspian Sea create favorable conditions for contourite deposition. For the first time in its middle portion, contourite deposits have been observed in high-resolution seismic profiles. Various types of contourite drifts and mixed depositional systems have been revealed on the lower slope and in the adjacent basin, some of which are accompanied by sediment wave fields. The deposition of contourites or turbidites and their lateral distribution is controlled by sea-floor topography and oceanographic processes, as well as the modern activity of gravity flows downslope on the western Caucasian slope and in the channel system on the Mangyshlak Sill. The contourite drifts and sediment wave fields form several contourite depositional systems, which seem to merge in the Caspian contourite depositional complex. This occurs near the foot of slopes of the Derbent Basin and is related to the counterclockwise circum-Caspian current in the Middle Caspian Sea. The fact that the Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world makes this region a significant area for research into the “lake contourites” issue. The Caspian Sea is an important oil-producing area, and sedimentary processes related to the contourite and turbidite can be a source of potential geohazards in the construction and exploitation of underwater engineering structures Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Bryozoan Diversity Dynamics at the Devonian–Carboniferous Transition: Evidence from Transcaucasia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070959 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The Devonian–Carboniferous transition was marked by a series of perturbations in the geological and biological evolution. The palaeontological data from Transcaucasia allowed the bryozoan diversity dynamics on the northern Gondwanan margin (southern periphery of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean) to be documented at this transition. [...] Read more.
The Devonian–Carboniferous transition was marked by a series of perturbations in the geological and biological evolution. The palaeontological data from Transcaucasia allowed the bryozoan diversity dynamics on the northern Gondwanan margin (southern periphery of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean) to be documented at this transition. Taxonomic ranges of 43 species, 26 genera, 19 families, and 4 orders were analysed to reveal changes in the total diversity, the number of appearances, the number of disappearances, and the turnover rates per substages. It is established that the bryozoan diversity was rather high in the beginning and the end of the Famennian, as well as in the Late Tournaisian. It declined significantly in the Middle–Late Famennian and the Early Tournaisian due to the combination of the high number of disappearances and the low number of appearances. The turnovers remained strong, and they peaked in the mid-Famennian. These regionally documented diversity changes match the patterns recorded globally and in Southern Siberia. Hypothetically, the Middle–Late Famennian and Early Tournaisian crises established in Transcaucasia were related to the global events (anoxia and mass extinctions), a series of which weakened the bryozoans’ resistivity to negative external influences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
The Tanais Bay of the Eastern Paratethys Sea at the Sarmatian–Maeotian Transition (Late Miocene): Widespread Desiccations and Local Uplifts in the Light of Historical Information
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070915 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
The Late Miocene evolution of the Eastern Paratethys Sea was marked by significant palaeogeographical transformations. The knowledge of them should be improved with the information from the peripheral parts of this semi-enclosed marine basin. The study area corresponds to the Rostov Dome where [...] Read more.
The Late Miocene evolution of the Eastern Paratethys Sea was marked by significant palaeogeographical transformations. The knowledge of them should be improved with the information from the peripheral parts of this semi-enclosed marine basin. The study area corresponds to the Rostov Dome where the northern shore of the Eastern Paratethys is widely documented. The information from the previously published work, going back to the beginning of the 20th century, is collected. Its analysis allows us to document the spatial distribution of Middle Sarmatian–Late Maeotian (Tortonian–Messinian) deposits. The results shed light into the palaeogeographical changes in the Tanais Bay of the Eastern Paratethys Sea, which included the short-term hiatus at the Middle/Late Sarmatian boundary, the Early Maeotian regression, and the gradual Late Maeotian ingression when the bay re-established, but with a different configuration. These changes and the overall spatial distribution of the studied deposits cannot be explained by only the fluctuations in the level of the Eastern Paratethys and the desiccation episodes established in its central part. Most probably, the local tectonic uplifts were an important driver of the Late Miocene evolution of the Tanais Bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Geochemical Analysis of Cretaceous Shales from the Hazara Basin, Pakistan: Provenance Signatures and Paleo-Weathering Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060800 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 936 | Correction
Abstract
The geochemical investigation of shales from the Early to Middle Cretaceous Chichali Formation in the Hazara Basin was conducted to determine the origin, tectonic setting and evolution, paleo-weathering conditions, and paleo-oceanographic reconstruction. The research included a comprehensive field survey, sample collection, and analysis [...] Read more.
The geochemical investigation of shales from the Early to Middle Cretaceous Chichali Formation in the Hazara Basin was conducted to determine the origin, tectonic setting and evolution, paleo-weathering conditions, and paleo-oceanographic reconstruction. The research included a comprehensive field survey, sample collection, and analysis of a variety of main, trace, and rare-earth elements using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Bivariate plots and ternary diagrams were used to determine the provenance, tectonic setting, and paleo-weathering conditions that existed during the development of the Chichali Formation in the Hazara Basin. The values of Ba/Sc, Ba/Co, Th/Sc, Cr/Th, Cr/Zr, Th/Co, Th/Cr, Sc/Th, bivariate plots of Al2O3 vs. TiO2, TiO2 vs. Zr, TiO2 vs. Ni, Df1–Df2, Zr vs. Nb, and La/Sc vs. Th/Co, and ternary diagram of K2O–Fe2O3–Al2O3 were used to illustrate the passive continental margin setting of Chichali Formation shales. The detailed chemical analysis also provides an understanding of the marine geochemical cycle, which reflects the origin of these sediments. The average K2O/Al2O3 value is less than 0.4, indicating that the shale contains clay minerals. The Chichali Formation’s Chemical Index of Alteration (mean = 71) and Index of Compositional Variation (mean = 1.12) values show a modest degree of chemical weathering in the source locations. From an environmental standpoint, the Chichali Formation is richer in toxic elements such as Ba, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cu, which may be damaging to agricultural soils and drinking water when present in excess. These metals are incorporated into the formation during the weathering process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Integrated Porosity Classification and Quantification Scheme for Enhanced Carbonate Reservoir Quality: Implications from the Miocene Malaysian Carbonates
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121410 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
The pore system in carbonates is complicated because of the associated biological and chemical activity. Secondary porosity, on the other hand, is the result of chemical reactions that occur during diagenetic processes. A thorough understanding of the carbonate pore system is essential to [...] Read more.
The pore system in carbonates is complicated because of the associated biological and chemical activity. Secondary porosity, on the other hand, is the result of chemical reactions that occur during diagenetic processes. A thorough understanding of the carbonate pore system is essential to hydrocarbon prospecting. Porosity classification schemes are currently limited to accurately forecast the petrophysical parameters of different reservoirs with various origins and depositional environments. Although rock classification offers a way to describe lithofacies, it has no impact on the application of the poro-perm correlation. An outstanding example of pore complexity (both in terms of type and origin) may be found in the Central Luconia carbonate system (Malaysia), which has been altered by diagenetic processes. Using transmitted light microscopy, 32 high-resolution pictures were collected of each thin segment for quantitative examination. An FESEM picture and a petrographic study of thin sections were used to quantify the grains, matrix, cement, and macroporosity (pore types). Microporosity was determined by subtracting macroporosity from total porosity using a point-counting technique. Moldic porosity (macroporosity) was shown to be the predominant type of porosity in thin sections, whereas microporosity seems to account for 40 to 50% of the overall porosity. Carbonates from the Miocene have been shown to possess a substantial quantity of microporosity, making hydrocarbon estimate and production much more difficult. It might lead to a higher level of uncertainty in the estimation of hydrocarbon reserves if ignored. Existing porosity classifications cannot be used to better understand the poro-perm correlation because of the wide range of geological characteristics. However, by considering pore types and pore structures, which may be separated into macro- and microporosity, the classification can be enhanced. Microporosity identification and classification investigations have become a key problem in limestone reservoirs across the globe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Fish Teeth Sr Isotope Stratigraphy and Nd Isotope Variations: New Insights on REY Enrichments in Deep-Sea Sediments in the Pacific
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121379 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) are widely recognized as strategic materials for advanced technological applications. Deep-sea sediments from the eastern South Pacific and central North Pacific were first reported as potential resources containing significant amounts of REY that are comparable to, or [...] Read more.
Rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) are widely recognized as strategic materials for advanced technological applications. Deep-sea sediments from the eastern South Pacific and central North Pacific were first reported as potential resources containing significant amounts of REY that are comparable to, or greater than, those of land-based deposits. Despite nearly a decade of research, quantitative abundances and spatial distributions of these deposits remain insufficient. Age controls are generally absent due to the lack of biostratigraphic constraints. Thus, the factors controlling the formation of REY-rich sediments are still controversial. In this study, the REY contents of surface sediments (<2 m depth) in 14 piston cores from the Central and Western Pacific were investigated. The results show that deep-sea sediments with high REY contents (>1000 μg/g) were mainly concentrated around seamounts (e.g., the Marshall Islands). The REY contents of surface sediments generally decreased with distance from the seamounts. Biostratigraphic and fish teeth debris (apatite) Sr isotopic stratigraphy of one piston core (P10) from the Central Pacific indicates that deep-sea sediments with high REY contents were aged from early Oligocene to early Miocene. Since the opening of the Drake Passage during the early Oligocene, the northward-flowing Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) would have led to an upwelling of nutrients around seamounts with topographic barriers, and at the same time, AABW would delay the rate of sediment burial to try for enough time for REY entering and enriching in the apatite (fish teeth debris). Understanding the spatial distribution of fertile regions for REY-rich sediments provides guidance for searching for other REY resources in the Pacific and in other oceans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Depositional Sedimentary Facies, Stratigraphic Control, Paleoecological Constraints, and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of Late Permian Chhidru Formation (Western Salt Range, Pakistan)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121372 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
The Upper Indus Basin, in Pakistan’s western Salt Range, is home to the Zaluch Gorge. The sedimentary rocks found in this Gorge, belonging to the Chhidru Formation, were studied in terms of sedimentology and stratigraphy, and provide new insights into the basin paleogeographic [...] Read more.
The Upper Indus Basin, in Pakistan’s western Salt Range, is home to the Zaluch Gorge. The sedimentary rocks found in this Gorge, belonging to the Chhidru Formation, were studied in terms of sedimentology and stratigraphy, and provide new insights into the basin paleogeographic evolution from the Precambrian to the Jurassic period. Facies analysis in the Chhidru Formation deposits allowed the recognition of three lithofacies (the limestone facies—CF1, the limestone with clay interbeds facies—CF2, and the sandy limestone facies—CF3) with five microfacies types (mudstone biomicrite—MF-1, wackestone-biomicrite—MF-2, wackestone-biosparite—MF-3, pack-stone-biomicrite—MF-4, and packstone-biosparite—MF-5), as well as their depositional characteristics. The identified carbonate and siliciclastic formations display various facies in a shallow marine environment, with different lithologies, sedimentary features, and energy conditions. It is thought that the depositional characteristics of these microfacies are closer to those of the middle to outer shelf. Because of the progressively coarsening outcrop sequence, this formation seems to be at the very top of the high stand system tract (HST). A modified dynamic depositional model of the Chhidru Formation is further built using outcrop data, facies information, and stratigraphy. According to this concept, the formation was deposited in the middle to inner shelf area of the shallow marine environment, during the Late-Permian period. The Permo-Triassic Boundary (PTB), which is the end of the type-1 series, is marked by this formation’s top. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Taphofacies and Petrofacies Theoretical Marine Models Applied to the Coquina of the Amaral Formation (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121319 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
The Amaral Formation has a wide geographic distribution within the Lusitanian Basin, at the western Iberian Margin (Portugal). The different depositional contexts for this unit enabled the distinction of three sectors: lagoon, lagoon-barrier, and marine-distal. The integration of the evolutionary taphonomic analysis of [...] Read more.
The Amaral Formation has a wide geographic distribution within the Lusitanian Basin, at the western Iberian Margin (Portugal). The different depositional contexts for this unit enabled the distinction of three sectors: lagoon, lagoon-barrier, and marine-distal. The integration of the evolutionary taphonomic analysis of its fossil assemblages with the analysis of multiscale properties through the CAMURES methodology (Multiscale Reservoir Characterization) allowed the application of a methodology for the classification of coquina which was previously developed for the Morro do Chaves Formation (Sergipe–Alagoas Basin, Brazil). Here, it was adapted according to the complexity of the Amaral Formation deposits. The classification of ten taphofacies, in association with four lithofacies, allowed the definition of 84 petrofacies, based on the nature of the sedimentary and taphonomic processes. The relationship between the structural context, the systems tracts, the diversity of the fossil record, the classification of taphofacies and petrofacies, and the understanding of vertical and lateral variations of the sediments’ deposition within the unit support the construction of geological and theoretical models for coquina deposits. These models will allow for prediction of the spatial distribution of facies in other coquina analogous hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as specifying the delimitation of reservoir zones for 3D geocellular modeling and flow simulation of hydrocarbon-producing reservoirs, thus improving predictive analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Geochemical and Mineral Properties of Quaternary Deep-Sea Sediments in the Central-Tropical Pacific and Its Response to the Mid-Pleistocene Transition
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111254 - 12 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Global climate and oceanic water masses have undergone profound changes during the middle Pleistocene transition; however, due to a lack of foraminiferal fossils, the nonfossiliferous pelagic deposits were less detected in previous reports. In this work, a gravity core from the Kamehameha Basin [...] Read more.
Global climate and oceanic water masses have undergone profound changes during the middle Pleistocene transition; however, due to a lack of foraminiferal fossils, the nonfossiliferous pelagic deposits were less detected in previous reports. In this work, a gravity core from the Kamehameha Basin in the Central Pacific was studied in terms of magnetostratigraphy, clay mineral and geochemical elements. The main results are: (1) nine magnetozones are recognized in the core, which can be correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale from chrons C2n to C1n; (2) smectite is the dominant clay mineral, and the others are illite, chlorite and kaolinite; and (3) the sediments are mainly composed of Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, Na2O and TiO2. Based on these results, a geochronological framework for the study area was established, and the depositional rates are estimated as 3–7 m/Myr in the Quaternary, showing an increase during the middle Pleistocene transition. By comparing the findings to various paleoenvironmental processes, it is inferred that the increased sedimentation in the Kamehameha Basin may have resulted from the induced weathering processes and the strengthened aeolian inputs from inner Asia. Moreover, regional circulation related to bottom water evolution has experienced a rapid reorganization across the middle Pleistocene transition. All these findings illustrate the potential of deep-sea sediments in the central tropical Pacific in revealing some key features in paleoclimatology and paleoceanography, which are worthy of further investigation in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Ecological Constraints of Plankton Bio-Indicators for Water Column Stratification and Productivity: A Case Study of the Holocene North Aegean Sedimentary Record
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111249 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
This study presents novel findings on the drivers of the calcitic planktonic foraminiferal and aragonitic pteropod Holocene assemblages of the North Aegean Trough (northeastern Mediterranean), an area recording the interaction between dynamic water masses as they exchange between the northern and southern Mediterranean [...] Read more.
This study presents novel findings on the drivers of the calcitic planktonic foraminiferal and aragonitic pteropod Holocene assemblages of the North Aegean Trough (northeastern Mediterranean), an area recording the interaction between dynamic water masses as they exchange between the northern and southern Mediterranean sub-basins. Both of these groups of microorganisms are the major producers of calcium carbonate in the ocean, and are particularly sensitive to climate and oceanographic changes over the late Quaternary. Downcore micropaleontological data from the gravity core AEX-15, supplemented with multivariate statistical Q-mode cluster and principal component analyses (PCA) results, provide significant insights on the water column dynamics during the Holocene. Focusing on the last ~10 calibrated thousands of years before the present day (ka cal BP), our integrated study reveals that primary productivity is the dominant factor controlling the planktonic foraminifera distribution in the North Aegean Sea, whereas water column stratification, and particularly the intensity of the oxygen minimum zone, seems to be the major driver on the pteropod distribution. Besides productivity and thermal stratification, which show the highest explanatory power for planktonic foraminifera and pteropod communities, respectively, though they affect both groups to a different extent, upwelling seems to further affect both faunal groups. Overall, our findings are consistent with those derived by published late Quaternary eastern Mediterranean records, highlighting in parallel a useful additional dimension on planktonic foraminiferal and pteropod ecology, which is inextricably linked with the factors of primary productivity and vertical stratification of the warm Holocene water column. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Review

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Review
Organic Matter Burial in Deep-Sea Fans: A Depositional Process-Based Perspective
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050682 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
Organic matter burial in the deep-sea fan sediments is an important component of the long-term carbon cycle. Although there is increasing recognition of the importance of organic matter in deep-sea sediments, a major focus has been on mudstones, commonly interpreted as the background [...] Read more.
Organic matter burial in the deep-sea fan sediments is an important component of the long-term carbon cycle. Although there is increasing recognition of the importance of organic matter in deep-sea sediments, a major focus has been on mudstones, commonly interpreted as the background sediments, deposited by pelagic or hemipelagic vertical suspension fallout in low-energy fan environments. Emerging evidence suggests that relatively coarse-grained sediment gravity flow deposits (e.g., turbidites and hybrid event beds) can also store a significant quantity of organic carbon, implying that a wide range of depositional processes can result in the concentration and enrichment of organic matter in submarine fans. However, the role of these processes on carbon burial is still not fully understood. This review aims to discuss the impact of three widely documented deep-sea depositional mechanisms/processes, namely vertical suspension settling, grain-by-grain (incremental aggradation), and the en-masse deposition on distribution, burial, and preservation of organic matter in deep-marine deposits. Organic matter accumulated from slowly settling suspension in mud caps (Te or H5 divisions of turbidites and hybrid beds, respectively) is prone to higher oxidation compared to the carbon buried in sandy components of turbidity currents (Ta-Tc units) and hybrid beds (H2/H3 divisions). The burial of organic matter in sandy parts of the deposits has important implications for understanding the fundamental physical processes that control carbon accumulation and preservation in deep-marine rock record. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Review
Mechanisms for Overpressure Development in Marine Sediments
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10040490 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Overpressure is widely developed in marine sediments; it is not only a critical factor related to hydrocarbon accumulation, but also a serious safety issue for oil/gas exploration and exploitation. Although the mechanisms for overpressure development in sedimentary basins have been intensively studied, some [...] Read more.
Overpressure is widely developed in marine sediments; it is not only a critical factor related to hydrocarbon accumulation, but also a serious safety issue for oil/gas exploration and exploitation. Although the mechanisms for overpressure development in sedimentary basins have been intensively studied, some new mechanisms are proposed for overpressure development with the advancements in marine geological investigation, e.g., natural gas hydrate formation and microbial activity. In this study, the mechanisms for overpressure development are reviewed and further classified as being related to associated physical, chemical, and biological processes. The physical overpressure mechanisms include disequilibrium compaction, hydrate formation sealing, degasification, buoyancy, hydrothermal pressuring, tectonic movement, overpressure transfer, etc. The chemical overpressure mechanisms are ascribed to hydrate decomposition, diagenesis, hydrocarbon generation, etc. The biological overpressure mechanisms are mainly induced by microbial gas production and microbial plugging. In gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overpressure is a critical factor affecting the formation and distribution of gas hydrate. The mechanisms for overpressure development in marine gas hydrate systems are associated with permeability deterioration due to hydrate formation and free gas accumulation below bottom-simulating reflectors (BSR). In marine sediments, overpressure developments are generally related to a sediment layer of low permeability above and natural gas accumulation below, and overpressure is mainly developed below a sulphate–methane interface (SMI), because methane will be consumed by anaerobic oxidation above SMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Review
Geological Oceanography of the Pliocene Warm Period: A Review with Predictions on the Future of Global Warming
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111210 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Atmospheric carbon dioxide reached a record concentration of 419 parts per million in May 2021, 50% higher than preindustrial levels at 280 parts per million. The rise of CO2 as a heat-trapping gas is the principal barometer tracking global warming attributed to [...] Read more.
Atmospheric carbon dioxide reached a record concentration of 419 parts per million in May 2021, 50% higher than preindustrial levels at 280 parts per million. The rise of CO2 as a heat-trapping gas is the principal barometer tracking global warming attributed to a global average increase of 1.2 °C over the last 250 years. Ongoing global warming is expected to perturb extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones (hurricanes/typhoons), strengthened by elevated sea-surface temperatures. The melting of polar ice caps in Antarctica and Greenland also is expected to result in rising sea levels through the rest of this century. Various proxies for the estimate of long-term change in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are available through geological oceanography, which relies on the recovery of deep-sea cores for the study of sediments enriched in temperature-sensitive planktonic foraminifera and other algal residues. The Pliocene Warm Period occurred between ~4.5 and 3.0 million years ago, when sea level and average global temperatures were higher than today, and it is widely regarded as a predictive analog to the future impact of climate change. This work reviews some of the extensive literature on the geological oceanography of the Pliocene Warm Period together with a summary of land-based studies in paleotempestology focused on coastal boulder deposits (CBDs) and coastal outwash deposits (CODs) from the margin of the Pacific basin and parts of the North Atlantic basin. Ranging in age from the Pliocene through the Holocene, the values of such deposits serve as fixed geophysical markers, against which the micro-fossil record for the Pliocene Warm Period may be compared, as a registry of storm events from Pliocene and post-Pliocene times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Review
Natural Processes and Anthropogenic Activity in the Indus River Sedimentary Environment in Pakistan: A Critical Review
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101109 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2295
Abstract
The Indus River is Asia’s longest river, having its origin in the Tibet Mountain northwest of Pakistan. Routed from northern Gilgit and flowing to the plains, the river passes through several provinces and is connected by numerous small and large tributaries. The river [...] Read more.
The Indus River is Asia’s longest river, having its origin in the Tibet Mountain northwest of Pakistan. Routed from northern Gilgit and flowing to the plains, the river passes through several provinces and is connected by numerous small and large tributaries. The river was formed tectonically due to the collusion of the Indian and Eurasian plates, which is referred to as the Indus suture Plains zone (ISPZ). The geological setting of the study area is mainly composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks. The river passed through a variety of climatic zones and areas, although the predominant climate is subtropic arid and sub arid to subequatorial. Locally and globally, anthropogenic activities such as building, dams, and water canals for irrigation purposes, mining exploration, and industries and factories all affected the physical and chemical behaviors of the sediments in various rivers. The main effect of human activities is the reworking of weathered soil smectite, a chemical weathering indicator that rises in the offshore record about 5000 years ago. This material indicates increased transport of stronger chemically weathered material, which may result from agriculture-induced erosion of older soil. However, we also see evidence for the incision of large rivers into the floodplain, which is also driving the reworking of this type of material, so the signal may be a combination of the two. Sediments undergo significant changes in form and size due to clashing with one another in the high-charge river. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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Correction
Correction: Fazal et al. Geochemical Analysis of Cretaceous Shales from the Hazara Basin, Pakistan: Provenance Signatures and Paleo-Weathering Conditions. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10, 800
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111654 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 258
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
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