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Vaccines, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 207 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Shigella sonnei and flexneri remain among the top bacterial causes of dysentery and severe diarrhea in children. Several vaccine developers are in advanced clinical studies with highly promising multivalent formulations; a safe and efficacious Shigella vaccine would represent a great scientific achievement. Nonetheless, such a vaccine would arrive in the context of increasingly crowded and costly childhood immunization programs, among a myriad of other new and improved vaccines currently or soon on the market. There is thus no guarantee that a Shigella vaccine would become an adoption priority by those low- and middle-income countries that could benefit the most. We discuss some of the major determinants of the introduction of Shigella vaccines and the importance of developing a succinct, compelling public health value proposition. View this paper
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Review
Ocular Complications Following Vaccination for COVID-19: A One-Year Retrospective
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020342 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Vaccination efforts as a mitigation strategy in the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are fully underway. A vital component of understanding the optimal clinical use of these vaccines is a thorough investigation of adverse events following vaccination. To date, some limited reports [...] Read more.
Vaccination efforts as a mitigation strategy in the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are fully underway. A vital component of understanding the optimal clinical use of these vaccines is a thorough investigation of adverse events following vaccination. To date, some limited reports and reviews have discussed ocular adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination, but a systematic review detailing these reports with manifestations and clinical courses as well as proposed mechanisms has yet to be published. This comprehensive review one-year into vaccination efforts against COVID-19 is meant to furnish sound understanding for ophthalmologists and primary care physicians based on the existing body of clinical data. We discuss manifestations categorized into one of the following: eyelid, orbit, uveitis, retina, vascular, neuro-ophthalmology, ocular motility disorders, and other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Post-COVID-19 Complications and Vaccination Efficacy)
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Article
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination in People with Multiple Sclerosis Treated with Fingolimod: Protective Humoral Immune Responses May Develop after the Preferred Third Shot
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020341 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Evidence suggests limited development of protective IgG responses to mRNA-based vaccines in sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)-modulator treated individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied the extent of the humoral immune response after the preferred third mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in S1PR-modulator treated people with MS [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests limited development of protective IgG responses to mRNA-based vaccines in sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)-modulator treated individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied the extent of the humoral immune response after the preferred third mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in S1PR-modulator treated people with MS (pwMS) and insufficient IgG responses after the standard immunization scheme. Eight pwMS that were treated with fingolimod received a third homologous SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose, either the Moderna’s mRNA-1273 or Pfizer-BioNTech’s BNT162b2 vaccine. We quantified the serum levels of IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 four weeks later. An antibody titer of 100 AU/mL or more was considered protective. After the third vaccination, we found clinically relevant IgG titers in four out of eight individuals (50%). We conclude that the humoral immune response may reach protective levels after the third preferred dose of the homologous SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Vaccine shots in S1PR-modulator treated pwMS ahead of schedule may be a strategy to overcome insufficient humoral immune responses following the standard vaccination scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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Article
Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of ShigETEC, an Oral Live Attenuated Shigella-ETEC Vaccine in Placebo-Controlled Randomized Phase 1 Trial
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020340 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 932
Abstract
Background: Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet no licensed vaccines are available to prevent corresponding infections. A live attenuated non-invasive Shigella vaccine strain lacking LPS O-antigen and expressing the ETEC toxoids, named ShigETEC was characterized [...] Read more.
Background: Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet no licensed vaccines are available to prevent corresponding infections. A live attenuated non-invasive Shigella vaccine strain lacking LPS O-antigen and expressing the ETEC toxoids, named ShigETEC was characterized previously in non-clinical studies. Methods: ShigETEC was evaluated in a two-staged, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled Phase I clinical trial. A single dose of increasing amounts of the vaccine was given to determine the maximum tolerated dose and increasing number of immunizations were administered with an interval based on the duration of shedding observed. Results: Oral immunization with ShigETEC was well tolerated and safe up to 4-time dosing with 5 × 1010 colony forming units. ShigETEC induced robust systemic immune responses against the Shigella vaccine strain, with IgA serum antibody dominance, as well as mucosal antibody responses evidenced by specific IgA in stool samples and in ALS (Antibodies in Lymphocyte Supernatant). Anti- ETEC toxin responses were detected primarily in the 4-times immunized cohort and for the heat-labile toxin correlated with neutralizing capacity. Conclusion: ShigETEC is a promising vaccine candidate that is scheduled for further testing in controlled human challenge studies for efficacy as well as in children in endemic setting for safety and immunogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Shigella Vaccine Development)
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Review
Four Faces of Cell-Surface HLA Class-I: Their Antigenic and Immunogenic Divergence Generating Novel Targets for Vaccines
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020339 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 486
Abstract
Leukocyte cell-surface HLA-I molecules, involved in antigen presentation of peptides to CD8+ T-cells, consist of a heavy chain (HC) non-covalently linked to β2-microglobulin (β2m) (Face-1). The HC amino acid composition varies across all six isoforms of HLA-I, while that of β2m remains the [...] Read more.
Leukocyte cell-surface HLA-I molecules, involved in antigen presentation of peptides to CD8+ T-cells, consist of a heavy chain (HC) non-covalently linked to β2-microglobulin (β2m) (Face-1). The HC amino acid composition varies across all six isoforms of HLA-I, while that of β2m remains the same. Each HLA-allele differs in one or more amino acid sequences on the HC α1 and α2 helices, while several sequences among the three helices are conserved. HCs without β2m (Face-2) are also observed on human cells activated by malignancy, viral transformation, and cytokine or chemokine-mediated inflammation. In the absence of β2m, the monomeric Face-2 exposes immunogenic cryptic sequences on these cells as confirmed by HLA-I monoclonal antibodies (LA45, L31, TFL-006, and TFL-007). Furthermore, such exposure enables dimerization between two Face-2 molecules by SH-linkage, salt linkage, H-bonding, and van der Waal forces. In HLA-B27, the linkage between two heavy chains with cysteines at position of 67 of the amino acid residues was documented. Similarly, several alleles of HLA-A, B, C, E, F and G express cysteine at 67, 101, and 164, and additionally, HLA-G expresses cysteine at position 42. Thus, the monomeric HC (Face-2) can dimerize with another HC of its own allele, as homodimers (Face-3), or with a different HC-allele, as heterodimers (Face-4). The presence of Face-4 is well documented in HLA-F. The post-translational HLA-variants devoid of β2m may expose several cryptic linear and non-linear conformationally altered sequences to generate novel epitopes. The objective of this review, while unequivocally confirming the post-translational variants of HLA-I, is to highlight the scientific and clinical importance of the four faces of HLA and to prompt further research to elucidate their functions and their interaction with non-HLA molecules during inflammation, infection, malignancy and transplantation. Indeed, these HLA faces may constitute novel targets for passive and active specific immunotherapy and vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taking Neo-Antigen Vaccines Forward)
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Article
The Humoral Immune Response of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine in Maintenance Dialysis Patients without Prior COVID-19 Infection
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020338 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients tend to have a reduced immune response to infection and vaccination. The efficacy of current available COVID-19 vaccines in CKD patients has not been widely evaluated. Methods: In the present study, three hundred and eight chronic dialysis [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients tend to have a reduced immune response to infection and vaccination. The efficacy of current available COVID-19 vaccines in CKD patients has not been widely evaluated. Methods: In the present study, three hundred and eight chronic dialysis patients received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca, AZ). Blood tests using an antibody against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein had performed at four designed time points before and after the first and second vaccine. Results: The mean age of patients was 65.5 ± 12.38 years, and the male/female ratio was 61.4%:38.6% (189/119). Two weeks after the first vaccination, only 37.66% of patients had a positive antibody response (>50 AU/mL). However, 65.58% of the participants showed a delayed antibody response ten weeks after the first vaccine. Four weeks after the second vaccine, 94.16% of participants had positive antibody levels. Age was the most significant factor associated with antibody response. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that immune-naïve patients had significantly lower early active B cells and proliferative B cells than the age- and sex-matched immune responders. Conclusion: Despite a delayed response, 94.16% of chronic dialysis patients achieved a positive antibody response after two doses of the AZ vaccine. Age is the most significant factor associated with antibody response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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Article
Association of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccinations with SARS-CoV-2 Infections, ICU Admissions and Deaths in Greece
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020337 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 638
Abstract
The available coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have shown their effectiveness in clinical trials. We aimed to assess the real-world effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in Greece. We combined national data on vaccinations, SARS-CoV-2 cases, COVID-19-related ICU admissions and COVID-19-related deaths. We observed 3,367,673 [...] Read more.
The available coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have shown their effectiveness in clinical trials. We aimed to assess the real-world effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in Greece. We combined national data on vaccinations, SARS-CoV-2 cases, COVID-19-related ICU admissions and COVID-19-related deaths. We observed 3,367,673 vaccinations (30.68% of the Greek population), 278,821 SARS-CoV-2 infections and 7401 COVID-19-related deaths. The vaccination rate significantly increased from week 2 to week 6 by 85.70%, and from week 7 to 25 by 15.65%. The weekly mean of SARS-CoV-2 cases, COVID-19 ICU patients and COVID-19 deaths markedly declined as vaccination coverage accumulated. The rate of SARS-CoV-2 cases increased significantly from week 2 to week 13 by 16.15%, while from weeks 14–25 the rate decreased significantly by 13.50%. The rate of COVID-19-related ICU admissions decreased significantly by 7.41% from week 2 to week 4, increased significantly by 17.22% from weeks 5–11, then decreased significantly from weeks 17–20, by 11.99%, and from weeks 21–25, by 16.77%. The rate of COVID-19-related deaths increased significantly from week 2 to week 15 by 12.08% and decreased significantly by 16.58% from weeks 16–25. The data from this nationwide observational study underline the beneficial impact of the national vaccination campaign in Greece, which may offer control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Full article
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Communication
Intentions Regarding COVID-19 Vaccination in Females Aged 15–49 Years
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020336 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 613
Abstract
To control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the Japanese government is promoting vaccination, which many people are willing to accept; however, some are reluctant to receive vaccinations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intentions of women aged 15–49 years [...] Read more.
To control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the Japanese government is promoting vaccination, which many people are willing to accept; however, some are reluctant to receive vaccinations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intentions of women aged 15–49 years regarding the COVID-19 vaccination and to identify methods of promoting vaccination. We used secondary data from a web research company of approximately 1020 participants. The data contained the following variables: vaccination status, reasons for not getting vaccinated, and the intentions and reasons related to the third vaccination. We categorized the reasons using text data and evaluated the age-related differences. The proportion of women aged 15–49 years who refused COVID-19 vaccination in Japan was 17.0%, and the rate was not significantly different by age group. The most common reasons were safety and side effect concerns. Of those who received the second vaccination, 32.7% hesitated or refused the third vaccination, and the rate was not significantly different by age group. The reasons were side-effect concerns, a lack of information, and the influence of their surroundings. Addressing the side effects and providing adequate information may help promote vaccination among women aged 15–49 years. Full article
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Article
Protection of Cattle against Epizootic Bovine Abortion (EBA) Using a Live Pajaroellobacter abortibovis Vaccine
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020335 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA) is an arthropod-borne bacterial disease that causes significant economic loss for cattle producers in the western United States. The etiologic agent, Pajaroellobacter abortibovis, is an intracellular pathogen that has yet to be cultivated in vitro, thereby requiring novel [...] Read more.
Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA) is an arthropod-borne bacterial disease that causes significant economic loss for cattle producers in the western United States. The etiologic agent, Pajaroellobacter abortibovis, is an intracellular pathogen that has yet to be cultivated in vitro, thereby requiring novel methodologies for vaccine development. A vaccine candidate, using live P. abortibovis-infected cells (P.a-LIC) harvested from mouse spleens, was tested in beef cattle. Over the course of two safety studies and four efficacy trials, safety risks were evaluated, and dosage and potencies refined. No incidence of anaphylaxis, recognized health issues or significant impact upon conception rates were noted. Vaccination did result in subclinical skin reactions. Early fetal losses were noted in two trials and were significant when the vaccine was administered within 21 days prior to conception. Administration of the EBA agent (EBAA) vaccine as a single dose, at a potency of 500 P.a–LIC, 56 days prior to breeding, provided 100% protection with no early fetal losses. Seroconversion occurred in all animals following EBAA vaccination and corresponded well with protection of the fetus from epizootic bovine abortion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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Article
Systemic COVID-19 Vaccination Enhances the Humoral Immune Response after SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Population Study from a Hospital in Poland Criteria for COVID-19 Reimmunization Are Needed
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020334 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Systemic vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine stimulates the humoral response. Our study aimed to compare the intensity of the humoral immune response, measured by SARS-CoV-2 IgG, SARS-CoV-2 IgM, and S-RBD-neutralizing IgG antibody levels after COVID-19 vaccination versus after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed [...] Read more.
Systemic vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine stimulates the humoral response. Our study aimed to compare the intensity of the humoral immune response, measured by SARS-CoV-2 IgG, SARS-CoV-2 IgM, and S-RBD-neutralizing IgG antibody levels after COVID-19 vaccination versus after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed 1060 people in the following groups: convalescents; healthy unvaccinated individuals; individuals vaccinated with Comirnaty, AstraZeneca, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson; and vaccinated SARS-CoV-2 convalescents. The concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, SARS-CoV-2 IgM, and S-RBD-neutralizing antibodies were estimated in an oncology hospital laboratory by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA; MAGLUMI). Results: (1) We observed a rise in antibody response in both the SARS-CoV-2 convalescent and COVID-19-vaccinated groups. (2) The levels of all antibody concentrations in vaccinated COVID-19 convalescents were significantly higher. (3) We differentiated asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 convalescents from the control group. Our analysis suggests that monitoring SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody concentrations is essential as an indicator of asymptomatic COVID-19 and as a measure of the effectiveness of the humoral response in convalescents and vaccinated people. Considering the time-limited effects of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection recovery or vaccination and the physiological half-life, among other factors, we suggest monitoring IgG antibody levels as a criterion for future vaccination. Full article
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Article
Homologous and Heterologous Anti-COVID-19 Vaccination Does Not Induce New-Onset Formation of Autoantibodies Typically Accompanying Lupus Erythematodes, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Celiac Disease and Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020333 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemics has caused the death of almost six million people worldwide. In order to establish collective immunity, the first vaccines that were approved in Germany were the vector virus-based vaccine Vaxzevria and the mRNA vaccines Comirnaty and Spikevax, respectively. As it [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemics has caused the death of almost six million people worldwide. In order to establish collective immunity, the first vaccines that were approved in Germany were the vector virus-based vaccine Vaxzevria and the mRNA vaccines Comirnaty and Spikevax, respectively. As it was reported that SARS-CoV-2 can trigger autoimmunity, it is of significant interest to investigate whether COVID-19 vaccines evoke the formation of autoantibodies and subsequent autoimmunity. Here, we analyzed immune responses after different vaccination regimens (mRNA/mRNA, Vector/Vector or Vector/mRNA) with respect to anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity and the development of autoantibodies well known for their appearance in distinct autoimmune diseases. We found that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were 90% lower after Vector/Vector vaccination compared to the other vaccinations and that Vector/mRNA vaccination was more effective than mRNA/mRNA vaccination in terms of IgM and IgA responses. However, until 4 months after booster vaccination we only detected increases in autoantibodies in participants with already pre-existing autoantibodies whereas vaccinees showing no autoantibody formation before vaccination did not respond with sustained autoantibody production. Taken together, our study suggests that all used COVID-19 vaccines do not significantly foster the appearance of autoantibodies commonly associated with lupus erythematodes, rheumatoid arthritis, Celiac disease and antiphospholipid-syndrome but provide immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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Article
Humoral and Cellular Responses to COVID-19 Vaccines in SARS-CoV-2 Infection-Naïve and -Recovered Korean Individuals
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020332 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 769
Abstract
In the face of a global COVID-19 vaccine shortage, an efficient vaccination strategy is required. Therefore, the immunogenicity of single or double COVID-19 vaccination doses (ChAdOX1, BNT162b2, or mRNA-1273) of SARS-CoV-2-recovered individuals was compared to that of unvaccinated individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection at [...] Read more.
In the face of a global COVID-19 vaccine shortage, an efficient vaccination strategy is required. Therefore, the immunogenicity of single or double COVID-19 vaccination doses (ChAdOX1, BNT162b2, or mRNA-1273) of SARS-CoV-2-recovered individuals was compared to that of unvaccinated individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection at least one year post-convalescence. Moreover, the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals vaccinated with a complete schedule of Ad26.CoV2.S, ChAdOX1, BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or ChAdOX1/BNT162b2 vaccines was evaluated. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG antibody (S1-IgG), pseudotyped virus-neutralizing antibody titer (pVNT50), and IFN-γ ELISpot counts were measured. Humoral immune responses were significantly higher in vaccinated than in unvaccinated recovered individuals, with a 43-fold increase in the mean pVNT50 values. However, there was no significant difference in the pVNT50 and IFN-γ ELISpot values between the single- and double-dose regimens. In SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals, antibody responses varied according to the vaccine type: BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 induced similar levels of S1-IgG to those observed in vaccinated, convalescent individuals; in contrast, pVNT50 was much lower in SARS-CoV-2-naïve vaccinees than in vaccinated recovered individuals. Therefore, a single dose of ChAdOX1, BNT162b2, or mRNA-1273 vaccines would be a good alternative for recovered individuals instead of a double-dose regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The COVID Vaccine)
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Article
SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Neutralizing Antibody Kinetics 90 Days after Three Doses of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Singapore
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020331 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Background: We evaluated the post-booster (BNT162b2) antibody responses in Singapore. Methods: Participants (n = 43) were tested pre-booster and 20/30/60/90 days post-booster. Participants were boosted 120–240 days (mean 214 days) after their second dose and had no history or serologic evidence of [...] Read more.
Background: We evaluated the post-booster (BNT162b2) antibody responses in Singapore. Methods: Participants (n = 43) were tested pre-booster and 20/30/60/90 days post-booster. Participants were boosted 120–240 days (mean 214 days) after their second dose and had no history or serologic evidence of prior COVID-19 infection; all participants had undetectable SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies throughout the study. Total nucleocapsid and spike antibodies (S-Ab) were assessed on the Roche Elecsys e802 and neutralizing antibody (N-Ab) on the Snibe quantitative N-Ab assay. Results: Pre-booster median S-Ab/N-Ab titers were 829 BAU/mL/0.83 µg/mL; 2 participants were below manufacturer’s N-Ab cut-offs of 0.3 µg/mL (0.192 and 0.229). Both S-Ab and N-Ab titers peaked at 30 days post-booster (median S-Ab 25,220 BAU/mL and N-Ab 30.3 µg/mL) at 30–37× pre-booster median levels. These peak post-booster S-Ab/N-Ab titers were 11× (25,220 vs. 2235 BAU/mL) and 9× (30.3 vs. 3.52 µg/mL) higher than the previously reported peak post-second dose levels. Antibody titers declined to 12,315 BAU/mL (51% decrease) and 14.3 µg/mL (53% decrease) 90 days post-booster. Non-linear regression estimates for S-Ab/N-Ab half-lives were 44/58 days. At 180 days post-booster, S-Ab/N-Ab are estimated to be 2671 BAU/mL/4.83 µg/mL. Conclusions: Both S-Ab and N-Ab show a good response following post-booster vaccination, with half-lives that may provide a prolonged antibody response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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Article
Humoral Responses and Chronic GVHD Exacerbation after COVID-19 Vaccination Post Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020330 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 551
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic threatens patients with a compromised immune and endothelial system, including patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Thus, there is an unmet need for optimizing vaccination management in this high-risk cohort. Here, we monitored antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic threatens patients with a compromised immune and endothelial system, including patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Thus, there is an unmet need for optimizing vaccination management in this high-risk cohort. Here, we monitored antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S1) in 167 vaccinated alloSCT patients. Humoral immune responses were detectable in 81% of patients after two vaccinations with either mRNA-, vector-based, or heterologous regimens. Age, B-cell counts, time interval from vaccination, and the type of vaccine determined antibody titres in patients without systemic immunosuppression (sIS). Similar to a healthy control cohort, mRNA vaccine-based regimens induced higher titres than vector-based vaccines. Patients on two or more immunosuppressants rarely developed immunity. In contrast, 62% and 45% of patients without or on only one immunosuppressant, respectively, showed a strong humoral vaccination response (titre > 100). Exacerbation of cGVHD upon vaccination was observed in 6% of all patients and in 22% of patients receiving immunosuppression for cGVHD. cGVHD exacerbation and low antibody titres were both associated with higher angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) serum levels. In conclusion, mRNA-based vaccines elicit strong humoral responses in alloSCT patients in the absence of double sIS. Biomarkers such as ANG2 might help with weighing cGVHD risk versus beneficial responses. Full article
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Article
Is Mandatory Vaccination in Population over 60 Adequate to Control the COVID-19 Pandemic in E.U.?
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020329 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 559
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy, which potentially leads to the refusal or delayed acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, is considered a key driver of the increasing death toll from the pandemic in the EU. The European Commission and several member states’ governments are either planning or have [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy, which potentially leads to the refusal or delayed acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, is considered a key driver of the increasing death toll from the pandemic in the EU. The European Commission and several member states’ governments are either planning or have already directly or indirectly announced mandatory vaccination for individuals aged over 60, the group which has repeatedly proved to be the most vulnerable. In this paper, an assessment of this strategy’s benefits is attempted by deriving a metric for the potential gains of vaccination mandates that can be used to compare EU member states. This is completed by examining the reduction in Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) per person for the EU population over 60 as a function of the member states’ vaccination percentage in these ages. The publicly available data and results of the second iteration of the SHARE COVID-19 survey on the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, conducted during the summer of 2021, are used as inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Review
Towards a Four-Component GMMA-Based Vaccine against Shigella
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020328 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Shigellosis remains a major public health problem around the world; it is one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in young children. The increasing reports of Shigella cases associated with anti-microbial resistance are an additional element [...] Read more.
Shigellosis remains a major public health problem around the world; it is one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in young children. The increasing reports of Shigella cases associated with anti-microbial resistance are an additional element of concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines widely available against Shigella, but several vaccine candidates are in development. It has been demonstrated that the incidence of disease decreases following a prior Shigella infection and that serum and mucosal antibody responses are predominantly directed against the serotype-specific Shigella O-antigen portion of lipopolysaccharide membrane molecules. Many Shigella vaccine candidates are indeed O-antigen-based. Here we present the journey towards the development of a potential low-cost four-component Shigella vaccine, eliciting broad protection against the most prevalent Shigella serotypes, that makes use of the GMMA (Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens) technology, a novel platform based on bacterial outer membranes for delivery of the O-antigen to the immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Shigella Vaccine Development)
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Article
Decline of Humoral Responses 6 Months after Vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) in Patients on Hemodialysis
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020327 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 472
Abstract
This study analyzed binding and neutralizing antibody titers up to 6 months after standard vaccination with BNT162b2 (two doses of 30 µg each) in SARS-CoV-2 naïve patients (n = 59) on hemodialysis. Humoral vaccine responses were measured before and 6, 12, and 24 [...] Read more.
This study analyzed binding and neutralizing antibody titers up to 6 months after standard vaccination with BNT162b2 (two doses of 30 µg each) in SARS-CoV-2 naïve patients (n = 59) on hemodialysis. Humoral vaccine responses were measured before and 6, 12, and 24 weeks after the first vaccination. A chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) was used to quantify SARS-CoV-2 IgG against the spike glycoprotein. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity was tested against the wild-type virus. A multivariable binary regression model was used to identify risk factors for the absence of humoral immune responses at 6 months. At week 6, vaccine-specific seroconversion was detected in 96.6% of all patients with median anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgGs of 918 BAU/mL. At weeks 12 and 24, seroconversion rates decreased to 91.5% and 79.7%, and corresponding median binding antibody titers declined to 298 BAU/mL and 89 BAU/mL, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies showed a decay from 79.6% at week 6 to 32.8% at week 24. The risk factor with the strongest association for vanishing immune responses was low serum albumin (p = 0.018). Regarding vaccine-specific humoral responses 6 months after the standard BNT162b2 vaccination schedule, SARS-CoV-2 naïve patients receiving hemodialysis must be considered at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 and being infectious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Coverage, Efficacy and Attitude in Targeted Risk Groups)
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Article
COVID-19 in China and the US: Differences in Hospital Admission Co-Variates and Outcomes
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020326 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 432
Abstract
(1) Background: Although there are extensive data on admission co-variates and outcomes of persons with coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) at diverse geographic sites, there are few, if any, subject-level comparisons between sites in regions and countries. We investigated differences in hospital admission co-variates [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Although there are extensive data on admission co-variates and outcomes of persons with coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) at diverse geographic sites, there are few, if any, subject-level comparisons between sites in regions and countries. We investigated differences in hospital admission co-variates and outcomes of hospitalized people with COVID-19 between Wuhan City, China and the New York City region, USA. (2) Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on 1859 hospitalized subjects with COVID-19 in Wuhan City, China, from 20 January to 4 April 2020. Data on 5700 hospitalized subjects with COVID-19 in the New York City region, USA, from 1 March to 4 April 2020 were extracted from an article by Richardson et al. Hospital admission co-variates (epidemiological, demographic, and laboratory co-variates) and outcomes (rate of intensive care unit [ICU] admission, invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], major organ failure and death, and length of hospital stay) were compared between the cohorts. (3) Results: Wuhan subjects were younger, more likely female, less likely to have co-morbidities and fever, more likely to have a blood lymphocyte concentration > 1 × 109/L, and less likely to have abnormal liver and cardiac function tests compared with New York subjects. There were outcomes data on all Wuhan subjects and 2634 New York subjects. Wuhan subjects had higher blood nadir median lymphocyte concentrations and longer hospitalizations, and were less likely to receive IMV, ICU hospitalization, and interventions for kidney failure. Amongst subjects not receiving IMV, those in Wuhan were less likely to die compared with New York subjects. In contrast, risk of death was similar in subjects receiving IMV at both sites. (4) Conclusions: We found different hospital admission co-variates and outcomes between hospitalized persons with COVID-19 between Wuhan City and the New York region, which should be useful developing a comprehensive global understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Epidemiology and Transmission)
Case Report
Aseptic Meningitis, Mucocutaneous Lesions and Arthritis after COVID-19 Vaccination in a 15-Year-Old Boy
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020325 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
We report a 15-year-old boy who developed aseptic meningitis 10 days after administration of the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2. Although accompanying aphthous mouth ulcers resembling herpetic stomatitis initially led us to suspect an underlying viral infection, broad virological and microbiological [...] Read more.
We report a 15-year-old boy who developed aseptic meningitis 10 days after administration of the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2. Although accompanying aphthous mouth ulcers resembling herpetic stomatitis initially led us to suspect an underlying viral infection, broad virological and microbiological screening did not identify any causative pathogen. Gonarthritis and skin lesions, which both developed within three days after admission, extended the clinical presentation eventually resembling an acute Behçet’s disease episode. This is the first description of a juvenile patient with aseptic and pathogen-negative meningitis occurring in close temporal association with vaccination against COVID-19, along with a few previously reported adult patients with isolated meningitis and a further case with meningitis and an accompanying Behçet’s disease-like multisystem inflammation episode as seen in our patient. With billions of individuals being vaccinated worldwide so far and only a few cases of aseptic pathogen-negative meningitis reported in close temporal relation, causality is unclear. However, aseptic meningitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent or delayed onset of headache and fever following COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
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Article
Comparative Immunogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccines in a Population-Based Cohort Study with SARS-CoV-2-Infected and Uninfected Participants
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020324 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 612
Abstract
To assess vaccine immunogenicity in non-infected and previously infected individuals in a real-world scenario, SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were determined during follow-up 2 (April 2021) of the population-based Tirschenreuth COVID-19 cohort study comprising 3378 inhabitants of the Tirschenreuth county aged 14 years or older. [...] Read more.
To assess vaccine immunogenicity in non-infected and previously infected individuals in a real-world scenario, SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were determined during follow-up 2 (April 2021) of the population-based Tirschenreuth COVID-19 cohort study comprising 3378 inhabitants of the Tirschenreuth county aged 14 years or older. Seronegative participants vaccinated once with Vaxzevria, Comirnaty, or Spikevax had median neutralizing antibody titers ranging from ID50 = 25 to 75. Individuals with two immunizations with Comirnaty or Spikevax had higher median ID50s (of 253 and 554, respectively). Regression analysis indicated that both increased age and increased time since vaccination independently decreased RBD binding and neutralizing antibody levels. Unvaccinated participants with detectable N-antibodies at baseline (June 2020) revealed a median ID50 of 72 at the April 2021 follow-up. Previously infected participants that received one dose of Vaxzevria or Comirnaty had median ID50 to 929 and 2502, respectively. Individuals with a second dose of Comirnaty given in a three-week interval after the first dose did not have higher median antibody levels than individuals with one dose. Prior infection also primed for high systemic IgA levels in response to one dose of Comirnaty that exceeded IgA levels observed after two doses of Comirnaty in previously uninfected participants. Neutralizing antibody levels targeting the spike protein of Beta and Delta variants were diminished compared to the wild type in vaccinated and infected participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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Article
Demographic Characteristics and Status of Vaccinated Individuals with a History of COVID-19 Infection Pre- or Post-Vaccination: A Descriptive Study of a Nationally Representative Sample in Saudi Arabia
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020323 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Background: Saudi Arabia expedited the approval of some COVID-19 vaccines and launched mass vaccination campaigns. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics of vaccinated COVID-19 cases and compare the mortality rates of COVID-19 cases who were infected post-vaccination in Saudi [...] Read more.
Background: Saudi Arabia expedited the approval of some COVID-19 vaccines and launched mass vaccination campaigns. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics of vaccinated COVID-19 cases and compare the mortality rates of COVID-19 cases who were infected post-vaccination in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. We retrieved data for COVID-19 cases who were infected pre- or post-vaccination and had received at least one injection of the Oxford–AstraZeneca or Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine from 4 December 2020 to 15 October 2021. Results: The number of patients who were infected and had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine was 281,744. Approximately 45% of subjects were infected post-vaccination, and 75% of subjects had received the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine. Only 0.342% of the patients who were infected post-vaccination died, and 447 patients were admitted to ICUs. Most of the patients who were infected with COVID-19 post-vaccination and were admitted to ICUs (69.84%) had received only one dose of the vaccine (p < 0.0001). The mean time to infection for patients who had received one and two doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine were 27 and 8 days longer than their counterparts who had received one and two doses of Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine, respectively. No difference in the odds of mortality between the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines was found (OR = 1.121, 95% CI = [0.907–1.386], p-value = 0.291). Patients who had received two doses of the vaccine had significantly lower odds of mortality compared to those who had received one dose (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Vaccines are vital in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study show no difference between the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines in the rate of mortality. However, the number of vaccine doses was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality. Future studies should examine the effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines using real-world data and more robust designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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Article
Higher SARS-CoV-2 Spike Binding Antibody Levels and Neutralization Capacity 6 Months after Heterologous Vaccination with AZD1222 and BNT162b2
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020322 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Within a year after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, several vaccines had been developed, clinically evaluated, proven to be efficacious in preventing symptomatic disease, and licensed for global use. The remaining questions about the vaccines concern the duration of protection offered by vaccination and [...] Read more.
Within a year after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, several vaccines had been developed, clinically evaluated, proven to be efficacious in preventing symptomatic disease, and licensed for global use. The remaining questions about the vaccines concern the duration of protection offered by vaccination and its efficacy against variants of concern. Therefore, we set out to analyze the humoral and cellular immune responses 6 months into homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. We recruited 190 health care workers and measured their anti-spike IgG levels, their neutralizing capacities against the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain and the Delta variant using a surrogate viral neutralization test, and their IFNγ-responses towards SARS-CoV-2-derived spike peptides. We here show that IFNγ secretion in response to peptide stimulation was significantly enhanced in all three vaccination groups and comparable in magnitude. In contrast, the heterologous prime-boost regimen using AZD1222 and BNT162b2 yielded the highest anti-spike IgG levels, which were 3–4.5 times more than the levels resulting from homologous AZD1222 and BNT162b2 vaccination, respectively. Likewise, the neutralizing capacity against both the wild type as well as the Delta receptor binding domains was significantly higher following the heterologous prime-boost regimen. In conclusion, our results suggest that mixing different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might lead to more efficacious and longer-lasting humoral protection against breakthrough infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Vaccines for COVID-19 and Related Coronavirus Diseases)
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Article
Modulation of Inflammatory Signaling Molecules in Bordetella pertussis Antigen-Challenged Human Monocytes in Presence of Adrenergic Agonists
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020321 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
BscF is a type III secretion system (T3SS) needle protein from Bordetella pertussis and has previously been shown to induce a sufficient Th1 and Th17 response in human monocytes and mice as a prerequisite for long-lasting protective immunity against pertussis infection. In our [...] Read more.
BscF is a type III secretion system (T3SS) needle protein from Bordetella pertussis and has previously been shown to induce a sufficient Th1 and Th17 response in human monocytes and mice as a prerequisite for long-lasting protective immunity against pertussis infection. In our current study, we aim to compare the modulation of inflammatory signaling molecules as a direct measure of the immune response to the B. pertussis antigens BscF and Tdap in the presence or absence of the adrenergic receptor agonists phenylephrine (PE) or isoproterenol (ISO) to observe differences that may contribute to the diminished protective immunity of the current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine, Tdap. Stimulation of human monocyte THP-1 cells with LPS, BscF, and Tdap induced a robust elevation of CCL20, CXCL10, PGE2, and PGF2α among most chemokine and prostanoid members when compared with the control treatment. Treatment with the adrenergic agonist PE or ISO significantly enhanced the BscF- and Tdap-stimulated modulation of CCL20 and CXCL10 but not PGE2 and PGF2α, suggesting that adrenergic modulation of pertussis antigen responses might be a new therapeutic strategy to improve the longevity of pertussis immunity. Stimulation of THP-1 cells with BscF alone initiated significant expression of CXCL10 and PGF2α but not when Tdap was used, suggesting that BscF might be an important pertussis antigen for next-generation pertussis vaccines or when combined with the current aP vaccine. Our data offer opportunities for designing new therapeutic approaches against pertussis infection. Full article
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Article
The Safety of mRNA-1273, BNT162b2 and JNJ-78436735 COVID-19 Vaccines: Safety Monitoring for Adverse Events Using Real-World Data
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020320 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Two mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (mRNA-1273, Moderna; and BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech) and one viral vector vaccine (JNJ-78436735, Janssen/Johnson and Johnson) are authorized in the US to hinder COVID-19 infections. We analyzed severe and common adverse events in response to COVID-19 vaccines using real-world, Vaccine Adverse [...] Read more.
Two mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (mRNA-1273, Moderna; and BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech) and one viral vector vaccine (JNJ-78436735, Janssen/Johnson and Johnson) are authorized in the US to hinder COVID-19 infections. We analyzed severe and common adverse events in response to COVID-19 vaccines using real-world, Vaccine Adverse Effect Reporting System (VAERS) data. From 14 December 2020 to 30 September 2021, 481,172 (50.7 ± 17.5 years, males 27.89%, 12.35 per 100,000 people) individuals reported adverse events (AEs). The median time to severe AEs was 2 days after injection. The risk of severe AEs following the one viral vector vaccine (OR = 1.044, 95% CI = 1.005–1.086) was significantly higher than that after the two mRNA vaccines, and the risk among males (OR = 1.374, 95% CI = 1.342–1.406) was higher than among females, except for anaphylaxis. For common AEs, however, the risk to males (OR = 0.621, 95% CI = 0.612–0.63) was lower than to females. In conclusion, we provided medical insight and clinical guidance about vaccine types by characterizing AEs using real-world data. In particular, COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are safer than viral vector vaccines with regard to coagulation disorders, whereas inflammation-related AEs are lower in the viral vaccine. The risk–benefit ratio of vaccines should be carefully considered, and close monitoring and management of severe AEs is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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Article
A Comparison with Adverse Events Following Immunization Associated with Sabin-Strains and Salk-Strains Inactivated Polio Vaccines in Zhejiang Province, China
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020319 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Objectives: One dose of Sabin-strains inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was introduced into the Chinese immunization program on 1 May 2016. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of Sabin-strains IPV and provide a comparison with conventional Salk-strains IPV. Methods: Adverse events following immunization [...] Read more.
Objectives: One dose of Sabin-strains inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was introduced into the Chinese immunization program on 1 May 2016. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of Sabin-strains IPV and provide a comparison with conventional Salk-strains IPV. Methods: Adverse events following immunization (AEFI) records associated with Sabin-strains IPV and Salk-strains IPV were extracted from the national AEFI surveillance system (NAEFISS) from 1 May 2016 to 31 December 2020. The vaccination information on Sabin-strains IPV and Salk-strains IPV during the same period was obtained from the Zhejiang provincial immunization information system. Reporting rates of AEFI were calculated by age, city, severity of AEFI, categories of AEFI, and reaction categories and were compared between Sabin-strains IPV and Salk-strains IPV. Results: In total, 3,861,758 doses of Sabin-strains IPV and 1,018,604 doses of Salk-strains IPV were administered during the study period. The overall AEFI reporting rate for Sabin-strains IPV (3.96/10,000 doses) was significantly lower than that for Salk-strains IPV (5.03/10,000 doses) due to the reporting rate of the minor vaccine product-related reaction following Sabin-strains IPV was significantly lower than that for Salk-strains IPV (2.76/10,000 doses vs. 3.83/10,000 doses). The most frequently reported symptoms/signs were fever, induration/swelling, and rash/urticaria. The most frequently reported serious AEFI with a causal relationship was febrile convulsion, with the reporting rates of 0.10/10,000 doses for Sabin-strains IPV and 0.08/10,000 doses for Salk-strains IPV. No significant difference was found in the reporting rates of the other serious AEFI between the two types of IPV. Conclusion: Most of the AEFI following Sabin-strains IPV and Salk-strains IPV were mild and common adverse reactions. The reporting rate of serious AEFI was not significantly different between Sabin-strains IPV and Salk-strains IPV. Sabin-strains IPV had a favorable safety profile and could be widely used. Full article
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Review
Clostridial Diseases of Horses: A Review
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020318 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
The clostridial diseases of horses can be divided into three major groups: enteric/enterotoxic, histotoxic, and neurotoxic. The main enteric/enterotoxic diseases include those produced by Clostridium perfringens type C and Clostridioides difficile, both of which are characterized by enterocolitis. The main histotoxic diseases [...] Read more.
The clostridial diseases of horses can be divided into three major groups: enteric/enterotoxic, histotoxic, and neurotoxic. The main enteric/enterotoxic diseases include those produced by Clostridium perfringens type C and Clostridioides difficile, both of which are characterized by enterocolitis. The main histotoxic diseases are gas gangrene, Tyzzer disease, and infectious necrotic hepatitis. Gas gangrene is produced by one or more of the following microorganisms: C. perfringens type A, Clostridium septicum, Paeniclostridium sordellii, and Clostridium novyi type A, and it is characterized by necrotizing cellulitis and/or myositis. Tyzzer disease is produced by Clostridium piliforme and is mainly characterized by multifocal necrotizing hepatitis. Infectious necrotic hepatitis is produced by Clostridium novyi type B and is characterized by focal necrotizing hepatitis. The main neurotoxic clostridial diseases are tetanus and botulism, which are produced by Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum, respectively. Tetanus is characterized by spastic paralysis and botulism by flaccid paralysis. Neither disease present with specific gross or microscopic lesions. The pathogenesis of clostridial diseases involves the production of toxins. Confirming a diagnosis of some of the clostridial diseases of horses is sometimes difficult, mainly because some agents can be present in tissues of normal animals. This paper reviews the main clostridial diseases of horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Infectious Diseases and Immunotherapy)
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Article
Natural Brucella melitensis Infection and Rev. 1 Vaccination Induce Specific Brucella O-Polysaccharide Antibodies Involved in Complement Mediated Brucella Cell Killing
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020317 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Vaccination against brucellosis using live attenuated strains is the primary approach in protecting livestock against the disease through a strong cellular immune response. Attenuated vaccine strains also induce serum anti-Brucella antibodies, mostly against Brucella O-polysaccharide, but their role in protection against the [...] Read more.
Vaccination against brucellosis using live attenuated strains is the primary approach in protecting livestock against the disease through a strong cellular immune response. Attenuated vaccine strains also induce serum anti-Brucella antibodies, mostly against Brucella O-polysaccharide, but their role in protection against the disease remains unclear. In this study, we show that Brucella OPS serum antibodies after vaccination or natural infection could kill Brucella in vitro as shown by the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) assay. We used serum samples of Rev. 1 vaccinated sheep that were negative or positive for Brucella OPS antibodies by either one of complement fixation test (CFT), microplate agglutination test (MAT) and ELISA, or sera of naturally infected sheep positive by CFT. We found a significant increase in the killing ability of sera 30 days after intraocular vaccination with Rev. 1 as compared with pre-vaccination. SBA was significantly higher in sera containing Brucella OPS IgG antibodies in comparison with sera lacking such antibodies (p < 0.001 against 16M & Rev. 1 strains). All 10 sera of convalescent sheep demonstrated significant killing ability against the 16M B. melitensis field strain. Specific OPS antibodies participate in the in vitro complement mediated Brucella killing suggesting a potential role in protection against the disease through this mechanism and relevance of developing OPS-based Brucella vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research on Monoclonal Antibodies and Antibody Engineering)
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Article
Intensity and Dynamics of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses after BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination: Implications for Public Health Vaccination Strategies
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020316 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 668
Abstract
The aim of our study was to investigate the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccination according to the age and medical status of vaccinated individuals. A total of 511 individuals were enrolled (median age: 54.0 years, range: 19–105); 509 of these individuals (99.6%) received [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to investigate the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccination according to the age and medical status of vaccinated individuals. A total of 511 individuals were enrolled (median age: 54.0 years, range: 19–105); 509 of these individuals (99.6%) received two doses of BNT162b2 at an interval of 21 days. IgG and IgA responses were evaluated on days 21, 42, 90, and 180 after the first dose with chemiluminescent microparticle and ELISA assays. The cell-mediated immune responses were assessed by an automated interferon-gamma release assay. We demonstrated positive antibody responses after vaccination for the majority of enrolled participants, although waning of IgG and IgA titers was also observed over time. We further observed that the intensity of humoral responses was positively correlated with increased age and prior COVID-19 infection (either before or after the first vaccination). Moreover, we found that only a medical history of autoimmune disease could affect the intensity of IgA and IgG responses (3 weeks after the primary and secondary immunization, respectively), while development of systemic adverse reactions after the second vaccination dose was significantly associated with the height of IgG responses. Finally, we identified a clear correlation between humoral and cellular responses, suggesting that the study of cellular responses is not required as a routine laboratory test after vaccination. Our results provide useful information about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination with significant implications for public health vaccination strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Immune Response after COVID-19 Vaccination)
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Review
Spatial, Temporal, and Demographic Patterns in the Prevalence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in 41 Countries in 2005–2019: A Systematic Analysis with Special Focus on the Potential Development of a New-Generation Vaccine
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020315 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 499
Abstract
Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 is among the fatal bacterial diseases in cattle and buffaloes that are economically valuable in Asian and African countries. The current work aims to study the prevalence of HS among buffaloes, cattle, sheep, [...] Read more.
Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 is among the fatal bacterial diseases in cattle and buffaloes that are economically valuable in Asian and African countries. The current work aims to study the prevalence of HS among buffaloes, cattle, sheep, and goats in 41 countries in 2005–2019. The data analysis revealed that 74.4% of the total infection rate in the world was distributed among cattle, followed by buffaloes (13.1%). The mortality of HS among cattle and buffaloes increased in 2017–2019 compared to the period between 2014 and 2016. The best measure to control the disease is through vaccination programs. Current commercial vaccines, including live-attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines, have some shortcomings and undesirable effects. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have more potential as a vaccine platform due to their unique properties to enhance immune response and the ability to use them as a platform for foreign antigens against infectious diseases. VLPs-based vaccines are among the new-generation subunit vaccine approaches that have been licensed for the human and veterinary fields. However, most studies are still in the late stages of vaccine evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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Article
A Multi-Center, Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Clinical Trial Evaluating the Impact of BCG Re-Vaccination on the Incidence and Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Infections among Symptomatic Healthcare Professionals during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Poland—First Results
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020314 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Tuberculosis vaccines (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG) were introduced 100 years ago and are still recommended by the World Health Organization to prevent the disease. Studies have shown that BCG vaccination can stimulate non-specific immune responses and reduce the incidence of certain diseases. At the [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis vaccines (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG) were introduced 100 years ago and are still recommended by the World Health Organization to prevent the disease. Studies have shown that BCG vaccination can stimulate non-specific immune responses and reduce the incidence of certain diseases. At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it was hypothesised that the incidence of COVID-19 was lower in countries with BCG prevention. In an attempt to verify this thesis, we conducted a multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on a group of 695 health care workers aged 25 years and over in Poland. All participants in the study had a tuberculin test, after which those who were negative were randomised (1:1) and received either the BCG- or placebo vaccine. From then on, these people were subjected to three months of observation for the occurrence of COVID-19 symptoms. The statistical analysis did not reveal any significant correlation between the frequency of incidents suspected of COVID-19 and BCG-10 vaccination, the result of the tuberculin test and the number of scars. The only statistically significant feature was the type of medical profession—nurses became infected more often than doctors or other medical workers (p = 0.02). The results differ from similar trials in other countries. Perhaps this is due to the lack of an unvaccinated control group. The impact of BCG vaccination on the course of COVID-19 requires further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines: Uptake and Equity in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Review
Adverse Events Reporting Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials of COVID-19 Vaccine Using the CONSORT Criteria for Reporting Harms: A Systematic Review
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020313 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Background: Assessing the quality of evidence from vaccine clinical trials is essential to ensure the safety and efficacy of the vaccine and further enhance public acceptance. This study aims to summarize and critically evaluate the quality of harm reporting on randomized controlled trials [...] Read more.
Background: Assessing the quality of evidence from vaccine clinical trials is essential to ensure the safety and efficacy of the vaccine and further enhance public acceptance. This study aims to summarize and critically evaluate the quality of harm reporting on randomized controlled trials for the COVID-19 vaccine and determine the factors associated with reporting quality. Methods: We systematically searched the literature using PRISMA guidelines for randomized controlled trials (RCT) on COVID-19 Vaccine until 30 December 2021. Published articles were searched from electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Bibliovid. Bias analysis was performed using RoB-2 tools. The quality of reporting was assessed by the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) harm extension modified into 21 items. Results: A total of 61 RCT studies (402,014 patients) were analyzed. Over half the studies demonstrated adequate reporting (59.02%), and 21 studies (34.4%) reported a low risk of bias. All studies reported death and serious adverse events (AEs), but only six studies mentioned how to handle the recurrent AEs. Reporting of AEs in subgroup analysis was also poor (25%). Conclusion: The RCTs on the COVID-19 vaccine were less biased with good quality on reporting harm based on the modified CONSORT harm extension. However, study quality must be considered, especially for a balance of information between effectivity and safety. Full article
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