Vaccines in Farm Animals

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 28638

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Interests: veterinary parasitology; tritrichomonas; neospora; toxoplasma; immune response; animal models; gene editing; CRISPR-Cas9; oocysts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Godoy Cruz 2290, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2. Instituto de Innovación para la Producción Agropecuaria y el Desarrollo Sostenible (IPADS), Balcarce, Argentina
Interests: neospora; cattle; vaccines; immune response; serology; abortion

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Health, University of León, 24071 León, Spain
Interests: ruminants; vaccines; mycobacteria; paratuberculosis; protozoan diseases; toxoplasmosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many infectious diseases are originated from livestock. Most of these diseases are or may potentially be transmitted to humans either directly or through animal products. In addition, other infections not affecting human can still produce important economic losses in the agricultural/livestock sector. Although there have been some advancements in the development of treatments and farmers and veterinarians are more and more trained to perform more accurate tests to stop the spread of these diseases, the most efficient way of preventing these setbacks is by immunoprophylaxis. In this special issue we focus on the development, characterization, field trials and efficiency tests of vaccines aimed at stopping or preventing diseases affecting animals and humans, with an especial interest in those related to livestock.

To this end, we invite you to submit an original research or review to this Special Issue covering (but not limited to) the following topics:

a) Vaccines against protozoan parasites (e.g. Toxoplasma, Neospora, Eimeria, Theileria, Tritrichomonas…)

b) Vaccines against diseases affecting ruminants, with especial interest in those vertically transmitted or causing abortion (protozoans, viruses, bacteria…)

c) Vaccines against diseases transmitted to humans through animal products (meat, milk, eggs…)

d) Recombinant or inactivated vaccine trials in livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, poultry, pigs…)

e) Vaccines based on genetically modified organisms affecting animals and humans (knockout, exogenous expression of heterologous proteins/antigens)

We are looking forward to your interesting manuscript and do not hesitate to contact us should you require further information.

Dr. David Arranz-Solís
Dr. Yanina Paola Hecker
Dr. Valentin Pérez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Protozoan parasites
  • Abortion, genetically modified organisms
  • Zoonosis
  • Food-borne
  • Cattle
  • Livestock

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1242 KiB  
Article
Peripheral IFN-ɣ Production after Blood Stimulation with Different Mycobacterial Antigens in Goats Vaccinated against Paratuberculosis
by Miguel Fernández, Marcos Royo, Noive Arteche-Villasol, M. Carmen Ferreras, Julio Benavides and Valentín Pérez
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101709 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Vaccination can be an efficient method for the control of paratuberculosis in ruminants. However, the official tuberculosis control tests cross-interfere with the animals vaccinated against paratuberculosis. In order to test and compare new antigens that could solve this problem, the production of interferon-gamma [...] Read more.
Vaccination can be an efficient method for the control of paratuberculosis in ruminants. However, the official tuberculosis control tests cross-interfere with the animals vaccinated against paratuberculosis. In order to test and compare new antigens that could solve this problem, the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in peripheral blood at different post-vaccination days in experimental kids and adult goats, in field conditions, using the avian and bovine purified protein derivative (PPD), the johnin, two peptide cocktails of Mycobacterium bovis (PC-EC and PC-HP) and the antigens VK 055 and VK 067 of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) has been analyzed in vitro. The non-specific production of IFN-γ was observed after blood stimulation with the PC-EC and PC-HP cocktail in any sample from vaccinated animals, whereas it was detected when bovine PPD was used. These results support the possible use of these new Mycobacterium bovis antigens in the in the differentiation of animals vaccinated against paratuberculosis or infected with tuberculosis by improving the specificity of bovine PPD. In contrast, the two Map antigens tested in this study did not improve the sensitivity of johnin or avian PPD in the detection of vaccinated or Map-infected goats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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12 pages, 1347 KiB  
Article
The Association of Bacterin and Recombinant Proteins Induces a Humoral Response in Sheep against Caseous Lymphadenitis
by Luan Santana Moreira, Natália da Rocha Lopes, Vitor Cordeiro Pereira, Caio Lopes Borges Andrade, Alex José Leite Torres, Marcos Borges Ribeiro, Songeli Menezes Freire, Ramon Mendes dos Santos, Milena D’ávila, Roberto Meyer Nascimento and Silvana Beutinger Marchioro
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091406 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the capacity of the recombinant proteins SpaC, NanH, SodC, and PLD of C. pseudotuberculosis to trigger protective humoral and cellular immune responses against experimentally induced C. pseudotuberculosis infection in sheep. The antigens were produced in a heterologous system [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the capacity of the recombinant proteins SpaC, NanH, SodC, and PLD of C. pseudotuberculosis to trigger protective humoral and cellular immune responses against experimentally induced C. pseudotuberculosis infection in sheep. The antigens were produced in a heterologous system and were purified by affinity chromatography. Nine sheep were randomly divided into three groups, which were immunized as follows: Group 1 (control)—a mix of adjuvants composed of the inactivated T1 strain of C. pseudotuberculosis and commercial Montanide™ISA 61 VG (T1M); Group 2—rSpaC, rSodC, rPLD, and T1M; Group 3—rNanH, rSodC, rPLD, and T1M. All groups were immunized twice (on days 0 and 30) and challenged on day 90 of the experiment. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to quantify the IgG antibodies and interferon-gamma (IFN-y). Both vaccine formulations with recombinant proteins (groups 2 and 3) could induce a significant humoral IgG immune response in sheep. The proteins rSodC, rPLD, and rNanH were more immunogenic, inducing significant levels of IgG antibodies after the first dose of the vaccine or after the challenge, maintaining constant levels until the end of the experiment. However, it was not possible to differentiate between the cellular responses induced by the vaccines. This lack of effectiveness points toward the need for further studies to improve the efficacy of this subunit-based vaccine approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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9 pages, 1376 KiB  
Communication
Assessment of Paratuberculosis Vaccination Effect on In Vitro Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in a Sheep Model
by Noive Arteche-Villasol, Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito, Miguel Criado, Julio Benavides and Valentín Pérez
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091403 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Vaccination of domestic ruminants against paratuberculosis has been related to homologous and heterologous protective effects that have been attributed to the establishment of a trained immune response. Recent evidence suggests that neutrophils could play a role in its development. Therefore, we propose an [...] Read more.
Vaccination of domestic ruminants against paratuberculosis has been related to homologous and heterologous protective effects that have been attributed to the establishment of a trained immune response. Recent evidence suggests that neutrophils could play a role in its development. Therefore, we propose an in vitro model for the study of the effect of paratuberculosis vaccination on the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in sheep. Ovine neutrophils were obtained from non-vaccinated (n = 5) and vaccinated sheep (n = 5) at different times post-vaccination and infected in vitro with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), and Escherichia coli (EC). NETs release was quantified by fluorimetry and visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Typical NETs components (DNA, neutrophil elastase, and myeloperoxidase) were visualized extracellularly in all infected neutrophils; however, no significant percentage of extracellular DNA was detected in Map-infected neutrophils compared with SA- and EC-infected. In addition, no significant effect was detected in relation to paratuberculosis vaccination. Further assays to study NETs release in ovine neutrophils are needed. Preliminary results suggest no implication of NETs formation in the early immune response after vaccination, although other neutrophil functions should be evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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17 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Reactivation and Foetal Infection in Pregnant Heifers Infected with Neospora caninum Live Tachyzoites at Prepubertal Age
by Yanina P. Hecker, Mercedes M. Burucúa, Franco Fiorani, Jaime E. Maldonado Rivera, Karina M. Cirone, Matías A. Dorsch, Felipe A. Cheuquepán, Lucía M. Campero, Germán J. Cantón, Maia S. Marín, Luis M. Ortega-Mora and Dadín P. Moore
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081175 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Neospora caninum is recognised for causing cattle abortion, provoking severe economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reactivation and foetal infection in pregnant heifers inoculated with live N. caninum tachyzoites before puberty. A [...] Read more.
Neospora caninum is recognised for causing cattle abortion, provoking severe economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reactivation and foetal infection in pregnant heifers inoculated with live N. caninum tachyzoites before puberty. A total of 15 30-month-old pregnant heifers were allocated into four groups: animals inoculated with live tachyzoites of NC-Argentina LP1 isolate before puberty and challenged with live tachyzoites of NC-1 strain at 210 days of gestation (DG) (Group A); animals mock inoculated before puberty and challenged with NC-1 strain at 210 DG (Group B), animals inoculated before puberty but not subsequently challenged (Group C); and noninfected and nonchallenged animals (Group D). The results of this study showed that 100% of animals infected before puberty (Groups A and C) suffered reactivation of the infection at the seventh month of gestation. In addition, in three and two calves from Groups A and C, respectively, congenital infection was confirmed. Interestingly, we provide evidence that the use of live N. caninum tachyzoites in young animals as a strategy to induce protection is neither safe nor effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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14 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
High Efficiency of Low Dose Preparations of an Inactivated Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Vaccine Candidate
by Janika Wolff, Martin Beer and Bernd Hoffmann
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071029 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
Capripox virus-induced diseases are commonly described as the most serious poxvirus diseases of production animals, as they have a significant impact on national and global economies. Therefore, they are classified as notifiable diseases under the guidelines of the World Organization for Animal Health [...] Read more.
Capripox virus-induced diseases are commonly described as the most serious poxvirus diseases of production animals, as they have a significant impact on national and global economies. Therefore, they are classified as notifiable diseases under the guidelines of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Controlling lumpy skin disease viral infections is based on early detection, slaughter of affected herds, and ring vaccinations. Until now, only live attenuated vaccines have been commercially available, which often induce adverse effects in vaccinated animals. Furthermore, their application leads to the loss of the “disease-free” status of the respective country. For these reasons, inactivated vaccines have increasingly generated interest. Since 2016, experimental studies have been published showing the high efficacy of inactivated capripox virus vaccines. In the present study, we examined the minimum protective dose of a BEI-inactivated LSDV-Serbia field strain adjuvanted with a low-molecular-weight copolymer adjuvant. Unexpectedly, even the lowest dose tested, with a virus titer of 104 CCID50 before inactivation, was able to provide complete clinical protection in all vaccinated cattle. Moreover, none of the vaccinated cattle showed viremia or viral shedding, indicating the high efficacy of the prototype vaccine even with a relatively low antigen amount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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17 pages, 3585 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect against Neosporosis Induced by Intranasal Immunization with Neospora caninum Membrane Antigens Plus Carbomer-Based Adjuvant
by Alexandra Correia, Pedro Alves, Ricardo Fróis-Martins, Luzia Teixeira and Manuel Vilanova
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060925 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan responsible for abortion and stillbirths in cattle. We previously developed a mucosal vaccination approach using N. caninum membrane proteins and CpG adjuvant that conferred long-term protection against neosporosis in mice. Here, we have extended this approach [...] Read more.
Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan responsible for abortion and stillbirths in cattle. We previously developed a mucosal vaccination approach using N. caninum membrane proteins and CpG adjuvant that conferred long-term protection against neosporosis in mice. Here, we have extended this approach by alternatively using the carbomer-based adjuvant Carbigen™ in the immunizing preparation. Immunized mice presented higher proportions and numbers of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Stimulation of spleen, lungs and liver leukocytes with parasite antigens induced a marked production of IFN-γ and IL-17A and, less markedly, IL-4. This balanced response was also evident in that both parasite-specific IgG1 and IgG2c were raised by immunization, together with specific intestinal IgA. Upon intraperitoneal infection with N. caninum, immunized mice presented lower parasitic burdens than sham-immunized controls. In the infected immunized mice, memory CD4+ T cells predominantly expressed T-bet and RORγt, and CD8+ T cells expressing T-bet were found increased. While spleen, lungs and liver leukocytes of both immunized and sham-immunized infected animals produced high amounts of IFN-γ, only the cells from immunized mice responded with high IL-17A production. Since in cattle both IFN-γ and IL-17A have been associated with protective mechanisms against N. caninum infection, the elicited cytokine profile obtained using CarbigenTM as adjuvant indicates that it could be worth exploring for bovine neosporosis vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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17 pages, 2274 KiB  
Article
Protection of Cattle against Epizootic Bovine Abortion (EBA) Using a Live Pajaroellobacter abortibovis Vaccine
by Myra T. Blanchard, Mike B. Teglas, Mark L. Anderson, Peter F. Moore, Bret R. McNabb, Kassidy M. Collins, Bret V. Yeargan and Jeffrey L. Stott
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020335 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA) is an arthropod-borne bacterial disease that causes significant economic loss for cattle producers in the western United States. The etiologic agent, Pajaroellobacter abortibovis, is an intracellular pathogen that has yet to be cultivated in vitro, thereby requiring novel [...] Read more.
Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA) is an arthropod-borne bacterial disease that causes significant economic loss for cattle producers in the western United States. The etiologic agent, Pajaroellobacter abortibovis, is an intracellular pathogen that has yet to be cultivated in vitro, thereby requiring novel methodologies for vaccine development. A vaccine candidate, using live P. abortibovis-infected cells (P.a-LIC) harvested from mouse spleens, was tested in beef cattle. Over the course of two safety studies and four efficacy trials, safety risks were evaluated, and dosage and potencies refined. No incidence of anaphylaxis, recognized health issues or significant impact upon conception rates were noted. Vaccination did result in subclinical skin reactions. Early fetal losses were noted in two trials and were significant when the vaccine was administered within 21 days prior to conception. Administration of the EBA agent (EBAA) vaccine as a single dose, at a potency of 500 P.a–LIC, 56 days prior to breeding, provided 100% protection with no early fetal losses. Seroconversion occurred in all animals following EBAA vaccination and corresponded well with protection of the fetus from epizootic bovine abortion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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17 pages, 3952 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of the Newcastle Disease Virus Genotype VII.1.1-Matched Vaccines in Commercial Broilers
by Hesham A. Sultan, Wael K. Elfeil, Ahmed A. Nour, Laila Tantawy, Elsayed G. Kamel, Emad M. Eed, Ahmad El Askary and Shaimaa Talaat
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010029 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4127
Abstract
Class II genotype VII Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are predominant in the Middle East and Asia despite intensive vaccination programs using conventional live and inactivated NDV vaccines. In this study, the protective efficacies of three commercial vaccine regimes involving genotype II NDV, recombinant [...] Read more.
Class II genotype VII Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are predominant in the Middle East and Asia despite intensive vaccination programs using conventional live and inactivated NDV vaccines. In this study, the protective efficacies of three commercial vaccine regimes involving genotype II NDV, recombinant genotype VII NDV-matched, and an autogenous velogenic NDV genotype VII vaccine were evaluated against challenge with velogenic NDV genotype VII (accession number MG029120). Three vaccination regimes were applied as follows: group-1 received inactivated genotype II, group-2 received inactivated recombinant genotype VII NDV-matched, and group-3 received velogenic inactivated autogenous NDV genotype VII vaccines given on day 7; for the live vaccine doses, each group received the same live genotype II vaccine. The birds in all of the groups were challenged with NDV genotype VII, which was applied on day 28. Protection by the three regimes was evaluated after infection based on mortality rate, clinical signs, gross lesions, virus shedding, seroconversion, and microscopic changes. The results showed that these three vaccination regimes partially protected commercial broilers (73%, 86%, 97%, respectively, vs. 8.6% in non-vaccinated challenged and 0% in non-vaccinated non-challenged birds) against mortality at 10 days post-challenge (dpc). Using inactivated vaccines significantly reduced the virus shedding at the level of the number of shedders and the amount of virus that was shed in all vaccinated groups (G1-3) compared to in the non-vaccinated group (G-4). In conclusion, using closely genotype-matched vaccines (NDV-GVII) provided higher protection than using vaccines that were not closely genotype-matched and non-genotype-matched. The vaccine seeds that were closely related to genotype VII.1.1 provided higher protection against challenge against this genotype since it circulates in the Middle East region. Updating vaccine seeds with recent and closely related isolates provides higher protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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16 pages, 3055 KiB  
Article
A Bioinformatics Approach to Identifying Potential Biomarkers for Cryptosporidium parvum: A Coccidian Parasite Associated with Fetal Diarrhea
by Mumdooh J. Sabir, Ross Low, Neil Hall, Majid Rasool Kamli and Md. Zubbair Malik
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121427 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is a protozoan parasite known for cryptosporidiosis in pre-weaned calves. Animals and patients with immunosuppression are at risk of developing the disease, which can cause potentially fatal diarrhoea. The present study aimed to construct a network biology framework based [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is a protozoan parasite known for cryptosporidiosis in pre-weaned calves. Animals and patients with immunosuppression are at risk of developing the disease, which can cause potentially fatal diarrhoea. The present study aimed to construct a network biology framework based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of C. parvum infected subjects. In this way, the gene expression profiling analysis of C. parvum infected individuals can give us a snapshot of actively expressed genes and transcripts under infection conditions. In the present study, we have analyzed microarray data sets and compared the gene expression profiles of the patients with the different data sets of the healthy control. Using a network medicine approach to identify the most influential genes in the gene interaction network, we uncovered essential genes and pathways related to C. parvum infection. We identified 164 differentially expressed genes (109 up- and 54 down-regulated DEGs) and allocated them to pathway and gene set enrichment analysis. The results underpin the identification of seven significant hub genes with high centrality values: ISG15, MX1, IFI44L, STAT1, IFIT1, OAS1, IFIT3, RSAD2, IFITM1, and IFI44. These genes are associated with diverse biological processes not limited to host interaction, type 1 interferon production, or response to IL-gamma. Furthermore, four genes (IFI44, IFIT3, IFITM1, and MX1) were also discovered to be involved in innate immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and cell signaling. In conclusion, these results reinforce the development and implementation of tools based on gene profiles to identify and treat Cryptosporidium parvum-related diseases at an early stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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16 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
A Listeria monocytogenes-Based Vaccine Formulation Reduces Vertical Transmission and Leads to Enhanced Pup Survival in a Pregnant Neosporosis Mouse Model
by Dennis Imhof, William Robert Pownall, Camille Monney, Anna Oevermann and Andrew Hemphill
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121400 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
The apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum is the worldwide leading cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle. An attenuated mutant Listeria monocytogenes strain (Lm3Dx) was engineered by deleting the virulence genes actA, inlA, and inlB in order to avoid systemic infection and [...] Read more.
The apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum is the worldwide leading cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle. An attenuated mutant Listeria monocytogenes strain (Lm3Dx) was engineered by deleting the virulence genes actA, inlA, and inlB in order to avoid systemic infection and to target the vector to antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Insertion of sag1, coding for the major surface protein NcSAG1 of N. caninum, yielded the vaccine strain Lm3Dx_NcSAG1. The efficacy of Lm3Dx_NcSAG1 was assessed by inoculating 1 × 105, 1 × 106, or 1 × 107 CFU of Lm3Dx_NcSAG1 into female BALB/c mice by intramuscular injection three times at two-week intervals, and subsequent challenge with 1 × 105N. caninum tachyzoites of the highly virulent NcSpain-7 strain on day 7 of pregnancy. Dose-dependent protective effects were seen, with a postnatal offspring survival rate of 67% in the group treated with 1 × 107 CFU of Lm3Dx_NcSAG1 compared to 5% survival in the non-vaccinated control group. At euthanasia (25 days post-partum), IgG antibody titers were significantly decreased in the groups receiving the two higher doses and cytokines recall responses in splenocyte culture supernatants (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10) were increased in the vaccinated groups. Thus, Lm3Dx_NcSAG1 induces immune-protective effects associated with a balanced Th1/Th2 response in a pregnant neosporosis mouse model and should be further assessed in ruminant models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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Review

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17 pages, 2640 KiB  
Review
Spatial, Temporal, and Demographic Patterns in the Prevalence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in 41 Countries in 2005–2019: A Systematic Analysis with Special Focus on the Potential Development of a New-Generation Vaccine
by Reyad Almoheer, Mohd Effendy Abd Wahid, Hidayatul Aini Zakaria, Mohd Anuar Bin Jonet, Muhanna Mohammed Al-shaibani, Adel Al-Gheethi and Siti Nor Khadijah Addis
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020315 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3731
Abstract
Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 is among the fatal bacterial diseases in cattle and buffaloes that are economically valuable in Asian and African countries. The current work aims to study the prevalence of HS among buffaloes, cattle, sheep, [...] Read more.
Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 is among the fatal bacterial diseases in cattle and buffaloes that are economically valuable in Asian and African countries. The current work aims to study the prevalence of HS among buffaloes, cattle, sheep, and goats in 41 countries in 2005–2019. The data analysis revealed that 74.4% of the total infection rate in the world was distributed among cattle, followed by buffaloes (13.1%). The mortality of HS among cattle and buffaloes increased in 2017–2019 compared to the period between 2014 and 2016. The best measure to control the disease is through vaccination programs. Current commercial vaccines, including live-attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines, have some shortcomings and undesirable effects. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have more potential as a vaccine platform due to their unique properties to enhance immune response and the ability to use them as a platform for foreign antigens against infectious diseases. VLPs-based vaccines are among the new-generation subunit vaccine approaches that have been licensed for the human and veterinary fields. However, most studies are still in the late stages of vaccine evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Farm Animals)
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