Topic Editors

Science and Engineering Department, University College Roosevelt, 4331 CB Middelburg, The Netherlands
Dr. Jean-Luc Murk
Microvida Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands

Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 January 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (20 April 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 caused a pandemic, currently in its third wave, with a huge medical, societal, and economic impact. Based on detailed knowledge of the viral genome and the major proteins of the virus, molecular and serological assays have been rapidly developed. A wide range of serological assays (both in-house as well as commercial) for SARS-CoV-2 by now have been validated and implemented. These have been instrumental for diagnostics and for monitoring the course and severity of COVID-19. For now and in the future, (functional) serological assays will (also) be important to monitor vaccine coverage against emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2. The global aspect and impact of SARS-CoV-2 serology is illustrated through the emergence of variant strains in the UK, in Brazil, in South Africa, and in India. In this Special Issue, we aim to bring together views from clinical and basic specialists around the world on the pathogen, its biology, and the vaccines. We welcome your submissions. 

Prof. Dr. Ger Rijkers
Dr. Jean-Luc Murk
Topic Editors  

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • serology
  • specificity
  • sensitivity
  • virus neutralization
  • antibody affinity
  • variant strains
  • cross-reactivity

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Vaccines
vaccines
7.8 8.9 2013 19.2 Days CHF 2700
Biology
biology
4.2 5.7 2012 18.7 Days CHF 2700
Pathogens
pathogens
3.7 6.4 2012 16.4 Days CHF 2700
Biologics
biologics
- - 2021 27.7 Days CHF 1000
Methods and Protocols
mps
2.4 3.6 2018 27.9 Days CHF 1800

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Published Papers (56 papers)

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14 pages, 1096 KiB  
Article
High SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence and Rapid Neutralizing Antibody Decline among Agricultural Workers in Rural Guatemala, June 2020–March 2021
by Chelsea Iwamoto, Kelsey E. Lesteberg, Molly M. Lamb, Diva M. Calvimontes, Kejun Guo, Bradley S. Barrett, Kaylee L. Mickens, Lindsey M. Duca, Jose Monzon, Anna N. Chard, Gerber Guzman, Edgar Barrios, Neudy Rojop, Kareen Arias, Melissa Gomez, Claudia Paiz, Guillermo Antonio Bolanos, Kathryn M. Edwards, Emily Zielinski Gutierrez, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Edwin J. Asturias, Mario L. Santiago, J. David Beckham and Daniel Olsonadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071160 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2742
Abstract
Essential agricultural workers work under occupational conditions that may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission. Data from an agricultural worker cohort in Guatemala, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG (anti-N IgG) testing were used to estimate past infections and analyze risk factors associated [...] Read more.
Essential agricultural workers work under occupational conditions that may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission. Data from an agricultural worker cohort in Guatemala, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG (anti-N IgG) testing were used to estimate past infections and analyze risk factors associated with seropositivity at enrollment and association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The stability of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were assessed in a subset of participants. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) for seroprevalence at enrollment was estimated accounting for correlations within worksites. At enrollment, 616 (46.2%) of 1334 (93.2%) participants had anti-N IgG results indicating prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. A cough ≤ 10 days prior to enrollment (aRR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13–1.46) and working as a packer (aRR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.67–2.38) or packing manager within the plants (aRR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.36–2.43) were associated with increased risk of seropositivity. COVID-19 incidence density among seronegative workers was 2.3/100 Person-Years (P-Y), higher than seropositive workers (0.4/100 P-Y). Most workers with follow-up NAb testing (65/77, 84%) exhibited a 95% average decrease in NAb titers in <6 months. While participants seropositive at baseline were less likely to experience a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during follow-up, NAb titers rapidly waned, underscoring the need for multipronged COVID-19 prevention strategies in the workplace, including vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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16 pages, 2065 KiB  
Article
Cytokine Profiling among Children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome versus Simple COVID-19 Infection: A Study from Northwest Saudi Arabia
by Hany M. Abo-Haded, Amer M. Alshengeti, Abdulsalam D. Alawfi, Saad Q. Khoshhal, Khalid M. Al-Harbi, Mohammad D. Allugmani and Dina S. El-Agamy
Biology 2022, 11(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11070946 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2123
Abstract
Background: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a novel syndrome associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with varying clinical features. This study aimed to analyze the expression profiles of cytokines in blood, report the important clinical characteristics, and [...] Read more.
Background: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a novel syndrome associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with varying clinical features. This study aimed to analyze the expression profiles of cytokines in blood, report the important clinical characteristics, and correlate these with the short- and mid-term outcomes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on hospitalized children with MIS-C from March 2021 to May 2022. Phenotypes were classified into two groups (A,B) according to the severity of the disease and the need for invasive respiratory support. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, and outcomes were reported. Results: We identified 60 children with MIS-C (mean age of 7.4 ± 3.8 years) compared to 30 age- and sex-matched controls with simple COVID-19. The clinical manifestations of MIS-C patients were fever (100%), respiratory (83.3%), GIT (80%), and conjunctivitis (80%). Twenty-seven MIS-C children (45%) required PICU admission due to shock and needed mechanical ventilation. Anemia, lymphopenia, and elevated levels of inflammatory and tissue injury markers were observed in the MIS-C groups (mainly B). High cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-α, GM-CSF, and HMGB1) were observed acutely in the MIS-C children, and a persistent elevation of some cytokines were reported at midterm follow-up, especially in Group B. Conclusion: Robust inflammatory response to COVID-19 disease with elevated IL-1β, IL-6, and GM-CSF levels might explain the severity and outcome of the clinical syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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12 pages, 1886 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Third Dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA BNT162b2 Vaccine on Humoral and Cellular Responses and Serum Anti-HLA Antibodies in Kidney Transplant Recipients
by Irene Cassaniti, Marilena Gregorini, Federica Bergami, Francesca Arena, Josè Camilla Sammartino, Elena Percivalle, Ehsan Soleymaninejadian, Massimo Abelli, Elena Ticozzelli, Angela Nocco, Francesca Minero, Eleonora Francesca Pattonieri, Daniele Lilleri, Teresa Rampino and Fausto Baldanti
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060921 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has severely impacted on public health, mainly on immunosuppressed patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. Vaccination represents a valuable tool for the prevention of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines has [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has severely impacted on public health, mainly on immunosuppressed patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. Vaccination represents a valuable tool for the prevention of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines has been evaluated in transplanted patients. In this study, we investigated the role of a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients, analyzing both humoral and cell-mediated responses. We observed an increased immune response after the third dose of the vaccine, especially in terms of Spike-specific T cell response. The level of seroconversion remained lower than 50% even after the administration of the third dose. Mycophenolate treatment, steroid administration and age seemed to be associated with a poor immune response. In our cohort, 11/45 patients experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection after the third vaccine dose. HLA antibodies appearance was recorded in 7 out 45 (15.5%) patients, but none of the patients developed acute renal rejection. Further studies for the evaluation of long-term immune responses are still ongoing, and the impact of a fourth dose of the vaccine will be evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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15 pages, 1010 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Immunogenic Response to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients with Autoimmune Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Treated with Rituximab
by Victoria Furer, Tali Eviatar, Devy Zisman, Hagit Peleg, Yolanda Braun-Moscovici, Alexandra Balbir-Gurman, Daphna Paran, David Levartovsky, Michael Zisapel, Ofir Elalouf, Ilana Kaufman, Adi Broyde, Ari Polachek, Joy Feld, Amir Haddad, Tal Gazitt, Muna Elias, Nizar Higazi, Fadi Kharouf, Sara Pel, Sharon Nevo and Ori Elkayamadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060901 - 6 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2571
Abstract
Treatment with rituximab (RTX) blunts SARS-CoV-2 vaccination-induced humoral response. We sought to identify predictors of a positive immunogenic response to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) treated with RTX (AIIRD-RTX). We analyzed 108 AIIRD-RTX patients and 122 [...] Read more.
Treatment with rituximab (RTX) blunts SARS-CoV-2 vaccination-induced humoral response. We sought to identify predictors of a positive immunogenic response to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) treated with RTX (AIIRD-RTX). We analyzed 108 AIIRD-RTX patients and 122 immunocompetent controls vaccinated with BNT162b2 mRNA participating in a multicenter vaccination study. Immunogenicity was defined by positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG. We used a stepwise backward multiple logistic regression to identify predicting factors for a positive immunogenic response to vaccination and develop a predicting calculator, further validated in an independent cohort of AIIRD-RTX BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinated patients (n = 48). AIIRD-RTX patients who mounted a seropositive immunogenic response significantly differed from patients who did not by a lower number of RTX courses (median (range) 3 (1–10) vs. 5 (1–15), p = 0.007; lower cumulative RTX dose (mean ± SD) 6943.11 ± 5975.74 vs. 9780.95 ± 7240.12 mg, p = 0.033; higher IgG level prior to last RTX course (mean ± SD), 1189.78 ± 576.28 vs. 884.33 ± 302.31 mg/dL, p = 0.002), and extended interval between RTX treatment and vaccination, 469.82 ± 570.39 vs. 162.08 ± 160.12 days, p = 0.0009, respectively. Patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and inflammatory myositis had a low likelihood of a seropositive immunogenic response compared to patients with rheumatoid arthritis, odds ratio (OR) 0.209, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.046–0.96, p = 0.044 and OR 0.189, 95% CI 0.036–0.987, p = 0.048, respectively. Based on these findings, we constructed a calculator predicting the probability of a seropositive immunogenic response following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination which performed with 90.5% sensitivity, 59.3% specificity, and 63.3% positive and 88.9% negative predictive values. In summary, the predicting calculator could guide clinicians for optimal timing of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in AIIRD-RTX patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 2833 KiB  
Article
Neutralizing Antibodies Response against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern Elicited by Prior Infection or mRNA BNT162b2 Vaccination
by Floriana Bonura, Dario Genovese, Emanuele Amodio, Giuseppe Calamusa, Giuseppa Luisa Sanfilippo, Federica Cacioppo, Giovanni Maurizio Giammanco, Simona De Grazia and Donatella Ferraro
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060874 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
In order to determine the humoral protective response against SARS-CoV-2, the vaccine-induced and naturally induced neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Italy through in vitro live virus neutralization assay were evaluated. A total of 39 SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects (COVID-19+) and [...] Read more.
In order to determine the humoral protective response against SARS-CoV-2, the vaccine-induced and naturally induced neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Italy through in vitro live virus neutralization assay were evaluated. A total of 39 SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects (COVID-19+) and 63 subjects with a two-dose cycle of the BNT16262 vaccine were enrolled. A single serum sample was tested for COVID-19+ at 35–52 days post-positive swab, while vaccinees blood samples were taken at one (V1) and at three months (V3) after administration of the second vaccine dose. Significantly higher NtAb titers were found against B.1 and Alpha in both COVID-19+ and vaccinees, while lower NtAb titers were detected against Delta, Gamma, and Omicron variants. A comparison between groups showed that NtAb titers were significantly higher in both V1 and V3 than in COVID-19+, except against the Omicron variant where no significant difference was found. COVID-19+ showed lower neutralizing titers against all viral variants when compared to the vaccinees. Two-dose vaccination induced a sustained antibody response against each analyzed variant, except for Omicron. The evolution process of SARS-CoV-2, through variants originating from an accumulation of mutations, can erode the neutralizing effectiveness of natural and vaccine-elicited immunity. Therefore, a need for new vaccines should be evaluated to contain the ongoing pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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15 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of mRNA BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine among Thai Adolescents with Chronic Diseases
by Napaporn Chantasrisawad, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Auchara Tangsathapornpong, Chonnamet Techasaensiri, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Detchvijitr Suwanpakdee, Peera Jaruampornpan, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Piyarat Suntarattiwong and Tawee Chotpitayasunondh
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060871 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Adolescents with underlying diseases are at risk of severe COVID-19. The immune response of BNT162b2 may be poor among immunocompromised adolescents. We aim to describe immunogenicity of mRNA BNT162b2 among adolescents who are immunocompromised or have chronic diseases. We recruited adolescents 12–18 years [...] Read more.
Adolescents with underlying diseases are at risk of severe COVID-19. The immune response of BNT162b2 may be poor among immunocompromised adolescents. We aim to describe immunogenicity of mRNA BNT162b2 among adolescents who are immunocompromised or have chronic diseases. We recruited adolescents 12–18 years of age; group A impaired-immunity (post-transplantation, cancer, on immunosuppressive drugs) and group B chronic diseases. A two-dose regimen of BNT162b2 was given. Immunogenicity was determined by surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) and IgG against receptor-binding domain (RBD). From August to October 2021, 312 adolescents, with a median age (IQR) of 15 years (13.7–16.5), were enrolled (group A 100, group B 212). The geometric means (GMs) of sVNT (% inhibition) against Delta strain and anti-RBD IgG (BAU/mL) after the 2nd dose among group A were: post-transplantation recipients 52.9 (95% CI 37.7–74.2) and 233.6 (95% CI 79–690.6); adolescents with cancer 62.3 (95% CI 29.2–133.1) and 214.9(95% CI 34.2–1348.6); and adolescents with other immunosuppressive conditions 66.7 (95% CI 52.4–84.8) and 849.8 (95% CI 393.4–1835.8). In group B were: adolescents living with HIV 98 (95% CI 97.3–98.8) and 3240.3 (95% CI 2699–3890.2), and adolescents with other chronic disease 98.6 (95% CI 98.3–98.9) and 3818.5 (95% CI 3490.4–4177.4). At day 90, immunity declined; among impaired-immunity participants were 43.9 (95% CI 30.8–62.4) and 178.7 (95% CI 91.2–350.1) and adolescents with chronic diseases were 90.6 (95% CI 88.4–92.8) and 1037.1 (95% CI 933.3–1152.5). In conclusion, adolescents with impaired immunity had a poor response to 2-doses of BNT162b2, additional dose should be considered. Adolescents with chronic diseases had excellent response but immunity waned after 3 m, booster dose may be required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
A Single Dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine Elicits High Antibody Responses in Individuals with Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection Comparable to That of Two-Dose-Vaccinated, SARS-CoV-2-Infection-Naïve Individuals: A Longitudinal Study in Ethiopian Health Workers
by Tesfaye Gelanew, Andargachew Mulu, Markos Abebe, Timothy A. Bates, Liya Wassie, Mekonnen Teferi, Dessalegn Fentahun, Aynalem Alemu, Frehiwot Tamiru, Gebeyehu Assefa, Abebe Genetu Bayih, Fikadu G. Tafesse, Adane Mihret and Alemseged Abdissa
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060859 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2234
Abstract
Single-dose COVID-19 vaccines, mostly mRNA-based vaccines, are shown to induce robust antibody responses in individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the sufficiency of a single dose for those individuals in countries with limited vaccine supply. However, these important data are limited [...] Read more.
Single-dose COVID-19 vaccines, mostly mRNA-based vaccines, are shown to induce robust antibody responses in individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the sufficiency of a single dose for those individuals in countries with limited vaccine supply. However, these important data are limited to developed nations. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study among Ethiopian healthcare workers who received a ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We compared the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG antibodies in 39 SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants and 24 participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (P.I.), who received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine across the two post-vaccination time points (at 8 to 12 weeks post single dose and two dose vaccinations). We noted that the GMT (1632.16) in naïve participants at 8–12 weeks post first dose were comparable to the GMT (1674.94) observed in P.I. participants prior to vaccination. Interestingly, P.I. participants had significantly higher antibody titers compared to naïve participants, after both the first (GMT, 4913.50 vs. 1632.16) and second doses (GMT, 9804.60 vs. 6607.30). Taken together, our findings show that a single ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 dose in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals elicits similar, if not higher, antibody responses to those of two-dose-vaccinated naïve individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 413 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Reliability of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Studies That Use Post-Vaccination Sera
by Henning Jacobsen, Ioannis Sitaras, Marley Jurgensmeyer, Mick N. Mulders, David Goldblatt, Daniel R. Feikin, Naor Bar-Zeev, Melissa M. Higdon and Maria Deloria Knoll
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060850 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Assessing COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is crucial for determining future vaccination strategies and other public health strategies. When clinical effectiveness data are unavailable, a common method of assessing vaccine performance is to utilize neutralization assays using post-vaccination sera. Neutralization studies [...] Read more.
Assessing COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is crucial for determining future vaccination strategies and other public health strategies. When clinical effectiveness data are unavailable, a common method of assessing vaccine performance is to utilize neutralization assays using post-vaccination sera. Neutralization studies are typically performed across a wide array of settings, populations and vaccination strategies, and using different methodologies. For any comparison and meta-analysis to be meaningful, the design and methodology of the studies used must at minimum address aspects that confer a certain degree of reliability and comparability. We identified and characterized three important categories in which studies differ (cohort details, assay details and data reporting details) and that can affect the overall reliability and/or usefulness of neutralization assay results. We define reliability as a measure of methodological accuracy, proper study setting concerning subjects, samples and viruses, and reporting quality. Each category comprises a set of several relevant key parameters. To each parameter, we assigned a possible impact (ranging from low to high) on overall study reliability depending on its potential to influence the results. We then developed a reliability assessment tool that assesses the aggregate reliability of a study across all parameters. The reliability assessment tool provides explicit selection criteria for inclusion of comparable studies in meta-analyses of neutralization activity of SARS-CoV-2 variants in post-vaccination sera and can also both guide the design of future neutralization studies and serve as a checklist for including important details on key parameters in publications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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14 pages, 1132 KiB  
Article
Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of the Booster Dose of COVID-19 Vaccines and Related Factors: A Panel Study from the General Population in Serbia
by Maja Stosic, Marija Milic, Milos Markovic, Ivana Kelic, Zoran Bukumiric, Marko Veljkovic, Darija Kisic Tepavcevic, Vladan Saponjic, Dragana Plavsa, Sofija Jovanovic and Verica Jovanovic
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060838 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3921
Abstract
The Republic of Serbia applied the booster dose of the following COVID-19 vaccines: BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech), Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV (Vero Cell®), Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V) and ChAdOk1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca). We aimed to examine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the booster dose and identify [...] Read more.
The Republic of Serbia applied the booster dose of the following COVID-19 vaccines: BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech), Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV (Vero Cell®), Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V) and ChAdOk1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca). We aimed to examine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the booster dose and identify factors related to immune response and adverse events. Panel study, conducted during August and September 2021, included 300 persons receiving the booster dose at the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Blood samples were taken on the day of receiving the booster dose, and after 7 and 28 days. When applying homologous regimen, the average increase in anti-spike immunoglobulin G was 8782.2 (after 7 days), 1213.9 after 28 days, while 9179.5 (after 7 days) and 16,728.1 after 28 days of heterologous regimen. Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV (p < 0.001) and Sputnik V (p < 0.001), age 65 and over (p = 0.001) and currently smoking (p < 0.001) were independently associated with lower levels of anti-spike immunoglobulin G. Female sex (OR = 1.77; 95%CI = 1.01–3.12), previous COVID-19 infection (OR = 3.62; 95%CI = 1.13–11.63) and adverse events after the second dose (OR = 2.66; 95%CI = 1.33–5.32) were independently associated with intense systemic adverse events 7 days after. Booster dose significantly increased antibodies titers, especially 28 days after heterologous regimen, without a significant increase in reactogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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12 pages, 1770 KiB  
Article
The SARS-CoV-2 Variant Omicron Is Able to Escape Vaccine-Induced Humoral Immune Responses, but Is Counteracted by Booster Vaccination
by Florian D. Hastert, Sascha Hein, Christine von Rhein, Nuka Ivalu Benz, Younes Husria, Doris Oberle, Thorsten J. Maier, Eberhard Hildt and Barbara S. Schnierle
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050794 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron has spread world-wide and is responsible for rapid increases in infections, including in populations with high vaccination rates. Here, we analysed in the sera of vaccinated individuals the antibody binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron has spread world-wide and is responsible for rapid increases in infections, including in populations with high vaccination rates. Here, we analysed in the sera of vaccinated individuals the antibody binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and the neutralization of wild-type (WT), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529; BA.1) pseudotyped vectors. Although sera from individuals immunized with vector vaccines (Vaxzevria; AZ and COVID-19 Janssen, Ad26.COV2.S; J&J) were able to bind and neutralize WT and Delta, they showed only background levels towards Omicron. In contrast, mRNA (Comirnaty; BNT) or heterologous (AZ/BNT) vaccines induced weak, but detectable responses against Omicron. While RBD-binding antibody levels decreased significantly six months after full vaccination, the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-directed avidity remained constant. However, this still coincided with a significant decrease in neutralization activity against all variants. A third booster vaccination with BNT significantly increased the humoral immune responses against all tested variants, including Omicron. In conclusion, only vaccination schedules that included at least one dose of mRNA vaccine and especially an mRNA booster vaccination induced sufficient antibody levels with neutralization capacity against multiple variants, including Omicron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 238 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody in Chronic Kidney Disease (Dialysis Independent and Not)
by Mariana Siddi, Paolo Molinari, Carlo Maria Alfieri, Marianna Tangredi, Giovanna Lunghi, Elisa Colombo, Sara Uceda Renteria, Emanuele Grimaldi, Ferruccio Ceriotti, Giuseppe Castellano and Fabrizio Fabrizi
Pathogens 2022, 11(5), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050572 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Background: The evidence in the medical literature regarding the prevalence of antibody towards SARS-CoV-2 in patients with chronic kidney disease is limited, particularly among those at the pre-dialysis stage. Aim: We have prospectively performed a cohort study at a third-level university hospital to [...] Read more.
Background: The evidence in the medical literature regarding the prevalence of antibody towards SARS-CoV-2 in patients with chronic kidney disease is limited, particularly among those at the pre-dialysis stage. Aim: We have prospectively performed a cohort study at a third-level university hospital to evaluate frequency and risk factors for anti-SARS-CoV-2-positive serology among chronic kidney disease patients. Methods: We have tested a cohort of consecutive outpatients with chronic kidney disease on regular follow-up at a major metropolitan hospital, during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Italy. We adopted an enzyme immunoassay for the assessment of IgM/IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum or plasma (DIA.PRO COVID-19 Serological Assay); the assay detects antibodies against Spike (1/2) and Nucleocapsid proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Results: There were 199 (65.8%) out of 302 patients with dialysis-independent CKD; 2 patients were anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibody positive, 23 were anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG positive and 37 had detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody in serum. The prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 20.5% (60/302). All patients positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tested negative by nasopharyngeal swab. A significant and independent relationship between anti-SARS-CoV-2-positive serologic status and serum albumin (a marker of nutritional status) was observed (p < 0.046). The prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was greater in CKD than in control populations (health care workers and blood donors) attending the hospital a few months before the current study (7.6% and 5.2%, respectively). Conclusions: The great prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody in our study group could be, at least partially, explained with the fact that our patients were living in Milan, an area severely hit by SARS-CoV-2 infection. It seems that a poor nutritional status supports the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 antibody in CKD patients. Clinical studies to understand the mechanisms responsible for the high frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection are under way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
17 pages, 868 KiB  
Review
New-Onset Acute Kidney Disease Post COVID-19 Vaccination
by Yebei Li, Meiying Rao and Gaosi Xu
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050742 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5824
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused an exceptional setback to the global economy and health. Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions to markedly decrease severe illness and death from [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused an exceptional setback to the global economy and health. Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions to markedly decrease severe illness and death from COVID-19. In recent years, there have been increasingly more reports of new acute kidney injury (AKI) after COVID-19 vaccination. Podocyte injury, IgA nephropathy, vasculitis, tubulointerstitial injury, and thrombotic microangiopathy appear to be the main pathological phenotypes. Nonetheless, whether the link between the COVID-19 vaccine and acute kidney disease (AKD) is causal or coincidental remains to be verified. Here, we generalize some hypotheses for the emergence of AKD and its pathogenesis in response to certain COVID-19 vaccines. In fact, the enormous benefits of mass vaccination against COVID-19 in preventing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality cannot be denied. The purpose of this review is to assist in the clinical assessment and management of AKD following COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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17 pages, 2321 KiB  
Article
Complete (Humoral and Cellular) Response to Vaccination against COVID-19 in a Group of Healthcare Workers-Assessment of Factors Affecting Immunogenicity
by Ewa Morgiel, Magdalena Szmyrka, Marta Madej, Agata Sebastian, Renata Sokolik, Iga Andrasiak, Maria Chodyra, Małgorzata Walas-Antoszek, Lucyna Korman and Jerzy Świerkot
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050710 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
Vaccination is the best way to limit the extent of the COVID pandemic. Knowledge of the duration of the immune response will allow the planning of a vaccination protocol. This study aims to validate the complete (humoral and cellular) immune responses over time [...] Read more.
Vaccination is the best way to limit the extent of the COVID pandemic. Knowledge of the duration of the immune response will allow the planning of a vaccination protocol. This study aims to validate the complete (humoral and cellular) immune responses over time in large population groups following the full vaccination of healthcare professionals in real-life conditions and to assess the relationship between antibody levels and T-cell activity in relation to the characteristics of the study group. The samples for the study were obtained from volunteers (staff of two hospitals) on three occasions: before vaccination, T0, then 4–9 weeks after full vaccination (two doses BNT162b2), T1, and 7–9 months after vaccination, T2. The humoral response was investigated by the titre of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to S1 protein. Assays were performed three times at intervals. The cellular response was assessed in a subgroup of 189 subjects by QuanT-Cell SARS-CoV-2 (IGRA). The assay was performed once. A group of 344 subjects fully vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine were included in the study. The humoral response was observed in 100% of subjects at both 4–7 weeks and 7–9 months, but antibody titres fell by almost 90% in this interval. The cellular response was observed in 94% (177/189) of subjects 7–9 months after the second dose of vaccine. In subjects with a negative cellular response, eight out of 12 smoked. A factor associated with greater immunogenicity of vaccination was past SARS-CoV-2 infection. The administration of full BNT162b2 vaccination (two doses) induces humoral and cellular responses detectable even more than six months after vaccination. Smoking may be a factor associated with impaired cellular response to vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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14 pages, 4529 KiB  
Article
Analyses of Public Attention and Sentiments towards Different COVID-19 Vaccines Using Data Mining Techniques
by Muhammad Faheem Mushtaq, Mian Muhammad Sadiq Fareed, Mubarak Almutairi, Saleem Ullah, Gulnaz Ahmed and Kashif Munir
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050661 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
COVID-19 is a widely spread disease, and in order to overcome its spread, vaccination is necessary. Different vaccines are available in the market and people have different sentiments about different vaccines. This study aims to identify variations and explore temporal trends in the [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is a widely spread disease, and in order to overcome its spread, vaccination is necessary. Different vaccines are available in the market and people have different sentiments about different vaccines. This study aims to identify variations and explore temporal trends in the sentiments of tweets related to different COVID-19 vaccines (Covaxin, Moderna, Pfizer, and Sinopharm). We used the Valence Aware Dictionary and Sentiment Reasoner (VADER) tool to analyze the public sentiments related to each vaccine separately and identify whether the sentiments are positive (compound ≥ 0.05), negative (compound ≤ −0.05), or neutral (−0.05 < compound < 0.05). Then, we analyzed tweets related to each vaccine further to find the time trends and geographical distribution of sentiments in different regions. According to our data, overall sentiments about each vaccine are neutral. Covaxin is associated with 28% positive sentiments and Moderna with 37% positive sentiments. In the temporal analysis, we found that tweets related to each vaccine increased in different time frames. Pfizer- and Sinopharm-related tweets increased in August 2021, whereas tweets related to Covaxin increased in July 2021. Geographically, the highest sentiment score (0.9682) is for Covaxin from India, while Moderna has the highest sentiment score (0.9638) from the USA. Overall, this study shows that public sentiments about COVID-19 vaccines have changed over time and geographically. The sentiment analysis can give insights into time trends that can help policymakers to develop their policies according to the requirements and enhance vaccination programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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15 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
Differences in Immunogenicity of Three Different Homo- and Heterologous Vaccination Regimens against SARS-CoV-2
by Robert Daniel Heinrich Markewitz, David Juhl, Daniela Pauli, Siegfried Görg, Ralf Junker, Jan Rupp, Sarah Engel, Katja Steinhagen, Victor Herbst, Dorinja Zapf, Christina Krüger, Christian Brockmann, Frank Leypoldt, Justina Dargvainiene, Benjamin Schomburg, Shahpour Reza Sharifzadeh, Lukas Salek Nejad, Klaus-Peter Wandinger and Malte Ziemann
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050649 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
Background: Due to findings on adverse reactions and clinical efficacy of different vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2, the administration of vaccination regimens containing both adenoviral vector vaccines and mRNA-based vaccines has become common. Data are still needed on the direct comparison of immunogenicity for [...] Read more.
Background: Due to findings on adverse reactions and clinical efficacy of different vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2, the administration of vaccination regimens containing both adenoviral vector vaccines and mRNA-based vaccines has become common. Data are still needed on the direct comparison of immunogenicity for these different regimens. Methods: We compared markers for immunogenicity (anti-S1 IgG/IgA, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell response) with three different vaccination regimens (homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n = 103), or mixture of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with mRNA-1273 (n = 116) or BNT162b2 (n = 105)) at two time points: the day of the second vaccination as a baseline and 14 days later. Results: All examined vaccination regimens elicited measurable immune responses that were significantly enhanced after the second dose. Homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was markedly inferior in immunogenicity to all other examined regimens after administration of the second dose. Between the heterologous regimens, mRNA-1273 as second dose induced greater antibody responses than BNT162b2, with no difference found for neutralizing antibodies and T-cell response. Discussion: While these findings allow no prediction about clinical protection, from an immunological point of view, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with an mRNA-based vaccine at one or both time points appears preferable to homologous vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Whether or not the demonstrated differences between the heterologous regimens are of clinical significance will be subject to further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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14 pages, 2431 KiB  
Article
Opinion Polls and Antibody Response Dynamics of Vaccination with COVID-19 Booster Vaccines
by Yufei Wu, Huanjie Li, Yangyang Wang, Ping Huang, Yihui Xu, Mingjie Xu, Qianqian Zhao, Yunying Zhou, Jun Wang, Mingyu Ji and Yunshan Wang
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050647 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
As the third year of the global COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination remains the most effective tool against infections and symptomatic illness. Comprehension regarding immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is limited, and the durability of immune responses after vaccination is currently not clear. In this study, we [...] Read more.
As the third year of the global COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination remains the most effective tool against infections and symptomatic illness. Comprehension regarding immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is limited, and the durability of immune responses after vaccination is currently not clear. In this study, we randomly collected 395 questionnaires to analyze the current state of COVID-19 vaccination. At the same time, the serum of 16 individuals who had received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine were collected at different times before and after the booster vaccination. We analyzed the dynamic changes of SARS-CoV-2 S-specific binding antibodies in serum and immunological indicators. By collecting public opinion surveys and analyzing variational trends of SARS-CoV-2 S-specific binding antibodies and immune indicators after COVID-19 booster vaccination, we endeavored to demonstrate the concerns affecting people’s booster vaccinations, as well as the frequency, timing, and necessity of COVID-19 booster vaccinations. The analysis of antibody results in 16 vaccinated volunteers showed that the antibody concentration decreased six months after the second dose and the protective effect of the virus was reduced. The third dose of COVID-19 vaccination is necessary to maintain the antibody concentration and the protective effect of the virus. The vaccination with the vaccine booster depends not only on the time interval but also on the initial concentration of the SARS-CoV-2 S-specific binding antibody before the booster. Our study has important implications for raising public awareness of vaccinating against SARS-CoV-2 and the necessity of COVID-19 booster vaccinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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11 pages, 1101 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Antinucleocapsid Antibody Response of mRNA and Inactivated Virus Vaccines Compared to Unvaccinated Individuals
by Arwa Qaqish, Manal Mohammad Abbas, Mohammad Al-Tamimi, Manal Ahmad Abbas, Mariam Al-Omari and Rami Alqassieh
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050643 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Comparative studies of SARS-CoV-2 antinucleocapsid (anti-N) antibody response in the context of inactivated virus vaccines versus natural infection are limited. This study aims to determine and compare the anti-N antibody levels in people vaccinated with Sinopharm’s (Wuhan, China) inactivated virus vaccine in comparison [...] Read more.
Comparative studies of SARS-CoV-2 antinucleocapsid (anti-N) antibody response in the context of inactivated virus vaccines versus natural infection are limited. This study aims to determine and compare the anti-N antibody levels in people vaccinated with Sinopharm’s (Wuhan, China) inactivated virus vaccine in comparison with naturally infected unvaccinated and Pfizer’s spike (S) mRNA-based vaccinated subjects. Two hundred ninety-nine Jordanian adults participated in the study including unvaccinated COVID-19-infected patients (n = 99), Pfizer-vaccinated (n = 100), and Sinopharm-vaccinated recipients (n = 100). Serum samples were assayed for anti-N IgG, anti-N IgM, and anti-S IgG. Sera of 64.6% of naturally infected unvaccinated participants had positive anti-S IgG (median = 36.35 U/mL; range: 0.04–532.5 U/mL) compared to 88% of Pfizer-vaccinated (Manhattan, NY, USA) (median = 26.52 U/mL; range: 0.39–1265 U/mL) and 58% of Sinopharm-vaccinated subjects (median = 14.35 U/mL; range: 0.39–870.17 U/mL). Samples of 60.6% of naturally infected unvaccinated people had positive anti-N IgG (median = 15.03 U/mL; range: 0–265.1 U/mL) compared to 25% of Pfizer-vaccinated (median = 0.02 U/mL; range: 0–68 U/mL) and 48% of Sinopharm-vaccinated subjects (median = 0.8 U/mL; range: 0–146.3 U/mL). Anti-N titers among the three groups were significantly different (p < 0.05). Anti-N IgM antibodies appeared in 23.2% of the naturally infected unvaccinated group (median = 0.29 U/mL; range: 0–15 U/mL) compared to only 9.0% of Pfizer-vaccinated (median = 018 U/mL; range: 0–33 U/mL) and 7.0% of Sinopharm-vaccinated subjects (median = 0.2 U/mL; range: 0–12.02 U/mL). A significant negative correlation was found between anti-S and age for both vaccines and between anti-S and the presence of chronic disease in Sinopharm-vaccinated subjects. A significant positive correlation between anti-N and anti-S titers was found among the three groups. This study shows that the inactivated virus vaccine, Sinopharm, induces an anti-N response that can boost that of natural infection or vice versa. On the other hand, the Pfizer mRNA-based vaccine induces a significantly stronger anti-S Ab response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Various SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines among Healthcare Workers: Are Our White Coat Armies Protected?
by Lina Souan, Maher A. Sughayer, Maha M. Abualhour, Mahmoud Siag, Sara Al-Badr and Tareq Al-Atrash
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050642 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
Background: The effective immunization of healthcare workers (HCWs) plays a vital role in preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is limited data on the immune response to vaccination among HCWs. We aim to determine seroprevalence [...] Read more.
Background: The effective immunization of healthcare workers (HCWs) plays a vital role in preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is limited data on the immune response to vaccination among HCWs. We aim to determine seroprevalence rates and neutralizing IgG antibody response to various immunizations among HCWs. Methods: This study was conducted between July and September 2021, in which blood samples were obtained from HCWs and SARS-CoV-2 IgG neutralizing antibodies were measured. Data regarding vaccination status with Pfizer/BioNTech, Sinopharm, or AstraZeneca vaccines, occupation, and prior COVID-19 infection were analyzed. Results: COVID-19 infection post-vaccination was associated with higher mean antibody titers, regardless of vaccine type. Pfizer/BioNTech vaccination produced higher mean antibody titers for HCWs with prior COVID-19 infection (p < 0.00001) than other types of vaccines. Although 96% of HCWs were vaccinated, 3% were seronegative. For HCWs who were seropositive, there were no significant differences between the mean antibody titers when comparing occupations and blood indices. Conclusion: Awareness of the immunity status of HCWs is key to protecting this important group against SARS-CoV-2, especially those without prior COVID-19 infection. Further public health efforts regarding booster vaccination for HCWs are crucial to provide necessary antibody protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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11 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Blood Antibody Titers and Adverse Reactions after BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination
by Jolanta Kiewisz, Damian Drzyzga, Karolina Rozanska, Emilia Krzynowek and Krzysztof Lukaszuk
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050640 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2379
Abstract
This study aimed to measure, considering a prior history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (SCV-negative/positive), antibodies titer using Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), in a serum of healthcare workers (HCW) who received two doses of BNT162b2 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to measure, considering a prior history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (SCV-negative/positive), antibodies titer using Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), in a serum of healthcare workers (HCW) who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccines. The local and systemic adverse reactions occurrence was checked with a self-reported questionnaire. A total of 60 SCV-negative HCW showed lower antibody titers than those presented by SCV-positive subjects (n = 7). The highest antibody level was detected 8 days after the second dose of vaccine administration. At the same time, the titer was higher in the SCV2 -positive than the SCV2-negative group and comparable after the first dose in those who became infected to the level after the second dose of those who did not. The local and systemic effects in the SCV2-negative and SCV2-positive groups appeared independent of the vaccine dose. After the second dose, systemic reactions were reported more often than the local adverse effects. Whether no effect was observed or whether the response was local or systemic, the antibody level in a specific group remains constant. These results can be helpful in the improvement of vaccination programs, controlling the occurrence of adverse and long-term effects of the vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 1826 KiB  
Brief Report
COVID-19 Neutralizing Antibodies in Breast Milk of Mothers Vaccinated with Three Different Vaccines in Mexico
by Olivia Cabanillas-Bernal, Karla Cervantes-Luevano, Gonzalo Isai Flores-Acosta, Johanna Bernáldez-Sarabia and Alexei F. Licea-Navarro
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040629 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the largest pandemic of this century, and all aspects of this virus are being studied. The efforts to mitigate the negative effects associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have culminated in the development of several vaccines [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the largest pandemic of this century, and all aspects of this virus are being studied. The efforts to mitigate the negative effects associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have culminated in the development of several vaccines that are effective and safe for use to the general population. However, one aspect that remains relatively underexplored is the efficacy of different vaccines technologies (mRNA and Adenovirus) in providing passive immunity to infants through breastmilk of vaccinated mothers, and whether the antibodies passed through breast milk are functional. In this study, using a Micro-neutralization assay, we evaluate the presence of neutralizing antibodies in breast milk of lactating mothers vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 with the Pfizer-BioNtech, Johnson & Johnson (J&J)/Janssen, and CanSino Biologics vaccines. Our results show the greatest neutralizing effect in breast milk from mothers vaccinated with Pfizer, followed by mothers vaccinated with J&J. CanSino vaccinations yielded the breast milk with the least neutralizing effects. The results found in this study relating to the neutralizing capacity of breast milk against SARS-CoV-2 highlight the importance of corresponding health authorities recommending vaccination to lactating mothers and of the continuance of breastfeeding to infants due to the potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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6 pages, 740 KiB  
Case Report
Delayed Cutaneous Adverse Reaction of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine in a Breastfed Female Infant: A Coincidence or a Rare Effect?
by Patrícia Diogo, Gil Correia, João B. Martins, Rui Soares, Paulo J. Palma, João Miguel Santos and Teresa Gonçalves
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040602 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6145
Abstract
The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vector vaccine (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) was developed at Oxford University and is considered safe for the administration in lactating mothers. Nevertheless, as a novel vaccine, there are gaps in the knowledge regarding possible adverse events in breastfeeding infants of [...] Read more.
The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vector vaccine (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) was developed at Oxford University and is considered safe for the administration in lactating mothers. Nevertheless, as a novel vaccine, there are gaps in the knowledge regarding possible adverse events in breastfeeding infants of vaccinated mothers. This case report provides first-time data on a possible delayed, cutaneous, adverse reaction in a breastfed, 16-month-old female infant after the first administration of the AstraZeneca vaccine to her 33-year-old mother. Even though, no clinical adverse effects were observed in the mother, her daughter had a 2-day rash in the lower extremities and face. The infant’s cutaneous rashes might be a coincidental event. However, all skin lesions were analogous to previous descriptions and photographs of dermatologic reactions, which resolved spontaneously with no medical intervention, in people who had been vaccinated with other COVID-19 vaccines. Our aim is that this short report contributes to the enhancement of parental awareness about the possibility of similar skin rashes in breastfed children when the mothers receive a vaccination and the importance of reporting those adverse reactions to the competent authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 831 KiB  
Article
Higher Antibody Concentrations in U.S. Health Care Workers Associated with Greater Reactogenicity Post-Vaccination
by Jane A. Dickerson, Janet A. Englund, Xing Wang, Julie C. Brown, Danielle M. Zerr, Bonnie Strelitz and Eileen J. Klein
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040601 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Multiple factors may be associated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Factors potentially related to magnitude and durability of response include age, time, and vaccine reactogenicity. This study analyzed SARS-CoV-2 IgG spike antibody responses following the second dose of vaccine in healthcare workers [...] Read more.
Multiple factors may be associated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Factors potentially related to magnitude and durability of response include age, time, and vaccine reactogenicity. This study analyzed SARS-CoV-2 IgG spike antibody responses following the second dose of vaccine in healthcare workers (HCWs). Data were collected from participants enrolled in a longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 serology study over a 12-month period. Participants completed a survey documenting symptoms post-vaccination. Serum specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using the Abbott Architect AdvisdeDx SARS-CoV-2 IgGII assay. Antibody levels were compared against time from second vaccine dose, and symptoms following vaccination. Altogether, 335 women (86.6%) and 52 men (13.4%) participated. Median age was 37 years (IQR 30-43). Overall median antibody level was 2150.80 [1246.12, 3556.98] AU/mL (IQR). Age was not associated with antibody concentration (p-value = 0.10). Higher antibody responses (2253 AU/mL vs. 1506 AU/mL; p = 0.008) were found in HCWs with one or more symptoms after the second dose of the vaccine (n = 311). Antibody responses persisted throughout the study period post-vaccination; statistically significant decreases in antibody responses were observed over time (p < 0.001). Higher antibody response was associated with reactogenicity post-vaccine. Age and sex were not associated with higher antibody responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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13 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Motivation for Vaccination against COVID-19 in Persons Aged between 18 and 60 Years at a Population-Based Vaccination Site in Manresa (Spain)
by Glòria Sauch Valmaña, Aïna Fuster-Casanovas, Anna Ramírez-Morros, Berta Rodoreda Pallàs, Josep Vidal-Alaball, Anna Ruiz-Comellas and Queralt Miró Catalina
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040597 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Our purpose was to identify the reasons why members of the population, aged 18–60 years, are vaccinated against COVID-19 at the mass vaccination point in Bages, Spain. This is 1 of 42 provisional spaces outside of health centres which have been set up [...] Read more.
Our purpose was to identify the reasons why members of the population, aged 18–60 years, are vaccinated against COVID-19 at the mass vaccination point in Bages, Spain. This is 1 of 42 provisional spaces outside of health centres which have been set up in Catalonia in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and where people from all over Catalonia could go to be vaccinated by appointment. Methodology: We performed a cross-sectional study of users attending mass vaccination points in Bages during the months of July, August, and September 2021. Results: A total of 1361 questionnaires were statistically analysed. The most common reasons for vaccination were fear of infecting family (49.52%) and fear of self-infection (39.45%), followed by socialising (31.00%) and travel (30.56%). However, by applying a logistic regression model to each reason for vaccination, it was possible to estimate the associations regarding age, sex, marital status, educational level, production sector, mass vaccination point, previous COVID-19 infection, and COVID-19 infection of a family member. Relevance: The data generated will inform decisions and formulations of appropriate campaigns that will promote vaccination in specific population groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
11 pages, 1546 KiB  
Article
The Fluctuation Trend of Serum Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG Antibodies Seroprevalence in the Non-COVID-19 Infected Population and Correlation with Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Parameters in Beijing, China, 2021: A Real-World Study
by Pan Wang, Nan Yang, Yuting Xue, Jiansuo Zhou, Yonghua Wu, Tiancheng Wang and Liyuan Cui
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040571 - 7 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
Since 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has caused more than 300 million cases of disease and 5 million deaths. Vaccination has been widely accepted as the most effective measure for the prevention and control of this disease. However, there is [...] Read more.
Since 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has caused more than 300 million cases of disease and 5 million deaths. Vaccination has been widely accepted as the most effective measure for the prevention and control of this disease. However, there is little understanding about serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG levels after inactivated vaccination as well as the relationship with peripheral blood leukocytes in the non-COVID-19 infected population. A total of 16,335 male and 22,302 female participants were recruited in this study, which was conducted in the Peking University Third Hospital located in Beijing (China). The level and seroprevalence of serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgM/IgG and the association with peripheral blood leukocytes classification were investigated. With an increase in the number and percentage of full immunization of COVID-19 vaccinations in Beijing, serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies levels and seroprevalence were significantly elevated (p < 0.01). The serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies of 60 years and older persons were significantly lower than that of individuals that are 18~60 years old (p < 0.01), and there was a positive relationship between serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies levels and peripheral blood lymphocyte count. The investigation of serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies and the peripheral hematological index may prompt and help understand the adaptive immune response of vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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15 pages, 2181 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness, Adverse Events, and Immune Response Following Double Vaccination with BNT162b2 in Staff at the National Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCCC)
by Patrik Palacka, Monika Pol’anová, Alena Svobodová, Jan Žigmond, Katarína Zanchetta, Vlasta Gombárová, Martina Vulganová, Ján Slopovský, Jana Obertová, Ľuboš Drgoňa, Michal Mego and Juraj Pechan
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040558 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Vaccination remains the leading strategy against COVID-19 worldwide. BNT162b2 is among the first licensed vaccines with high effectiveness. However, the role of antibody and cell immunity response monitoring after vaccination remains unclear. We conducted a 6-month prospective study involving the employees of NCCC [...] Read more.
Vaccination remains the leading strategy against COVID-19 worldwide. BNT162b2 is among the first licensed vaccines with high effectiveness. However, the role of antibody and cell immunity response monitoring after vaccination remains unclear. We conducted a 6-month prospective study involving the employees of NCCC in Slovakia, who were tested for IgG antibody and cell immune responses after double vaccination with BNT162b2. IgG antibodies were detected at 3, 7, and 26 weeks, respectively. At 6 months, blood samples were tested by two different interferon-γ release assays to determine responses to spike protein antigen and nucleocapsid protein antigen of the novel coronavirus. Results were stratified by gender and body mass index (BMI). Statistical significance was set at p = 0.05. The medical records of 94 respondents (71 females) were analyzed. The mean age was 40.2 years and the mean BMI was 26.4 kg/m2. At 6 months after double vaccination, effectiveness was 97.9%. The side effects of the BNT162b2 vaccine were similar after both doses, with no serious adverse events or new safety signals recorded. The IgG index declined rapidly (p < 0.0001), and 42.6% of subjects had positive and 57.4% borderline or negative immune cell response at 6 months (p < 0.0001). Both T cell activation and IgG counts were lower in morbidly obese patients when compared to some other BMI categories. This study confirmed an acceptable toxicity profile and the high efficacy of BNT162b2 despite a rapid decline of IgG level and negative cell-mediated immunity response in most subjects. An individualized approach to vaccination could be considered in morbidly obese individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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16 pages, 3252 KiB  
Article
The Pilot Study of Immunogenicity and Adverse Events of a COVID-19 Vaccine Regimen: Priming with Inactivated Whole SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (CoronaVac) and Boosting with the Adenoviral Vector (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) Vaccine
by Surakameth Mahasirimongkol, Athiwat Khunphon, Oraya Kwangsukstid, Sompong Sapsutthipas, Mingkwan Wichaidit, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Nuanjun Wichuckchinda, Wiroj Puangtubtim, Warangluk Pimpapai, Sakulrat Soonthorncharttrawat, Asawin Wanitchang, Anan Jongkaewwattana, Kanjana Srisutthisamphan, Daraka Phainupong, Naphatcha Thawong, Pundharika Piboonsiri, Waritta Sawaengdee, Thitiporn Somsaard, Kanokphon Ritthitham, Supaporn Chumpol, Nadthanan Pinyosukhee, Rattanawadee Wichajarn, Panadda Dhepakson, Sopon Iamsirithaworn and Supaporn Phumiamornadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040536 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2923
Abstract
In response to the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, which partially escaped the vaccine-induced immunity provided by two doses of vaccination with CoronaVac (Sinovac), the National Vaccine Committee recommended the heterologous CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 (Oxford–AstraZeneca), a prime–boost vaccine regimen. This pilot study aimed to describe the immunogenicity [...] Read more.
In response to the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, which partially escaped the vaccine-induced immunity provided by two doses of vaccination with CoronaVac (Sinovac), the National Vaccine Committee recommended the heterologous CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 (Oxford–AstraZeneca), a prime–boost vaccine regimen. This pilot study aimed to describe the immunogenicity and adverse events of the heterologous CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 regimen, in comparison with homologous CoronaVac, and homologous ChAdOx1. Between May and August 2021, we recruited a total of 354 participants from four vaccination groups: the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 vaccinee (n = 155), the homologous CoronaVac vaccinee (n = 32), the homologous ChAdOx1 vaccinee (n = 47), and control group of COVID-19 patients (n = 120). Immunogenicity was evaluated by measuring the level of IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (anti-SRBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit and the level of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against variants of concern (VOCs) using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and pseudovirus neutralization test (pVNT). The safety profile was recorded by interviewing at the 1-month visit after vaccination. The anti-SRBD level after the second booster dose of the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 group at 2 weeks was higher than 4 weeks. At 4 weeks after the second booster dose, the anti-SRBD level in the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 group was significantly higher than either homologous CoronaVac, the homologous ChAdOx1 group, and Control group (p < 0.001). In the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 group, the PRNT50 level against the wild-type (434.5 BAU/mL) was the highest; followed by Alpha variant (80.4), Delta variant (67.4), and Beta variant (19.8). The PVNT50 level was also found to be at its highest against the wild-type (432.1); followed by Delta variants (178.3), Alpha variants (163.9), and Beta variant (42.2), respectively. The AEs in the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 group were well tolerated and generally unremarkable. The CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 heterologous regimen induced higher immunogenicity and a tolerable safety profile. In a situation when only CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 vaccines are available, they should be considered for use in responding to the Delta variant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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12 pages, 1043 KiB  
Article
Humoral Response in Hemodialysis Patients Following COVID-19 Vaccination and Breakthrough Infections during Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance
by Rajkumar Chinnadurai, Henry H. L. Wu, Eleanor Cox, Jayne Moore, Toni Clough, Elizabeth Lamerton, Rosie Donne, Edmond O’Riordan and Dimitrios Poulikakos
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040498 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
Background: The advancement of COVID-19 vaccination programs globally has been viewed as an integral strategy to reduce both the number of COVID-19 cases and consequential complications of COVID-19, particularly for high-risk patient groups. There are limited data on the antibody response and protection [...] Read more.
Background: The advancement of COVID-19 vaccination programs globally has been viewed as an integral strategy to reduce both the number of COVID-19 cases and consequential complications of COVID-19, particularly for high-risk patient groups. There are limited data on the antibody response and protection from disease infection and severity in patients requiring hemodialysis (HD) following COVID-19 vaccination during the Delta and Omicron variant predominance. We conducted a study aiming to evaluate humoral immunity derived from two different COVID-19 vaccines administered to our in-centre HD population and investigated the characteristics of breakthrough COVID-19 infections occurring post-vaccination within this population. Methods: This is a prospective observational study including patients receiving HD at Salford Royal Hospital. The first and second doses of COVID-19 vaccinations (Pfizer BioNTech BNT162b2 or Oxford AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) were administered to this patient cohort since January 2021. The incidence of any breakthrough COVID-19 infections occurring in double vaccinated patients between 1 April 2021 and 15 January 2022 was recorded. Patients were screened weekly with nasal and pharyngeal nasopharyngeal swabs for real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) for COVID-19, whilst SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing was performed alongside monthly routine HD bloods. Results: Four hundred eleven patients receiving HD were included in this study, of which 170 of 178 patients (95.5%) with available data on antibody status following two doses of the Pfizer BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccination had detectable antibody response, whilst this was the case for 97 of 101 patients (96.1%) who received two doses of the Oxford AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. For 12 seronegative patients who received a booster vaccine (third dose), nine seroconverted, while one remained negative and two were not tested. No statistically significant differences were observed with regards to antibody status between those receiving Pfizer BioNTech BNT162b2 and Oxford AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines. Sixty-three of 353 patients with two doses of COVID-19 vaccination had breakthrough COVID-19 infection (40 during Delta and 23 during Omicron variant predominance). Of the 40 patients during the delta period, five were admitted into hospital and there were two reported deaths due to COVID-19-related illness. There were no COVID-19 associated hospitalizations or deaths during the Omicron variant predominance. Conclusions: The vast majority of HD patients who received two doses of the Pfizer BioNTech BNT162b2 or Oxford AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccinations developed detectable antibody responses. Our results support the value of booster vaccination with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine in HD patients and highlight the need for ongoing surveillance programmes with rRT-PCR and antibody testing for timely detection of positive cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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11 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses 5 Months Post Complete Vaccination of Moroccan Healthcare Workers
by Najlaa Assaid, Soukaina Arich, Hicham Charoute, Khadija Akarid, Sayeh Ezzikouri, Abderrahmane Maaroufi and M’hammed Sarih
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030465 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2824
Abstract
Data about the duration of antibodies after vaccination show that the protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection begins to decline over time. This study aims to determine anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG levels in healthcare workers five months after the second vaccination dose. We collected samples from [...] Read more.
Data about the duration of antibodies after vaccination show that the protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection begins to decline over time. This study aims to determine anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG levels in healthcare workers five months after the second vaccination dose. We collected samples from 82 participants who were fully vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BBIBP-CorV. We assessed anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using a Euroimmun ELISA and an Abbott Architect ™ SARS-CoV-2 IgG test. Of the 82 participants, 65.85% were seropositive for IgG using ELISA, and 86.59% were positive for IgG according to the Abbott Architect ™ test. Individuals vaccinated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine had a median anti-S1 antibody level of 1.810 AU/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 1.080–3.7340] and 171.7 AU/mL [79.9–684.6] according to the Euroimmun ELISA and Abbott Architect test, respectively. These tests indicated that people vaccinated with BBIBP-CorV had a median anti-S1 antibody level of 1.840 AU/mL [0.810–2.960] and 126.7 AU/mL [54.9–474.3], respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the positivity rates of the vaccinated individuals, either for gender or for age. In addition, we found no significant difference between the two vaccines. Our study provides information on the longevity of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in people at least five months after vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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12 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Associated Factors among People with HIV in the United States: Findings from a National Survey
by Roman Shrestha, Jaimie P. Meyer, Sheela Shenoi, Antoine Khati, Frederick L. Altice, Colleen Mistler, Lydia Aoun-Barakat, Michael Virata, Miriam Olivares and Jeffrey A. Wickersham
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030424 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3434
Abstract
Introduction: Scaling up vaccination against COVID-19 is central to controlling the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States. Several vaccines are now approved for the prevention of COVID-19, but public concerns over safety and efficacy have heightened distrust and vaccine hesitancy. This is particularly [...] Read more.
Introduction: Scaling up vaccination against COVID-19 is central to controlling the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States. Several vaccines are now approved for the prevention of COVID-19, but public concerns over safety and efficacy have heightened distrust and vaccine hesitancy. This is particularly concerning among people with HIV (PWH) who may be vulnerable to more severe COVID-19 disease. Here, we aimed to identify and understand COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a sample of PWH in the U.S. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among PWH in the U.S. between 6 December 2020 and 8 January 2021. Measures included demographics, participants’ HIV and health-related attributes, COVID-19 history and experiences, COVID-19 vaccine-related concerns, and standardized measures of attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify factors associated with vaccine hesitancy in this sample. Results: Among the 1030 respondents, most were male (89.7%), White (66.0%), and identified as gay or lesbian (84.5%). Participants’ mean time living with HIV was 17.0 years (standard deviation (SD) = 11.1). The mean score for vaccine hesitancy was 1.5 (SD = 0.5; range: 1–5); 935 participants (90.8%) had a score greater than 1.0, indicating most participants had some degree of vaccine hesitancy. The final multivariate linear regression showed that greater vaccine hesitancy was associated with being Black (b = 0.149, p = 0.005), single (b = 0.070, p = 0.018), politically conservative (b = 0.157, p = 0.010), “anti-vaxxer” (b = 1.791, p < 0.001), concern about side effects (b = 0.226, p < 0.001), concern about safety (b = 0.260, p < 0.001), and being worried that the vaccine will not be effective (b = 0.169, p = 0.008) and they were being experimented on (b = 0.287, p < 0.001). Participants who were male White (b = −0.093, p = 0.008) and university graduates (b = −0.093, p < 0.001) and had a CD4 count of 200 cells/mm3 (b = −0.082, p = 0.048) and a liberal political orientation (b = −0.131, p < 0.001) were associated with lower vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: Our findings provide important insights regarding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among PWH. Further efforts are required to understand how various social, political, and psychological factors contribute to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among key populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
HLA Class II Polymorphism and Humoral Immunity Induced by the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine
by Juan Francisco Gutiérrez-Bautista, Antonio Sampedro, Esther Gómez-Vicente, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Juan Antonio Reguera, Fernando Cobo, Francisco Ruiz-Cabello and Miguel Ángel López-Nevot
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030402 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4751
Abstract
The vaccines designed against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus are based on the spike (S) protein. Processing of the S protein by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and its subsequent presentation to T cells is an essential part of the development of a humoral response. HLA-class II [...] Read more.
The vaccines designed against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus are based on the spike (S) protein. Processing of the S protein by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and its subsequent presentation to T cells is an essential part of the development of a humoral response. HLA-class II alleles are considered immune response genes because their codified molecules, expressed on the surface of APCs (macrophages, dendritic, and B cells) present antigenic peptides to T cell via their T cell receptor (TCR). The HLA-class II genes are highly polymorphic, regulating what specific peptides induce follicular helper T cells (TFH) and promote B lymphocyte differentiation into plasma or memory B cells. This work hypothesizes that the presence of certain HLA-class II alleles could be associated with the intensity of the humoral response (amount, length) to the SARS-CoV2 mRNA 1273 vaccine. We have studied the relationship between the HLA-class II typing of 87 health workers and the level of antibodies produced 30 days after vaccination. We show a possible association between the HLA-DRB1* 07:01 allele and the HLA-DRB1*07:01~DQA1*02:01~DQB1*02:02 haplotype to a higher production of antibodies 30 days after the administration of the second dose of mRNA-1273. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 442 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Heterologous Booster Vaccination after Ad5-nCoV (CanSino Biologics) Vaccine: A Preliminary Descriptive Study
by José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Gabriela Athziri Sánchez-Zuno, Mónica Guadalupe Matuz-Flores, Cristian Oswaldo Hernández-Ramírez, Saúl Alberto Díaz-Pérez, Christian Johana Baños-Hernández, Francisco Javier Turrubiates-Hernández, Alejandra Natali Vega-Magaña and Jorge Hernández-Bello
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030400 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3162
Abstract
Several studies have reported the benefits and safety of heterologous vaccination among different approved vaccines; however, there are no specific reports on the effects of vaccination with the Ad5-nCoV and other vaccines of the same or different technologies. In the present study, we [...] Read more.
Several studies have reported the benefits and safety of heterologous vaccination among different approved vaccines; however, there are no specific reports on the effects of vaccination with the Ad5-nCoV and other vaccines of the same or different technologies. In the present study, we evaluated the neutralizing antibodies percentage against SARS-CoV-2 in Mexican patients immunized with the Ad5-nCoV vaccine six months after its application. Moreover, the effect of the heterologous vaccination with the Ad5-nCoV vaccine and a booster dose of ChAdOx1-S-Nov-19, Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, or mRNA-127 were determined. Our results suggest that a heterologous regimen of one dose with Ad5-nCoV vaccine followed by a booster dose of a different vaccine is safe and induces a stronger humoral immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 448 KiB  
Article
Humoral Immune Response of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Renal Transplant Recipients
by Narayan Prasad, Brijesh Yadav, Mantabya Singh, Sonam Gautam, Dharmendra Bhadauria, Manas Patel, Ravi Kushwaha, Deependra Yadav, Ankita Singh, Monika Yachha, Manas Behera and Anupama Kaul
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030385 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2234
Abstract
Vaccination-induced SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies are required for herd immunity. Vaccine availability and poor vaccine response in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) remain a concern. There is no report on the efficacy of Covaxin and Covishield vaccines in RTRs. We recruited 222 live donors RTRs [...] Read more.
Vaccination-induced SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies are required for herd immunity. Vaccine availability and poor vaccine response in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) remain a concern. There is no report on the efficacy of Covaxin and Covishield vaccines in RTRs. We recruited 222 live donors RTRs and analyzed the serum titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody by chemiluminescent magnetic microparticle immunoassay. Patients were categorized into three groups: group1 with SARS-CoV-2 infection and no vaccination (n = 161); group 2 with only vaccination and no SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 41); and group 3 with both vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 20). Overall seroconversion rate was 193/222 (86.9%) with a median titer 1095.20 AU/mL. The median IgG titer value in group 1 was 647.0 AU/mL; group 2 was 1409.0 AU/mL; and group 3 was 1831.30 AU/mL. Covaxin associated seroconversion was observed in 16/19 (84.21%), with a median titer of 1373.90 AU/mL compared to that of Covishield 32/42 (76.19%), whose median titer was 1831.10 AU/mL. The seroconversion rate due to SARS-CoV-2 infection was 145 (90.06%), it was lowest with the vaccination-only group (70.7%), and with both vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection group it was highest (95%). In RTRs, SARS-CoV-2 infection and both Covaxin and Covishield vaccination effectively induce a humoral immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein; however, seroconversion rate was lower and the antibody titer was higher with vaccine than infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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8 pages, 804 KiB  
Brief Report
Humoral and Cellular Response after mRNA Vaccination in Nursing Homes: Influence of Age and of History of COVID-19
by Jesús San Román, Francisco Javier Candel, Juan Carlos Sanz, Paloma López, Rocío Menéndez-Colino, Pablo Barreiro, María del Mar Carretero, Marta Pérez-Abeledo, José Manuel Viñuela-Prieto, Belén Ramos, Jesús Canora, Raquel Barba, Antonio Zapatero-Gaviria, Franciso Javier Martínez-Peromingo and on behalf of the Investigators of the SeroVAC Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030383 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
Background: Most residents and staff in nursing homes have received full vaccination. Factors related to the immune response to vaccination might be related to the risk of future severe COVID-19 and may guide the need for vaccine boosters. Design: Nursing homes that were [...] Read more.
Background: Most residents and staff in nursing homes have received full vaccination. Factors related to the immune response to vaccination might be related to the risk of future severe COVID-19 and may guide the need for vaccine boosters. Design: Nursing homes that were tested in a point survey in July-October 2020 were again analyzed after a vaccination campaign in June-July 2021. Immune responses according to IgG against nucleocapsid and spike antigens, and CD4 and CD8 interferon-gamma release assay against spike antigens, were evaluated. Results: A total of 1973 subjects were tested (61.7% residents, 48.3% staff), with a mean (SD) follow-up of 46.4 (3.6) weeks between assessments. More than half of residents and more than a third of staff had evidence of COVID-19 before vaccination; 26.9% and 22.7% had seroreversion of IgG-N, and 8.9% and 4.6% had IgG-N seroconversion at second assessment, respectively. Up to 96.8% of residents and 98.1% of workers had positive IgG-S after a mean of 19.9 (2.1) weeks after vaccination. In residents with vs without a history of COVID-19, IgG-S titers were 4.11 (0.54) vs. 2.73 (0.74) logAU/mL (p < 0.001); in workers these titers were 3.89 (0.61) vs. 3.15 (0.64) logAU/mL (p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that younger age (OR: −0.03 per 10 years-older [95% CI, −0.04 to −0.02], p < 0.001) and evidence of COVID-19 (OR: 1.14 [95% CI, 1.08 to 1.20], p < 0.001) are associated with greater IgG-S titers after vaccination. A direct association was found between IgG-S titers and the intensity of IFN-gamma response against spike antigens. Conclusions: Waning of humoral response and reinfection seems to be more frequent in older as compared to younger adults, although cellular responses shortly after vaccination are comparable between these groups. Younger age and prior COVID-19 are related to greater humoral response after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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8 pages, 1248 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Neutralizing Antibody Kinetics 90 Days after Three Doses of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Singapore
by Chin Shern Lau, Soon Kieng Phua, Ya Li Liang, May Lin Helen Oh and Tar Choon Aw
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020331 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2368
Abstract
Background: We evaluated the post-booster (BNT162b2) antibody responses in Singapore. Methods: Participants (n = 43) were tested pre-booster and 20/30/60/90 days post-booster. Participants were boosted 120–240 days (mean 214 days) after their second dose and had no history or serologic evidence of [...] Read more.
Background: We evaluated the post-booster (BNT162b2) antibody responses in Singapore. Methods: Participants (n = 43) were tested pre-booster and 20/30/60/90 days post-booster. Participants were boosted 120–240 days (mean 214 days) after their second dose and had no history or serologic evidence of prior COVID-19 infection; all participants had undetectable SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies throughout the study. Total nucleocapsid and spike antibodies (S-Ab) were assessed on the Roche Elecsys e802 and neutralizing antibody (N-Ab) on the Snibe quantitative N-Ab assay. Results: Pre-booster median S-Ab/N-Ab titers were 829 BAU/mL/0.83 µg/mL; 2 participants were below manufacturer’s N-Ab cut-offs of 0.3 µg/mL (0.192 and 0.229). Both S-Ab and N-Ab titers peaked at 30 days post-booster (median S-Ab 25,220 BAU/mL and N-Ab 30.3 µg/mL) at 30–37× pre-booster median levels. These peak post-booster S-Ab/N-Ab titers were 11× (25,220 vs. 2235 BAU/mL) and 9× (30.3 vs. 3.52 µg/mL) higher than the previously reported peak post-second dose levels. Antibody titers declined to 12,315 BAU/mL (51% decrease) and 14.3 µg/mL (53% decrease) 90 days post-booster. Non-linear regression estimates for S-Ab/N-Ab half-lives were 44/58 days. At 180 days post-booster, S-Ab/N-Ab are estimated to be 2671 BAU/mL/4.83 µg/mL. Conclusions: Both S-Ab and N-Ab show a good response following post-booster vaccination, with half-lives that may provide a prolonged antibody response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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14 pages, 2130 KiB  
Article
Humoral Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of the Standard ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccination in Taiwan
by Jer-Hwa Chang, Jeng-Fong Chiou, Ching-Sheng Hung, Ming-Che Liu, Hui-Wen Chang, Shiao-Ya Hong, Cheng-Yi Wang, Yi-Ling Lin, Yi-Chen Hsieh, Chi-Li Chung, Ying-Shih Su, Shu-Tai Shen Hsiao, Doresses Liu, Jian-Jong Liang, Chun-Che Liao, Chih-Shin Chang, Kevin Shu-Leung Lai, Han-Chuan Chuang, Ko-Ling Chien, Wei-Ciao Wu, Yuan-Chii G. Lee, Sey-En Lin, Yung-Kang Shen, Chiung-Fang Hsu, Jude Chu-Chun Wang and Shih-Hsin Hsiaoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020312 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2655
Abstract
Background: The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine has been widely administered against SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, data regarding its immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and potential differences in responses among Asian populations remain scarce. Methods: 270 participants without prior COVID-19 were enrolled to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination with a [...] Read more.
Background: The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine has been widely administered against SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, data regarding its immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and potential differences in responses among Asian populations remain scarce. Methods: 270 participants without prior COVID-19 were enrolled to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination with a prime–boost interval of 8–9 weeks. Their specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, neutralizing antibody titers (NT50), platelet counts, and D-dimer levels were analyzed before and after vaccination. Results: The seroconversion rates of anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG at day 28 after a boost vaccination (BD28) were 100% and 95.19%, respectively. Anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG levels were highly correlated (r = 0.7891), which were 172.9 ± 170.4 and 179.3 ± 76.88 BAU/mL at BD28, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of NT50 for all participants increased to 132.9 IU/mL (95% CI 120.0–147.1) at BD28 and were highly correlated with anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG levels (r = 0.8248 and 0.7474, respectively). Body weight index was statistically significantly associated with anti-RBD IgG levels (p = 0.035), while female recipients had higher anti-spike IgG levels (p = 0.038). The GMCs of NT50 declined with age (p = 0.0163) and were significantly different across age groups (159.7 IU/mL for 20–29 years, 99.4 IU/mL for ≥50 years, p = 0.0026). Injection-site pain, fever, and fatigue were the major reactogenicity, which were more pronounced after prime vaccination and in younger participants (<50 years). Platelet counts decreased and D-dimer levels increased after vaccination but were not clinically relevant. No serious adverse events or deaths were observed. Conclusion: The vaccine is well-tolerated and elicited robust humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after standard prime–boost vaccination in Taiwanese recipients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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18 pages, 1896 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among ASEAN Countries: Does the Pandemic Severity Really Matter?
by An Hoai Duong and Ernoiz Antriyandarti
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020222 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
The current study uses data surveyed between August and September 2021 in four ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) countries to identify drivers of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance with different levels of the pandemic severity. It also examines the impact of the drivers [...] Read more.
The current study uses data surveyed between August and September 2021 in four ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) countries to identify drivers of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance with different levels of the pandemic severity. It also examines the impact of the drivers on vaccine acceptance. The results show that the number of respondents who accept vaccines significantly dominates that of those who do not. In addition, the number of respondents who get the vaccine if the pandemic becomes more severe dominates that of those if it becomes less severe. Results generated from the logistic regressions show that the impact of the drivers on the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance with different levels of the pandemic severity varies in terms of magnitude and direction. Practical recommendations are made based on the findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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11 pages, 1327 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Benadir Region, Somalia
by Mohamed Hussein Adam, Jamal Hasan Mohamoud, Abdiaziz S. Mohamood, Ahmed A. Mohamed, Bashiru Garba and Najib Isse Dirie
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020220 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3529
Abstract
Only little is known about the true extent of COVID-19 in Somalia. The study aims to assess the seroprevalence of the COVID-19 pandemics in the Benadir region using SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and estimate the number of inhabitants infected with SARS-CoV-2. Population-based cross-sectional survey was [...] Read more.
Only little is known about the true extent of COVID-19 in Somalia. The study aims to assess the seroprevalence of the COVID-19 pandemics in the Benadir region using SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and estimate the number of inhabitants infected with SARS-CoV-2. Population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to measure the seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the Benadir region (Mogadishu city). In the study, we enrolled 2500 Mogadishu city residents aged ≥18 years who did not receive the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The overall seroprevalence of IgG/IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 44.8%. The seropositivity in females (56.6%) was higher than in males (46.2%). The trend in seropositivity increased with age; however, the variation was only significant in the age group 38–57 with an odds ratio and p-value of 4.11 (1.475–11.47), p = 0.007. Families with >5 members (47.2%) were more likely to test positive than those with <5 members (37%). Participants who reported COVID-19 symptoms during the pandemics or who had contact with COVID-19 patients had significantly increased IgG prevalence. Participants with larger families, individuals working in the public sector, and students showed significant seropositive results. Therefore, precautionary measures should be heightened for individuals working in the public sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 224 KiB  
Article
Which Type of the Promising COVID-19 Vaccines Produces Minimal Adverse Effects? A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
by Heba M. Attash, Luma M. Al-Obaidy and Harith Kh. Al-Qazaz
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020186 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
Since the declaration of Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), it was clear that vaccination is the best way to overcome it. Sinopharm, AstraZeneca and Pfizer were the first vaccines introduced to defeat it. To recognize the short-term [...] Read more.
Since the declaration of Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), it was clear that vaccination is the best way to overcome it. Sinopharm, AstraZeneca and Pfizer were the first vaccines introduced to defeat it. To recognize the short-term adverse effects among Iraqi health care workers (HCWs) after vaccination, the three COVID-19 vaccines that are currently available in Iraq were compared. An online survey was distributed to Iraqi HCWs who had received at least one of the COVID-19 vaccines as part of a retrospective cross-sectional study. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS. The total number of participants was 843. The majority of the participants (85.9%) were under 39 years old, with 78.8% of them being females. Around 60% of individuals had received the Pfizer vaccine. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had infected 46.7% of the total participants. A total of 628 out of 843 participants experienced adverse effects after receiving the vaccine, accounting for 74.49% of the overall respondents. After receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, the vast majority of respondents who received the three vaccines experienced pain at the injection site (n = 800), while other side effects like headache, myalgia, tiredness and fever mainly appeared with Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines. Most of the reported adverse effects were tolerable and self-limited and they were linked to the AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
10 pages, 982 KiB  
Article
Determinants of the Development of SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Spike Immune-Response after Vaccination among Healthcare Workers in Egypt
by Engy Mohamed El-Ghitany, Mona H. Hashish, Shehata Farag, Eman A. Omran, Azza Galal Farghaly and Nashwa Fawzy Abd El-Moez Azzam
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020174 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2993
Abstract
Background: Understanding the factors affecting humoral immune response to COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers (HCWs) is essential to predict their level of protection. Vaccination elicits antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S). Aim: To investigate the factors associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S [...] Read more.
Background: Understanding the factors affecting humoral immune response to COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers (HCWs) is essential to predict their level of protection. Vaccination elicits antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S). Aim: To investigate the factors associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S antibodies among vaccinated HCWs. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 143 vaccinated HCWs, with or without a history of previous COVID-19 infection (clinically, radiologically, or by laboratory results) from different departments. Socio-demographic, clinical, as well as vaccine-related data, were recorded. Serum samples were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies. Results: Vaccination provoked an immunogenic response, where the overall anti-S positivity was 83.9% (95% CI: 77.8–90.0%). The response was not affected either by the age or gender of HCWs. Out of the 143 HCWs, 46 (32.1%; 95% CI: 24.4–39.9%) reported a previous history of COVID-19 infection, and seropositivity was significantly higher among them (p = 0.002), and it was associated with the frequency of infection (p = 0.044) and duration since diagnosis of COVID-19 infection (p = 0.065). They had higher median anti-S titers (111.8 RU/mL) than those without infection (39.8 RU/mL). Higher seropositivity was observed with Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine (AZD1222) (88.9%; 95% CI: 83.1–95.0%) than Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV) (67.7%; 95% CI: 50.3–85.2%), and with receiving two doses of vaccine (92.3%; 95% CI: 87.1–97.5%). Conclusions: Antibody positivity was significantly affected by the previous history of COVID-19 infection, type of vaccine, the number of doses received, and duration since vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 631 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccination in Cancer Patients Older Than 70 Years Undergoing Active Treatment. Seroconversion Rate and Safety
by Luigi Cavanna, Manuela Proietto, Chiara Citterio, Elisa Anselmi, Elena Zaffignani, Elisa Maria Stroppa, Maria Teresa Borsotti, Andrea Contini, Gabriella Di Girolamo, Vincenzo Matteo Quitadamo, Nicoletta Bacchetta, Monica Muroni, Maria Grazia Brescia and Marco Delledonne
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020164 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4093
Abstract
Patients with cancer have a high risk of intubation, intensive care unit admission, or death from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19); age and comorbidities are additional risk factors. Vaccination is effective against COVID-19; however, patients with cancer have been excluded from pivotal clinical trials [...] Read more.
Patients with cancer have a high risk of intubation, intensive care unit admission, or death from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19); age and comorbidities are additional risk factors. Vaccination is effective against COVID-19; however, patients with cancer have been excluded from pivotal clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines. Data on COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients who are older are lacking. This observational study was conducted to evaluate the seropositivity rate and safety of a two-dose regimen of the BNT162b2 or mRNA1273 vaccine in older patients (age ≥ 70 years) with solid tumors or with hematological malignances who are undergoing active anticancer treatment or whose treatment has been terminated within 6 months of vaccination. The control group was composed of healthy volunteers that were age-matched with the patient group. The primary endpoint was the seropositivity rate, and the secondary endpoints were safety, the factors influencing seroconversion, the IgG titers of patients versus healthy volunteers, and post-vaccine COVID-19 infection between 20 March 2021 and 14 July 2021. At our Institution (Oncology and Hematology Department, Hospital of Piacenza, North Italy), 443 patients with cancer underwent a program for COVID-19 vaccination; 115 (25.95%) were older than 70 (range 71–86 years) and form the basis of this study. All 115 patients accepted the vaccination. There were 64 female patients (55.65%), 94 patients (81.74%) with solid tumors, and 21 patients (18.26%) with hematological malignances. The primary endpoint of seropositivity was observed in 75 patients (65.22%)—70.21% in patients with solid tumors and 42.86% in patients with hematological malignances—versus in 100% of patients in the control group. Of the secondary endpoints, no grade 3–4 side effects and no COVID-19 infections were reported. The factor influencing seroconversion was the type of cancer. The patients’ median IgG titers were significantly lower than in the control groups. The COVID-19 vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA1273 were effective and safe among older patients with cancer when administered in real-world conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
IgG and IgA Antibodies Post SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in the Breast Milk and Sera of Breastfeeding Women
by Federica Scrimin, Giuseppina Campisciano, Manola Comar, Chiara Ragazzon, Riccardo Davanzo, Mariachiara Quadrifoglio, Manuela Giangreco, Guglielmo Stabile and Giuseppe Ricci
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010125 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3924
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has carried massive global health and economic burden that is currently counteracted by a challenging anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Indeed, mass vaccination against COVID-19 is expected to be the most efficacious intervention to mitigate the pandemic successfully. The primary objective of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has carried massive global health and economic burden that is currently counteracted by a challenging anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Indeed, mass vaccination against COVID-19 is expected to be the most efficacious intervention to mitigate the pandemic successfully. The primary objective of the present study is to test the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgA and IgG) in the breast milk and sera samples from vaccinated women at least 20 days after the complete vaccine cycle. A secondary aim is to compare the IgG antibodies level in maternal serum and breast milk. The third target is to evaluate the presence of the IgG antibodies in breast milk after several weeks from the vaccination. Finally, we collected information on the health status of infants in the days following maternal vaccination. Forty-two mothers were enrolled in the study. Thirty-six received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, four the Astra Zeneca vaccine, one the Moderna vaccine and another woman Astra Zeneca in the first dose and Pfizer/BioNTech in the second dose. All 42 milk samples confirmed the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and none showed IgA presence. Regarding the matched 42 sera samples, 41 samples detected IgG presence, with one sample testing negative and only one positive for seric IgA. None of the 42 infants had fever or changes in sleep or appetite in the seven days following the maternal vaccination. The level of IgG antibodies in milk was, on average, lower than that in maternal serum. According to our analysis, the absence of IgA could suggest a rapid decrease after vaccination even if frequent breastfeeding could favour its persistence. IgG were present in breast milk even 4 months after the second vaccine dose. Information on the immunological characteristics of breast milk could change mothers’ choices regarding breastfeeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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6 pages, 796 KiB  
Case Report
Persistent T-Cell Reactivity in a Seronegative Patient after SARS-CoV-2 Infection and One Vaccination
by Nico Andreas, Sebastian Weis, Steffi Kolanos, Sabine Baumgart, Thomas Kamradt and Mathias W. Pletz
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010114 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3918
Abstract
We present here a 64-year-old male participant of the CoNAN study who experienced a PCR-confirmed mild SARS-CoV-2 infection but did not develop any measurable antibody response. Additionally, after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) 11 months later, no antibodies were detected in six [...] Read more.
We present here a 64-year-old male participant of the CoNAN study who experienced a PCR-confirmed mild SARS-CoV-2 infection but did not develop any measurable antibody response. Additionally, after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) 11 months later, no antibodies were detected in six serological tests three weeks after the vaccination. When we assessed T-helper (Th) cell immunity, SARS-CoV-2-specific Th cells produced detectable amounts of IFNγ and TNF six weeks after the infection. A robust T-cell immunity remained detectable at least until six months after the infection and was boosted by the vaccination thereafter. This case report points out that an assessment of a prior infection or a vaccine response based solely on antibody detection might have limitations in individual patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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26 pages, 8683 KiB  
Article
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG against the S Protein: A Comparison of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1 nCoV-2019 and Ad26.COV2.S Vaccines
by Joanna Szczepanek, Monika Skorupa, Agnieszka Goroncy, Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn, Aleksandra Wypych, Dorota Sandomierz, Aleksander Jarkiewicz-Tretyn, Joanna Dejewska, Karolina Ciechanowska, Krzysztof Pałgan, Paweł Rajewski and Andrzej Tretyn
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010099 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3846
Abstract
Background: COVID-19 vaccines induce a differentiated humoral and cellular response, and one of the comparable parameters of the vaccine response is the determination of IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed at three time points (at the beginning [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-19 vaccines induce a differentiated humoral and cellular response, and one of the comparable parameters of the vaccine response is the determination of IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed at three time points (at the beginning of May, at the end of June and at the end of September). Serum samples were obtained from 954 employees of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (a total of three samples each were obtained from 511 vaccinated participants). IgG antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The statistical analysis included comparisons between vaccines, between convalescents and COVID-19 non-patients, between individual measurements and included the gender, age and blood groups of participants. Results: There were significant differences in antibody levels between mRNA and vector vaccines. People vaccinated with mRNA-1273 achieved the highest levels of antibodies, regardless of the time since full vaccination. People vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-2019 produced several times lower antibody levels compared to the mRNA vaccines, while the antibody levels were more stable. In the case of each of the vaccines, the factor having the strongest impact on the level and stability of the IgG antibody titers was previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were no significant correlations with age, gender and blood type. Summary: mRNA vaccines induce a stronger humoral response of the immune system with the fastest loss of antibodies over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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11 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Mediators of Racial Differences in COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance and Uptake: A Cohort Study in Detroit, MI
by Abram L. Wagner, Lydia Wileden, Trina R. Shanks, Susan Door Goold, Jeffrey D. Morenoff and Sherri N. Sheinfeld Gorin
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010036 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Despite their disparate rates of infection and mortality, many communities of color report high levels of vaccine hesitancy. This paper describes racial differences in COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Detroit, and assesses, using a mediation model, how individuals’ personal experiences with COVID-19 and trust [...] Read more.
Despite their disparate rates of infection and mortality, many communities of color report high levels of vaccine hesitancy. This paper describes racial differences in COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Detroit, and assesses, using a mediation model, how individuals’ personal experiences with COVID-19 and trust in authorities mediate racial disparities in vaccination acceptance. The Detroit Metro Area Communities Study (DMACS) is a panel survey of a representative sample of Detroit residents. There were 1012 respondents in the October 2020 wave, of which 856 (83%) were followed up in June 2021. We model the impact of race and ethnicity on vaccination uptake using multivariable logistic regression, and report mediation through direct experiences with COVID as well as trust in government and in healthcare providers. Within Detroit, only 58% of Non-Hispanic (NH) Black residents were vaccinated, compared to 82% of Non-Hispanic white Detroiters, 50% of Hispanic Detroiters, and 52% of other racial/ethnic groups. Trust in healthcare providers and experiences with friends and family dying from COVID-19 varied significantly by race/ethnicity. The mediation analysis reveals that 23% of the differences in vaccine uptake by race could be eliminated if NH Black Detroiters were to have levels of trust in healthcare providers similar to those among NH white Detroiters. Our analyses suggest that efforts to improve relationships among healthcare providers and NH Black communities in Detroit are critical to overcoming local COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Increased study of and intervention in these communities is critical to building trust and managing widespread health crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
15 pages, 1909 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness of COVID-19 Vaccines against Delta (B.1.617.2) Variant: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies
by Ali Pormohammad, Mohammad Zarei, Saied Ghorbani, Mehdi Mohammadi, Saeideh Aghayari Sheikh Neshin, Alireza Khatami, Diana L. Turner, Shirin Djalalinia, Seied Asadollah Mousavi, Heydar Ali Mardani-Fard, Amir Kasaeian and Raymond J. Turner
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010023 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 7402
Abstract
The high transmissibility, mortality, and morbidity rate of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) variant have raised concerns regarding vaccine effectiveness (VE). To address this issue, all publications relevant to the effectiveness of vaccines against the Delta variant were searched in the Web of Science, [...] Read more.
The high transmissibility, mortality, and morbidity rate of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) variant have raised concerns regarding vaccine effectiveness (VE). To address this issue, all publications relevant to the effectiveness of vaccines against the Delta variant were searched in the Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and Medline (via PubMed) databases up to 15 October 2021. A total of 15 studies (36 datasets) were included in the meta-analysis. After the first dose, the VE against the Delta variant for each vaccine was 0.567 (95% CI 0.520–0.613) for Pfizer-BioNTech, 0.72 (95% CI 0.589–0.822) for Moderna, 0.44 (95% CI 0.301–0.588) for AstraZeneca, and 0.138 (95% CI 0.076–0.237) for CoronaVac. Meta-analysis of 2,375,957 vaccinated cases showed that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had the highest VE against the infection after the second dose, at 0.837 (95% CI 0.672–0.928), and third dose, at 0.972 (95% CI 0.96–0.978), as well as the highest VE for the prevention of severe infection or death, at 0.985 (95% CI 0.95–0.99), amongst all COVID-19 vaccines. The short-term effectiveness of vaccines, especially mRNA-based vaccines, for the prevention of the Delta variant infection, hospitalization, severe infection, and death is supported by this study. Limitations include a lack of long-term efficacy data, and under-reporting of COVID-19 infection cases in observational studies, which has the potential to falsely skew VE rates. Overall, this study supports the decisions by public health decision makers to promote the population vaccination rate to control the Delta variant infection and the emergence of further variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 232 KiB  
Article
Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine in Gynecologic Oncology Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Innocenza Palaia, Giuseppe Caruso, Violante Di Donato, Annarita Vestri, Anna Napoli, Giorgia Perniola, Matteo Casinelli, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Roberta Campagna, Federica Tomao, Debora D’Aniello, Guido Antonelli and Ludovico Muzii
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010012 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3531
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in gynecologic oncology patients under chemotherapy. Methods: A prospective cohort study including gynecologic oncology women who were under chemotherapy or had completed it within 6 months at the time of the [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in gynecologic oncology patients under chemotherapy. Methods: A prospective cohort study including gynecologic oncology women who were under chemotherapy or had completed it within 6 months at the time of the study. All patients received a two-dose schedule of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Results were compared with a control group of healthy women vaccinated in the same period. Results: Overall, 44 oncologic patients with a mean age of 61.3 ± 10.7 years were enrolled: 28 (63.6%) had ovarian cancer, 9 (20.4%) endometrial, and 7 (16%) cervical. The IgG antibody titer after 1 month from vaccination was low in 9 (20.5%) patients, moderate in 21 (47.7%), and high in 14 (31.8%). The 3-month titer was null in 2 (4.5%) patients, low in 26 (59.1%), moderate in 13 (29.5%), and high in 3 (6.8%). Patients ≥ 50 years reported lower 1-month (p = 0.018) and 3-month (p = 0.004) titers compared with <50 years. Patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2 had a higher 1-month titer compared with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (p = 0.016). Compared with healthy women (n = 44), oncologic patients showed a lower 3-month titer (p < 0.001). None of the patients experienced serious adverse effects. Conclusions: The COVID-19 vaccine was safe and immunogenic in gynecologic oncology patients under chemotherapy. Serological monitoring and further vaccine shots should be considered to boost protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
11 pages, 1310 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Post-Vaccination Antibody Response Eight Months after the Administration of BNT1622b2 Vaccine to Healthcare Workers with Particular Emphasis on the Impact of Previous COVID-19 Infection
by Blanka Wolszczak-Biedrzycka, Anna Bieńkowska and Justyna Dorf
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121508 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3175
Abstract
At the end of 2020, COVID-19 vaccination programs were initiated in many countries, including Poland. The first vaccine approved in Poland was the BNT162b2 mRNA preparation (Pfizer/BioNTech), and the first vaccinated group were healthcare workers. The aim of the present study was to [...] Read more.
At the end of 2020, COVID-19 vaccination programs were initiated in many countries, including Poland. The first vaccine approved in Poland was the BNT162b2 mRNA preparation (Pfizer/BioNTech), and the first vaccinated group were healthcare workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate post-vaccine antibody titers 8 months after the second vaccine dose had been administered to a group of employees of the Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration in Olsztyn (Poland). The employees were divided into two groups: persons who had COVID-19 in the fourth quarter of 2020 and were vaccinated in January–February 2021, and persons without a history of COVID-19 who were vaccinated during the same period. The analyzed material was venous blood serum collected from 100 hospital employees on 23–28 September 2021. The level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies was measured with a Roche Cobas e411 analyzer using the electrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) method. The study demonstrated that persons with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection had significantly higher antibody levels (taking into account gender, age, type of work performed, and severity of post-vaccination symptoms) than employees without a history of COVID-19. The study also revealed that the type of work, age, gender, and the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection can influence the humoral immune response. The presented results may prove helpful in the context of administering additional vaccine doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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16 pages, 568 KiB  
Review
Promising Expectations for Pneumococcal Vaccination during COVID-19
by Hyobin Im, Jinhui Ser, Uk Sim and Hoonsung Cho
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121507 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5557
Abstract
The emergence of new viral infections has increased over the decades. The novel virus is one such pathogen liable for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, popularly known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most fatalities during the past century’s influenza pandemics [...] Read more.
The emergence of new viral infections has increased over the decades. The novel virus is one such pathogen liable for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, popularly known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most fatalities during the past century’s influenza pandemics have cooperated with bacterial co/secondary infections. Unfortunately, many reports have claimed that bacterial co-infection is also predominant in COVID-19 patients (COVID-19 associated co/secondary infection prevalence is up to 45.0%). In the COVID-19 pandemic, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common coinfecting pathogen. Half of the COVID-19 mortality cases showed co-infection, and pneumonia-related COVID-19 mortality in patients >65 years was 23%. The weakening of immune function caused by COVID-19 remains a high-risk factor for pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal disease and COVID-19 also have similar risk factors. For example, underlying medical conditions on COVID-19 and pneumococcal diseases increase the risk for severe illness at any age; COVID-19 is now considered a primary risk factor for pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Thus, pneumococcal vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic has become more critical than ever. This review presents positive studies of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with COVID-19 and other medical conditions and the correlational effects of pneumococcal disease with COVID-19 to prevent morbidity and mortality from co/secondary infections and superinfections. It also reports the importance and role of pneumococcal vaccination during the current COVID-19 pandemic era to strengthen the global health system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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10 pages, 972 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 in Solid Organ Transplant Recipient: Exploring Cumulative Incidence, Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Disease Severity
by Rossana Caldara, Paola Maffi, Sabrina Costa, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Cristina Brigatti, Vito Lampasona, Paola Magistretti, Fabio Manenti, Ilaria Marzinotto, Silvia Pellegrini, Marina Scavini, Antonio Secchi and Lorenzo Piemonti
Biology 2021, 10(12), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10121349 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3190
Abstract
Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may be at increased risk for severe disease and mortality from COVID-19 because of immunosuppression and prolonged end-stage organ disease. As a transplant center serving a diverse patient population, we report the cumulative incidence and outcomes of [...] Read more.
Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may be at increased risk for severe disease and mortality from COVID-19 because of immunosuppression and prolonged end-stage organ disease. As a transplant center serving a diverse patient population, we report the cumulative incidence and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in our cohort of SOT recipients. Methods: We prospectively included in this observational study SOT recipients with a functioning kidney (n = 201), pancreas ± kidney (n = 66) or islet transplant (n = 24), attending outpatient regular follow-up at the San Raffaele Hospital from February 2020 to April 2021. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were tested in all patients by a luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. Results: Of the 291 SOT recipients, 30 (10.3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period and prevalence was not different among different transplants. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody frequency was around 2.6-fold higher than the incidence of cases who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. As for the WHO COVID-19 severity classification, 19 (63.3%) SOT recipients were mild, nine (30%) were moderate, and two were critical and died yielding a crude mortality rate in our patient population of 6.7%. Kidney transplant (OR 12.9 (1.1–150) p = 0.041) was associated with an increased risk for moderate/critical disease, while statin therapy (OR 0.116 (0.015–0.926) p = 0.042) and pancreas/islet transplant (OR 0.077 (0.007–0.906) p = 0.041) were protective. Conclusions: The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in SOT recipients may be higher than previously described. Due to the relative high crude mortality, symptomatic SOT recipients must be considered at high risk in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 mRNA Based Vaccine Immune-Response Assessment in Nursing Home Residents for Public Health Decision
by David San Segundo, Alejandra Comins-Boo, Patricia Lamadrid-Perojo, Juan Irure-Ventura, José María Castillo-Otí, Reinhard Wallman, Jorge Calvo-Montes, José Manuel Méndez-Legaza, Carmela Baamonde-Calzada, Isabel Sánchez-Molina, Marina Lecue-Martínez, Silvia Ventisca-Pérez, Ana Batlle-López and Marcos López Hoyos
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121429 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2989
Abstract
Nursing home residents (NHR) have been targeted as a vaccination priority due to their higher risk of worse outcome after COVID-19 infection. The mRNA-based vaccine BTN2b2 was first approved in Europe for NHRs. The assessment of the specific vaccine immune response (both humoral [...] Read more.
Nursing home residents (NHR) have been targeted as a vaccination priority due to their higher risk of worse outcome after COVID-19 infection. The mRNA-based vaccine BTN2b2 was first approved in Europe for NHRs. The assessment of the specific vaccine immune response (both humoral and cellular) at long term in NHRs has not been addressed yet. A representative sample of 624 NHR subjects in Northern region of Spain was studied to assess immune response against full vaccination with BTN2b2. The anti-S1 antibody levels and specific T cells were measured at two and six months after vaccination. 24.4% of NHR had a previous infection prior to vaccination. The remaining NHR were included in the full vaccination assessment group (FVA). After two months, a 94.9% of the FVA presented anti-S1 antibodies, whereas those seronegative without specific cellular response were 2.54%. At long-term, the frequency of NHR within the FVA group with anti-S1 antibodies at six months were 88.12% and the seronegative subjects without specific cellular response was 8.07%. The cellular immune assays complement the humoral test in the immune vaccine response assessment. Therefore, the cellular immune assessment in NHRs allows for the fine tuning of those seronegative subjects with potential competent immune responses against the vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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15 pages, 841 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Impact of Media Trust on the Public’s Motivation to Receive Future Vaccinations for COVID-19 Based on Protection Motivation Theory
by Zeming Li and Xinying Sun
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121401 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3515
Abstract
Object: Media trust is one of the essential factors affecting health behavior. Based on the protection motivation theory (PMT), this study explores the impact of different public media trust (traditional media, social media, interpersonal communication) on future COVID-19 vaccine motivation. Methods: [...] Read more.
Object: Media trust is one of the essential factors affecting health behavior. Based on the protection motivation theory (PMT), this study explores the impact of different public media trust (traditional media, social media, interpersonal communication) on future COVID-19 vaccine motivation. Methods: The online survey was conducted from 14 April to 30 April 2021, and 2098 adults were recruited to participate in the online survey through the Wenjuanxing online survey platform. The survey included the PMT constructs (threat appraisal, coping appraisal, and motivation for future COVID-19 vaccination), trust in different media, vaccine hesitation reasons, and implementation of other non-pharmaceutical interventions. Structural equation model (SEM) was used for latent variable analysis, and Spearman linear correlation coefficient matrix was used to explore the relationships between variables. Results: In terms of trust in different media, participants who had a higher education level (p = 0.038), who was married (p = 0.002), and who had not been vaccinated against COVID-19 during the survey (p = 0.002) show greater trust in traditional media. Participants who were married (p = 0.001), who had a relatively high income (p = 0.020), and who had not been vaccinated (p = 0.044) show greater trust in social media. Older participants (p < 0.001) and married (p < 0.001) showed greater trust in interpersonal communication. In the structural equation, trust in traditional media had a direct positive impact on perceived severity (β = 0.172, p < 0.001) and a direct negative impact on internal rewards (β = −0.061, p < 0.05). Trust in both traditional and social media separately had a direct positive impact on self-efficacy (β = 0.327, p < 0.001; β = 0.138, p < 0.001) and response efficiency (β = 0.250, p < 0.001; β = 0.097, p < 0.05) and a direct negative impact on response costs (β = −0.329, p < 0.001; β = −0.114, p < 0.001). Trust in interpersonal communication had a direct positive impact on external rewards (β = 0.186, p < 0.001) and response costs (β = 0.091, p < 0.001). Overall, traditional media trust had an indirect positive influence on vaccine motivation (β = 0.311), social media trust had an indirect positive influence on vaccine motivation (β = 0.110), and interpersonal communication had an indirect negative influence on vaccine motivation (β = −0.022). Conclusion: This study supports the use of PMT as an intermediate variable to explore the effect of media trust on vaccination intention. High trust in traditional media has helped reduce vaccine hesitation, increased the public’s future COVID-19 vaccination motivation, and maintained other non-pharmacological interventions. Social media also had a certain promotion effect on vaccine motivation. In this context, attention should also be paid to interpersonal communication, and the science publicity work was suggested for an individual’s family members and friends in the future to improve the quality and ability of interpersonal communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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16 pages, 614 KiB  
Systematic Review
New-Onset and Relapsed Kidney Histopathology Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review
by Henry H. L. Wu, Philip A. Kalra and Rajkumar Chinnadurai
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111252 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 7984
Abstract
Introduction: The introduction of COVID-19 vaccination programs has become an integral part of the major strategy to reduce COVID-19 numbers worldwide. New-onset and relapsed kidney histopathology have been reported following COVID-19 vaccination, sparking debate on whether there are causal associations. How these vaccines [...] Read more.
Introduction: The introduction of COVID-19 vaccination programs has become an integral part of the major strategy to reduce COVID-19 numbers worldwide. New-onset and relapsed kidney histopathology have been reported following COVID-19 vaccination, sparking debate on whether there are causal associations. How these vaccines achieve an immune response to COVID-19 and the mechanism that this triggers kidney pathology remains unestablished. We describe the results of a systematic review for new-onset and relapsed kidney histopathology following COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A systematic literature search of published data up until 31 August 2021 was completed through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Research articles reporting new onset or relapsed kidney histopathology in adult patients (>18 years) following COVID-19 vaccination were included for qualitative review. Only full-text articles published in the English language were selected for review. Results: Forty-eight cases from thirty-six articles were included in the qualitative synthesis of this systematic review. Minimal change disease (19 cases) was the most frequent pathology observed, followed by IgA nephropathy (14 cases) and vasculitis (10 cases). Other cases include relapse of membranous nephropathy, acute rejection of kidney transplant, relapse of IgG4 nephritis, new-onset renal thrombotic microangiopathy, and scleroderma renal crisis following COVID-19 vaccination. There was no mortality reported in any of the included cases. Patients in all but one case largely recovered and did not require long-term renal replacement therapy. Conclusion: This systematic review provides insight into the relationship between various kidney pathologies that may have followed COVID-19 vaccination. Despite these reported cases, the protective benefits offered by COVID-19 vaccination far outweigh its risks. It would be recommended to consider early biopsy to identify histopathology amongst patients presenting with symptoms relating to new-onset kidney disease following vaccination and to monitor symptoms for those with potential relapsed disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 635 KiB  
Case Report
Humoral Response to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine of a Patient Receiving Methotrexate Treatment and Implications for the Need of Monitoring
by Krzysztof Lukaszuk, Izabela Woclawek-Potocka, Grzegorz Jakiel, Paulina Malinowska, Artur Wdowiak, Karolina Rozanska and Lukasz Rabalski
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101151 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2300
Abstract
We report a case of monitoring the antibody response to the BioNTech–Pfizer vaccine of a 50-year-old female diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing treatment with methotrexate (MTX). Antibody levels were measured 21 days after dose 1 (i.e., on the day of dose 2) and [...] Read more.
We report a case of monitoring the antibody response to the BioNTech–Pfizer vaccine of a 50-year-old female diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing treatment with methotrexate (MTX). Antibody levels were measured 21 days after dose 1 (i.e., on the day of dose 2) and then 8, 14 and 30 days after dose 2 with Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (Roche Diagnostics). Patient showed a negative result after dose 1 and had the serum sample retested using a LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay (DiaSorin), which showed a positive result. Subsequent samples were tested using both assays. Antibody levels kept increasing but at a much slower rate than in patients not receiving any immunomodulatory therapies. Other research indicates that among patients with autoimmune diseases, those receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have higher COVID-19 mortality than those treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis). These results indicate the need for people with autoimmune diseases to be carefully observed following vaccinations, including testing of antibody levels, and treated as potentially at risk until the effect of vaccination is confirmed. The different available vaccines should also be tested to verify their usefulness in the case of people with autoimmune diseases and those who take different immunomodulatory medications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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6 pages, 578 KiB  
Communication
Antibody Responses after a Third Dose of COVID-19 Vaccine in Kidney Transplant Recipients and Patients Treated for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
by Julien Marlet, Philippe Gatault, Zoha Maakaroun, Hélène Longuet, Karl Stefic, Lynda Handala, Sébastien Eymieux, Emmanuel Gyan, Caroline Dartigeas and Catherine Gaudy-Graffin
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101055 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3601
Abstract
The impact of a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine on antibody responses is unclear in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize antibody responses induced by a third dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in 160 kidney transplant recipients and [...] Read more.
The impact of a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine on antibody responses is unclear in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize antibody responses induced by a third dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in 160 kidney transplant recipients and 20 patients treated for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Prevalence of anti-spike IgG ≥ 7.1 and ≥ 30 BAU/mL after the third dose were 47% (75/160) and 39% (63/160) in kidney transplant recipients, and 57% (29/51) and 50% (10/20) in patients treated for CLL. Longitudinal follow-up identified a moderate increase in SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG levels after a third dose of vaccine in kidney transplant recipients (0.19 vs. 5.28 BAU/mL, p = 0.03) and in patients treated for CLL (0.63 vs. 10.7 BAU/mL, p = 0.0002). This increase in IgG levels had a limited impact on prevalence of anti-spike IgG ≥ 30 BAU/mL in kidney transplant recipients (17%, 2/12 vs. 33%, 4/12, p = 0.64) and in patients treated for CLL (5%, 1/20 vs. 45%, 9/20, p = 0.008). These results highlight the need for vaccination of the general population and the importance of non-medical preventive measures to protect immunocompromised patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Age and Smoking Predict Antibody Titres at 3 Months after the Second Dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine
by Yushi Nomura, Michiru Sawahata, Yosikazu Nakamura, Momoko Kurihara, Ryousuke Koike, Otohiro Katsube, Koichi Hagiwara, Seiji Niho, Norihiro Masuda, Takaaki Tanaka and Kumiya Sugiyama
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091042 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 4797
Abstract
Objective: We aimed to determine antibody (Ab) titres 3 months after the second dose of the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and to explore clinical variables predicting these titres in Japan. Methods: We enrolled 378 healthcare workers (255 women, 123 men) whose blood [...] Read more.
Objective: We aimed to determine antibody (Ab) titres 3 months after the second dose of the BNT162b2 coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and to explore clinical variables predicting these titres in Japan. Methods: We enrolled 378 healthcare workers (255 women, 123 men) whose blood samples were collected 91 ± 15 days after the second of two inoculations of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech) given 3 weeks apart. Medical histories and demographic characteristics were recorded using a structured self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between Ab titres and these factors were analysed. Results: Median age (interquartile range (IQR)) of the participants was 44 (32–54) years. Median Ab titre (IQR) against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike antigen was 764 (423–1140) U/mL. Older participants had significantly lower Ab titres; median (IQR) Ab titres were 942 (675–1390) and 1095 (741–1613) U/mL in men and women in their 20s, respectively, but 490 (297–571) and 519 (285–761) U/mL in men and women in their 60–70s, respectively. In the age-adjusted analysis, the only risk factors for lower Ab titres were male sex and smoking. However, the sex difference may have arisen from the sex difference in smoking rate. Moreover, Ab titres were significantly lower in current smokers than in ex-smokers. Conclusions: The most important factors associated with low Ab titres were age and smoking habit. In particular, current smoking status caused lower Ab titres, and smoking cessation before vaccination may improve the individual efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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9 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
IgG Antibodies Generation and Side Effects Caused by Ad5-nCoV Vaccine (CanSino Biologics) and BNT162b2 Vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech) among Mexican Population
by Oscar Guzmán-Martínez, Kathia Guardado, Elsa Ladrón de Guevara, Saturnino Navarro, Crescencio Hernández, Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas and Hilda Montero
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090999 - 8 Sep 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 6680
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly generated a pandemic. Vaccines are currently being rolled out to control the viral spread and prevent deaths. Emergency vaccines, using new platforms, have been approved. Their effectiveness, safety and immunogenicity in different populations are not fully known. This study aimed [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly generated a pandemic. Vaccines are currently being rolled out to control the viral spread and prevent deaths. Emergency vaccines, using new platforms, have been approved. Their effectiveness, safety and immunogenicity in different populations are not fully known. This study aimed to discover the immunogenicity of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) BNT162b2 and adenovirus vector Ad5-nCoV vaccines through IgG antibody generation against subunit 1 of protein S (S1 IgG) and assess the side effects of the vaccines. A total of 115 vaccinated people were included, 61 of whom received the BNT162b2 vaccine, while 54 received Ad5-nCoV. Measurements of S1 IgG antibodies were carried out using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The BNT162b2 vaccine generated S1 IgG antibodies in 80.3% of the participants after the first dose. The number of seropositive participants increased to 98.36% with the administration of the second dose. The Ad5-nCoV vaccine generated S1 IgG antibodies in 88.89% of those vaccinated. Women generated more antibodies when administered either vaccine. There were no serious adverse effects from vaccination. In conclusion, not all participants had detectable S1 IgG antibodies. The Ad5-nCoV vaccine presented the most seronegative cases. The studied vaccines were shown to be safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology)
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