Special Issue "Frontiers in Shigella Vaccine Development"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 January 2022) | Viewed by 9662
Interests: vaccines; diarrhea; enteric; rotavirus; typhoid; cholera; virus; global health
Shigella is the main cause of diarrheal deaths in children over one year of age and the most common cause of diarrheal deaths globally that currently lacks a vaccine. Children in low- and middle-income countries are disproportionately affected, making shigellosis a disease of poverty. Shigellosis has well-recognised sequelae manifested as linear growth stunting and cognitive impairment which result in further suffering and adverse economic impact. Levels of antimicrobial resistance are increasing globally among Shigella isolates making shigellosis increasingly difficult to treat. An effective vaccine against Shigella will save lives, increase economic growth and help curb global spread of antimicrobial resistance.
Although a Shigella glycoconjugate vaccine was shown to be efficacious in Israeli adults 24 years ago, the vaccine was never commercialised due to lack of commercial incentive, and was subsequently found to not be able to protect children under three years of age. The vaccine consisted of Shigella sonnei O-antigen conjugated to rEPA as carrier protein. Two vaccine two efficacy studies indicated that serum IgG to O-antigen is associated with protection against shigellosis.
In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the development of vaccines against Shigella driven by the growing awareness of the impact of this pathogen on global health. This supplement provides an up-to-date landscape of Shigella vaccines currently in clinical development with individual papers contributed by vaccine developers themselves. Most of these vaccines are predicated on Shigella O-antigen and induce serum and mucosal antibodies to this molecule. A combination of platform technologies are being utilised to engineer these vaccines including bioconjugation, synthetic chemistry, outer membrane vesicles and whole cell/live attenuated bacteria.
Together with the reports on individual vaccines, we include background papers on the different approaches to these vaccines, the history of Shigella vaccines and justification for their development.
Dr. Duncan Steele
Prof. Calman A. MacLennan
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- global health