Special Issue "Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2022 | Viewed by 7956

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Martin C. S. Wong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China
Interests: disease screening and prevention; control of non-communicable diseases; organization of primary care
Dr. Junjie Huang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China
Interests: public health; epidemiology; clinical trial; evidence-based medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has exerted a substantial impact on population health on a global scale. To ameliorate this pandemic, a high uptake rate of its vaccination is crucial. Government, physicians and family members have previously been shown as influential stakeholders to enhance vaccine uptake, but in many countries, the proportion of people who have received the vaccine remains suboptimal.

In this Special Issue of Vaccines, we are interested in publishing original articles, reviews, and commentaries focusing on the following topics:

  1. Hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine and its underlying reasons;
  2. Uptake rate of COVID-19 vaccine in special populations;
  3. Interventions that could enhance COVID-19 uptake;
  4. Public health policies on COVID-19 and their effectiveness in relation to social distancing;
  5. Other issues pertinent to COVID-19 uptake

Prof. Dr. Martin C. S. Wong
Dr. Junjie Huang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • COVID-19 vaccine
  • uptake
  • vaccine hesitancy
  • intervention
  • special population
  • public health strategies
  • policy

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Factors Associated with Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Global Population-Based Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091539 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Several vaccines have been developed for COVID-19 since the pandemic began. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention. A global survey was conducted across 26 countries from October, 2020 to December, 2021 using an online self-administered questionnaire. Demographic [...] Read more.
Several vaccines have been developed for COVID-19 since the pandemic began. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention. A global survey was conducted across 26 countries from October, 2020 to December, 2021 using an online self-administered questionnaire. Demographic information, socio-economic status, and clinical information were collected. A logistic regression examined the associations between vaccine intention and factors such as perceptions and the presence of chronic physical and mental conditions. The sample included 2459 participants, with 384 participants (15.7%) expressing lower COVID-19 vaccination intent. Individuals who identified as female; belonged to an older age group; had a higher level of education; were students; had full health insurance coverage; or had a previous history of influenza vaccination were more willing to receive vaccination. Conversely, those who were working part-time, were self-employed, or were receiving social welfare were less likely to report an intention to get vaccinated. Participants with mental or physical health conditions were more unwilling to receive vaccination, especially those with sickle cell disease, cancer history within the past five years, or mental illness. Stronger vaccination intent was associated with recommendations from the government or family doctors. The presence of chronic conditions was associated with lower vaccine intention. Individuals with health conditions are especially vulnerable to health complications and may experience an increased severity of COVID-19 symptoms. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of interventions targeting the vaccine perceptions and behaviours of at-risk groups. As such, public awareness campaigns conducted by the government and proactive endorsement from health physicians may help improve COVID-19 vaccination intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
COVID-19 Vaccination Status and Hesitancy among Breast Cancer Patients after Two Years of Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091530 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Background: Patients with cancer show greater susceptibility and vulnerability to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. However, data on the vaccination status among patients with breast cancer and any structured analysis of the factors influencing patients’ decisions regarding vaccines are lacking. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with cancer show greater susceptibility and vulnerability to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. However, data on the vaccination status among patients with breast cancer and any structured analysis of the factors influencing patients’ decisions regarding vaccines are lacking. Methods: This cross-sectional study on patients with breast cancer in China was conducted from 1 June 2022, to 17 June 2022. Every participant completed an online questionnaire about their vaccination status and any adverse reactions, and a scale based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) to assess the vaccination status of respondents and their willingness to receive following doses or boosters. Results: Among the 1132 participants, 55.2% had received a COVID-19 vaccine. The incidence of adverse events per dose was around 40%. Vaccine hesitancy of 61.9% was observed among patients who had not fully received three doses of vaccine or boosters. The only variable found to be associated with vaccine hesitancy was time since diagnosis (p < 0.05). In the HBM scale, vaccine hesitancy was closely related to a low level of perceived susceptibility, a low level of perceived benefit, a high level of perceived barriers and a low level of agreement with doctors’ advice. Conclusions: For patients with breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, benefits and barriers should be prioritized, and the advice from authoritative doctors is a vital cue to action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Parents’ Perception, Acceptance, and Hesitancy to Vaccinate Their Children against COVID-19: Results from a National Study in the UAE
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091434 - 31 Aug 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Introduction: COVID-19 is considered the greatest health disaster affecting humans during the 21st century, which urged the need to develop an effective vaccine to acquire enough immunity against the virus. The main challenge faced during the development of such vaccines was the insufficiency [...] Read more.
Introduction: COVID-19 is considered the greatest health disaster affecting humans during the 21st century, which urged the need to develop an effective vaccine to acquire enough immunity against the virus. The main challenge faced during the development of such vaccines was the insufficiency of time, which raised the question about the vaccine safety and efficacy, especially among children. Parents’ and caregivers’ thoughts and acceptance of administering the vaccine to their children are still debatable topics and are yet to be explored in the UAE. Aims: The study aims to exploit parent acceptance, perception, and hesitancy toward the COVID-19 vaccine administration for their children and the link with their choice of distance learning instead of face-to-face education in the UAE. Methodology: This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design. A sample of 1049 parents across all emirates were conveniently approached and surveyed using Google forms from June to September 2021. The participants responded to a semi-structured questionnaire pertaining to socio-demographic, educational, and other questions related to COVID-19 and its link with their beliefs in whether the vaccination of their children will help with resuming face-to-face learning. Results: Approximately 74% of the parents confirmed that their children who are 16 years old and above have received the vaccine, and 71% were willing to give the vaccine to their children aged above 5 years. Parents with children receiving online education and those with children where the online modality of learning negatively affected their academic achievement are more prone to administer the COVID-19 vaccine to their children above five years old. The results show a significant association between vaccination of children and the parental desire for resuming physical attendance in schools (p value < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the highest acceptance rate was from parents with children of low academic achievement due to online learning modality during the pandemic. Conclusion: In the UAE, parents of young children have shown a positive attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination in belief that vaccines will reduce the risk of infection and assist in resuming normal lifestyles, such as going back physically to schools. The results reflect the public awareness and the hypervigilance regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in the UAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Understanding the Role of Psychosocial Factors in Pakistani Parents’ Hesitancy to Vaccinate Their Kids: The Mediating Role of Knowledge and Mistrust of Science about the COVID-19 Vaccine
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081260 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Vaccination is a vital component in the battle against outbreaks of infectious diseases. Recognizing parents’ reluctance to vaccinate their children is even more critical now, given the ongoing threat of a COVID-19 pandemic. Conspiracy theories, vaccination safety concerns, parental efficacy and risk perception, [...] Read more.
Vaccination is a vital component in the battle against outbreaks of infectious diseases. Recognizing parents’ reluctance to vaccinate their children is even more critical now, given the ongoing threat of a COVID-19 pandemic. Conspiracy theories, vaccination safety concerns, parental efficacy and risk perception, and a lack of confidence in science all influence intention. To investigate how these variables interact with vaccination behavior against COVID-19, we developed a model with psychosocial factors serving as the predictor and mistrust in science and vaccine knowledge serving as the mediator. In order to validate the model, the parents’ intentions regarding their children’s vaccination with COVID-19 were used. The study included 454 Pakistani parents who completed an online questionnaire assessing their intention to vaccinate their children. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling (SEM). A significant level of vaccine hesitation is due to belief in vaccine conspiracy theories, and vaccine safety concerns were investigated. A surprising correlation exists between risk perception and vaccination intentions, followed by parental self-efficacy. It is significant to note that vaccine knowledge mediated conspiracy beliefs, risk perceptions, and intentions fully but partially mediated parental self-efficacy. Conspiracy theories were mediated by a mistrust in science, while perceptions of risk and vaccine safety were partially mediated. The findings of this research were used to develop sensible policy reforms and public health campaigns to encourage vaccination against both common infections such as measles, human papillomaviruses, or pertussis, and novel diseases such as COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Enabling Factors, Barriers, and Perceptions of Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategy Implementation: A Qualitative Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071164 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide, particularly in the elderly population. With the implementation of the Government Vaccination Programme (GVP) and the Vaccination Subsidy Scheme (VSS), enabling factors and barriers in service provider scheme participation and [...] Read more.
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide, particularly in the elderly population. With the implementation of the Government Vaccination Programme (GVP) and the Vaccination Subsidy Scheme (VSS), enabling factors and barriers in service provider scheme participation and vaccination uptake were examined in 32 interviews with doctors and 16 interviews with vaccine recipients. Interview data were analysed in NVivo 11.0 with reference to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the REAIM Framework to develop codes and themes. Barriers to pneumococcal vaccination uptake included concerns on vaccine efficacy and poor understanding of the disease and vaccine schemes, whilst service provider participation was hindered by ill-defined parameters for patient eligibility and time, location, and logistical constraints. Enabling factors to improve intervention implementation were involvement of the government and physicians to encourage participation, clarifying eligibility criteria, and improving individual knowledge of IPD and vaccination schemes. As participation rates in the GVP and VSS remains low in Hong Kong, efforts concentrating on health promotion strategies encouraging pneumococcal vaccination amongst the elderly population are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Intention and Knowledge, Literacy, and Health Beliefs among Japanese University Students
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060893 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
This study investigated the intention to get the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and its associated factors among Japanese university students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to May 2021 via an e-learning platform at Akita University. Participants were 1776 graduate [...] Read more.
This study investigated the intention to get the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and its associated factors among Japanese university students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to May 2021 via an e-learning platform at Akita University. Participants were 1776 graduate and undergraduate students who answered the survey on vaccine intention, the health belief model (HBM), sociodemographic characteristics, and concerns over COVID-19-related situations. Vaccine intention was stratified into active, slightly less, and no intention, and the associated factors were determined using the multinomial logistic regression model. Results showed that 56.7% of students had active intention, followed by slightly less intention (34.5%) and no intention (8.8%). After adjusting for covariates, healthcare course, perceived severity (life-threatening and serious social consequences), and perceived benefits from HBM were significantly associated with active intention, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11–7.67), 1.40 (95% CI, 1.16–1.69), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.04–1.46), and 2.03 (95% CI, 1.66–2.49), respectively; perceived barriers (side effect, troublesome, and parent disagreement) were adversely associated with active intention. The public health strategy to improve students’ vaccine uptake requires providing accurate information on vaccine safety and efficacy while removing any barriers to vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Barriers and Facilitators to Receiving the COVID-19 Vaccination and Development of Theoretically-Informed Implementation Strategies for the Public: Qualitative Study in Hong Kong
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050764 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Objectives: enhancing uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is an important tool for managing the pandemic. However, in Hong Kong, the COVID-19 vaccination rate in the general population was unsatisfactory during the early phase of the vaccination program. This two-part study aimed to (i) identify [...] Read more.
Objectives: enhancing uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is an important tool for managing the pandemic. However, in Hong Kong, the COVID-19 vaccination rate in the general population was unsatisfactory during the early phase of the vaccination program. This two-part study aimed to (i) identify barriers and facilitators to receiving vaccinations, and (ii) develop theoretically-informed implementation strategies for promoting uptake. Methods: in part 1, 45 Hong Kong residents who differed in their willingness to vaccinate (willing (n = 15), were unwilling (n = 15), and were hesitant (n = 15)), were interviewed individually in February 2021. They were invited to express their perceptions of receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. The theoretical domains framework (TDF) was applied to guide the interviews and analyses. Behavioral diagnoses from these findings were then used to develop theoretically-informed implementation strategies in part 2, composed of behavior change techniques (BCTs) informed by the established BCT taxonomy. Results: in part 1, the five main barriers were (i) concerns on severe and long-term side effects; (ii) low confidence in the safety and effectiveness due to concerns of their accelerated development; (iii) unclear information on logistical arrangements of the vaccination program; (iv) insufficient data on safety and effectiveness; and (v) perceived low protection ability conferred by the vaccines. The five main facilitators included (i) healthcare professionals’ recommendations; (ii) news from TV, radio, and newspapers as main sources of trustworthy information; (iii) vaccine-related health education delivered by healthcare professionals; (iv) expectations of resuming to a normal social life; and (v) perceived benefits outweighing risks of mild and short-term side effects. Conclusions: seven implementation strategies were developed in part 2 based on the results above, namely (i) providing trustworthy vaccine-related information and scaling up the promotion; (ii) encouraging healthcare professionals to recommend vaccinations; (iii) giving incentives; (iv) using social influence approaches; (v) allowing a selection of COVID-19 vaccine brands; (vi) increasing accessibility for vaccinations; and (vii) emphasizing social responsibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Using Integrative Behavior Model to Predict COVID-19 Vaccination Intention among Health Care Workers in Indonesia: A Nationwide Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050719 - 04 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are a high-priority group for COVID-19 vaccination for several reasons. Health behavior theory-based studies on the intention or acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination among Indonesian HCWs is lacking. Using an integrated behavioral model, this research sought to identify [...] Read more.
Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are a high-priority group for COVID-19 vaccination for several reasons. Health behavior theory-based studies on the intention or acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination among Indonesian HCWs is lacking. Using an integrated behavioral model, this research sought to identify Indonesian health care workers’ intentions to obtain COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: A countrywide cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The questionnaire was constructed on the basis of IBM (integrated behavioral model) constructs and scored on a seven-point bipolar scale. A hierarchical multivariable regression was used to evaluate the fit of the predictor model as well as the correlations between variables in the study. Results: 3304 people responded to the survey. A model combining demographic and IBM characteristics predicted 42.5 percent (adjusted R2 = 0.42) of the COVID-19 vaccination intention. Vaccination intention was associated with favorable vaccine attitudes, perceived norms, and self-efficacy. Among the determining constructs, behavior belief predicted vaccination intention the best. Being female, being married, having a history of COVID-19 infection, living outside Java Island, and having a low income were all linked to lower vaccination intentions. Conclusions: This study confirms the IBM model’s robustness in predicting health care workers’ intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Better Late Than Never: Predictors of Delayed COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake in Poland
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040528 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
In this study, regression models were created to explain the increase of COVID-19 vaccination rates in 378 Polish sub-regions. In order to trace the factors that could explain the willingness to delay vaccination, vaccination rates were compared for age groups of 20 years [...] Read more.
In this study, regression models were created to explain the increase of COVID-19 vaccination rates in 378 Polish sub-regions. In order to trace the factors that could explain the willingness to delay vaccination, vaccination rates were compared for age groups of 20 years and more for 30 June 2020 and 31 January 2021. Initially high vaccination rates, rather than leading to the gradual exhaustion of the pool of those wishing to get vaccinated, were a very good predictor of the share of the remainder willing to do so, which increased the divergence between sub-regions in nominal vaccination rates. Support for Eurosceptic and anti-establishment parties was a strong predictor of persistent vaccine hesitancy. Ideological divergence from the mainstream appeared to reinforce vaccine hesitancy, and this relationship remained highly relevant even when controlling for possible time or spatial lag. Markers of social inclusion and social capital—voter turnout and employment rate—remained statistically significant even when controlling for time lag, thus implying clear relevance of trust in the public message. The share of the population with higher education remained a highly relevant factor as well, though in the 20–39 age bracket it predicted a higher vaccination rate, while in all older brackets it was a negative predictor—this implies that those people had already made up their minds. Delaying vaccination seems predominantly explainable by political views, as well as social exclusion and the historical specificity of sub-regions. On a regional level, there was actually a paradoxical Spearmans Rho correlation (0.641) between the share of population refusing mandatory vaccination for kids and the percentage of people receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, which further undermines the idea that overall observed vaccine hesitancy was in any meaningful way affected by anti-vaccine movements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Is Mandatory Vaccination in Population over 60 Adequate to Control the COVID-19 Pandemic in E.U.?
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020329 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy, which potentially leads to the refusal or delayed acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, is considered a key driver of the increasing death toll from the pandemic in the EU. The European Commission and several member states’ governments are either planning or have [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy, which potentially leads to the refusal or delayed acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, is considered a key driver of the increasing death toll from the pandemic in the EU. The European Commission and several member states’ governments are either planning or have already directly or indirectly announced mandatory vaccination for individuals aged over 60, the group which has repeatedly proved to be the most vulnerable. In this paper, an assessment of this strategy’s benefits is attempted by deriving a metric for the potential gains of vaccination mandates that can be used to compare EU member states. This is completed by examining the reduction in Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) per person for the EU population over 60 as a function of the member states’ vaccination percentage in these ages. The publicly available data and results of the second iteration of the SHARE COVID-19 survey on the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, conducted during the summer of 2021, are used as inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Review

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Review
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance Rate and Its Factors among Healthcare Students: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050806 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Healthcare students are clinicians-in-training likely to come into contact with COVID-19 as much as other frontline healthcare professionals. It is therefore necessary to prioritize vaccinations for this group. We conducted a global systematic assessment of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates and related factors among [...] Read more.
Healthcare students are clinicians-in-training likely to come into contact with COVID-19 as much as other frontline healthcare professionals. It is therefore necessary to prioritize vaccinations for this group. We conducted a global systematic assessment of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates and related factors among healthcare students using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and keyword searches in March of 2022. We found 1779 articles with relevant information and 31 articles that matched our inclusion criteria. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and quality assessment using the eight-item Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal test for cross-sectional studies. A total of 30,272 individuals from 16 countries were studied. Most of the studies were carried out in the U.S. (n = 6), China (n = 5), Poland (n = 5), India (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), and Israel (n = 2). The prevalence of the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate was 68.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.8–76.3, I2 = 100%), and the prevalence of the vaccine hesitancy rate was 25.8% (95% CI: 18.5–33.8, I2 = 99%). In country-specific analyses, Romania showed the highest acceptance rate (88.0%, 95% CI: 44.5–100%), while Iraq showed the lowest acceptance rate (66.2%, 95% CI: 35.5–90.8%). In time-trend analyses, we found that acceptance rates among healthcare students decreased over time. Students concerned about potentially serious side effects of the vaccine were less willing to accept the vaccine. National and international interventions should be adopted to reduce COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy rates among these important frontline workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Intention against the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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