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Open AccessArticle

Phytochemical Constituents, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antimicrobial Activities of the Ethanolic Extract of Mexican Brown Propolis

1
Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
2
División de Investigación Básica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Av. San Fernando 22, Apartado Postal 22026, Tlalpan 14000, Mexico
3
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010070
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 29 December 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Phenolic Compounds for Health, Food and Cosmetic Applications)
Propolis is a complex mixture of natural sticky and resinous components produced by honeybees from living plant exudates. Globally, research has been dedicated to studying the biological properties and chemical composition of propolis from various geographical and climatic regions. However, the chemical data and biological properties of Mexican brown propolis are scant. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) sample collected in México and the isolated compounds is described. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in a central nervous system and cervical cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity of EEP was evaluated in a C6 cell line and cervical cancer (HeLa, SiHa, and CasKi) measured by the 3-(3,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The antibacterial activity was tested using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Twelve known compounds were isolated and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Additionally, forty volatile compounds were identified by means of headspace-solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry time of flight analysis (HS-SPME/GC-MS-TOF). The main volatile compounds detected include nonanal (18.82%), α-pinene (12.45%), neryl alcohol (10.13%), and α-pinene (8.04%). EEP showed an anti-proliferative effect on glioma cells better than temozolomide, also decreased proliferation and viability in cervical cancer cells, but its effectiveness was lower compared to cisplatin. View Full-Text
Keywords: propolis; antioxidant activity; cytotoxic; antibacterial; México; HS-SPME/GC-MS-TOF; NMR; volatile compounds; flavonoids; phenolic acids propolis; antioxidant activity; cytotoxic; antibacterial; México; HS-SPME/GC-MS-TOF; NMR; volatile compounds; flavonoids; phenolic acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivero-Cruz, J.F.; Granados-Pineda, J.; Pedraza-Chaverri, J.; Pérez-Rojas, J.M.; Kumar-Passari, A.; Diaz-Ruiz, G.; Rivero-Cruz, B.E. Phytochemical Constituents, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antimicrobial Activities of the Ethanolic Extract of Mexican Brown Propolis. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 70.

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