Oxidative stress, caused by the overproduction of free radicals, leads to the development of many chronic diseases including cancer. Free radicals are known to damage cellular biomolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA that results in activation of multiple signaling pathways, growth factors, transcription factors, kinases, inflammatory and cell cycle regulatory molecules. Antioxidants, which are classified as exogenous and endogenous, are responsible for the removal of free radicals and consequently the reduction in oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Diet and medicinal herbs are the major source of antioxidants. Triphala, which is a traditional Ayurvedic formulation that has been used for centuries, has been shown to have immense potential to boost antioxidant activity. It scavenges free radicals, restores antioxidant enzymes and non-enzyme levels, and decreases lipid peroxidation. In addition, Triphala is revered as a chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic, immunomodulatory, and radioprotective agent. Accumulated evidence has revealed that Triphala modulates multiple cell signaling pathways including, ERK, MAPK, NF-κB, Akt, c-Myc, VEGFR, mTOR, tubulin, p53, cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present review focuses on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala in oxidative stress and cancer.
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