Special Issue "Antioxidants in Foods"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Isabel Seiquer
Website
Guest Editor
CSIC - Estación Experimental del Zaidín (EEZ), Granada, Spain
Interests: antioxidant food properties; edible oils; olive oil; food quality; dietary minerals; digestive process; bioavailability; cell cultures; antioxidant markers
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interest in antioxidants in foods has highly increased over the last few decades, due to their beneficial effects in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as heart disease or cancer and in the processes associated with aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), where the main free radicals are framed, are highly reactive molecules constantly produced in biological reactions, whose excess is usually neutralized by a battery of defense mechanisms of the living organisms, including enzymes, vitamins. and a series of small antioxidant molecules. Depleted antioxidant defenses or overproduction of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, increasing the likelihood of damage to biological macromolecules, such as proteins, DNA and lipids. This damage is implicated in the severity of chronic diseases and, in that situation, dietary antioxidants gain special importance.

Fruits, vegetables, and virgin olive oil have been proposed as the main sources of antioxidants in the diet, as their intake could decrease the stress caused by ROS. Among food antioxidants, vitamins, pigments, and especially polyphenols have attracted great attention, not only due to their pharmacological and health potentialities, but also as targets to study their synthesis in crops in order to improve the product yield. In fact, the antioxidant activity of foods may be affected by many factors, such as the ripening state of fruits, the growing conditions of vegetables, or the thermal processing and preservation of foods.

Antioxidant compounds in foods may exert their action by several mechanisms and, in turn, there are different methods of measuring antioxidant properties, in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. Moreover, for an in vivo effect, antioxidant activity has to be maintained after the digestion process, i.e., antioxidant compounds, or their active metabolites, must be bioavailable.

Therefore, the scientific research on foods antioxidants is currently of great interest. In this Special Issue, original research papers or review articles focused on all the different aspects of antioxidants in foods are welcome.   

Dr. Isabel Seiquer
Dr. José M. Palma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Food antioxidants
  • Oxidative stress
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Lipid oxidation
  • Polyphenols
  • Health benefits
  • Antioxidant and functional food
  • Food as nutraceutics

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation by Carotenoid Derivatives through Inhibition of the NF-κB Pathway
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111167 - 23 Nov 2020
Abstract
The bone protective effects of carotenoids have been demonstrated in several studies, and the inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by lycopene has also been demonstrated. We previously reported that carotenoid oxidation products are the active mediators in the activation of the transcription factor [...] Read more.
The bone protective effects of carotenoids have been demonstrated in several studies, and the inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by lycopene has also been demonstrated. We previously reported that carotenoid oxidation products are the active mediators in the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and the inhibition of the NF-κB transcription system by carotenoids. Here, we demonstrate that lycopene oxidation products are more potent than intact lycopene in inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. We analyzed the structure–activity relationship of a series of dialdehyde carotenoid derivatives (diapocarotene-dials) in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. We found that the degree of inhibition depends on the electron density of the carbon atom that determines the reactivity of the conjugated double bond in reactions such as Michael addition to thiol groups in proteins. Moreover, the carotenoid derivatives attenuated the NF-κB signal through inhibition of IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. In addition, we show a synergistic inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by combinations of an active carotenoid derivative with the polyphenols curcumin and carnosic acid with combination index (CI) values < 1. Our findings suggest that carotenoid derivatives inhibit osteoclast differentiation, partially by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. In addition, carotenoid derivatives can synergistically inhibit osteoclast differentiation with curcumin and carnosic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Characterization of Dillenia indica L. Bark by Paper Spray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Potential Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in RAW 264.7 Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111099 - 09 Nov 2020
Abstract
The antioxidant effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of Dillenia indica bark (DIBEt) and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-stimulated oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 cells. Paper spray ionization-mass spectroscopy with positive-ion mode tentatively revealed 27 secondary metabolites in [...] Read more.
The antioxidant effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of Dillenia indica bark (DIBEt) and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-stimulated oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 cells. Paper spray ionization-mass spectroscopy with positive-ion mode tentatively revealed 27 secondary metabolites in D. indica bark extract; predominant among them were alkaloids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. A new triterpenoid (nutriacholic acid) was confirmed in DIBEt for the first time. DIBEt had strong free radical-scavenging capabilities and was also able to reduce t-BHP-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in RAW 264.7 cells. DIBEt was found to prevent oxidative stress by boosting the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through the up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells. These results support the potential of DIBEt for defense against oxidative stress-stimulated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Electroactive Phenolic Contributors and Antioxidant Capacity of Flesh and Peel of 11 Apple Cultivars Measured by Cyclic Voltammetry and HPLC–DAD–MS/MS
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111054 - 28 Oct 2020
Abstract
In this study, 11 apple cultivars were characterized by their total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant, reducing, and chelating capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays; and ferrous ion chelating [...] Read more.
In this study, 11 apple cultivars were characterized by their total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant, reducing, and chelating capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays; and ferrous ion chelating capacity. The phenolic compounds in flesh and peel were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and diode array detector (HPLC–DAD–MS/MS) and their electroactivity by CV. The results showed higher TPC, TFC, and antioxidant capacity by DPPH test in the peels of all apple cultivars as compared to the respective flesh. The peel extracts also showed two-fold higher FRAP values as compared to the flesh extracts. The reducing capacity of the peel and flesh determined by CV measurements confirmed the results achieved by spectrophotometric methods of evaluating antioxidant capacity. There was no significant difference in chelating capacity in the peel and flesh. The HPLC–DAD–MS/MS analysis showed the presence of 11 phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh which varied in antioxidant, reducing, and chelating activity. The order of the phenolic compound content in flesh and peel in Quinte cultivar, which showed the highest antioxidant capacity, was as follows: epicatechin > chlorogenic acid > quercetin 3-arabinoside > quercetin 3-glucoside > cyanidin 3-galactoside > quercetin 3-rhamnoside > catechin > phloridzin > rutin > phloretin = quercetin. CV results were highly correlated with those obtained by spectrophotometry and HPLC–DAD–MS/MS, providing evidence to support the use of cyclic voltammetry as a rapid method to determine the phenolic profile and reducing the power of apple flesh and peel. The association between antioxidant assays and phenolic compound content showed that the highest contribution to the antioxidant capacity of apple peel and flesh was provided by catechin, epicatechin, and cyadinin-3-galactoside, while phloretin, phloridzin, and chlorogenic acid were the main contributors to chelating activity. Results from this study clearly indicate that removing the peel from apples may induce a significant loss of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Colon Bioaccessibility under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of a Red Cabbage Extract Chemically Profiled through UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100955 - 06 Oct 2020
Abstract
Red cabbage is a native vegetable of the Mediterranean region that represents one of the major sources of anthocyanins. The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant capability and total polyphenol content (TPC) of a red cabbage extract and to compare [...] Read more.
Red cabbage is a native vegetable of the Mediterranean region that represents one of the major sources of anthocyanins. The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant capability and total polyphenol content (TPC) of a red cabbage extract and to compare acquired data with those from the same extract encapsulated in an acid-resistant capsule. The extract, which was qualitatively and quantitatively profiled by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS analysis, contained a high content of anthocyanins and phenolic acids, whereas non-anthocyanin flavonoids were the less abundant compounds. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion system was utilized to follow the extract’s metabolism in humans and to evaluate its colon bioaccessibility. Data obtained showed that during gastrointestinal digestion, the total polyphenol content of the extract digested in the acid-resistant capsule in the Pronase E stage resulted in a higher concentration value compared to the extract digested without the capsule. Reasonably, these results could be attributed to the metabolization process by human colonic microflora and to the genesis of metabolites with greater bioactivity and more beneficial effects. The use of red cabbage extract encapsulated in an acid-resistant capsule could improve the polyphenols’ bioaccessibility and be proposed as a red cabbage-based nutraceutical formulation for counteracting stress oxidative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Profile of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruits Containing Diverse Levels of Capsaicinoids
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090878 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Capsicum is the genus where a number of species and varieties have pungent features due to the exclusive content of capsaicinoids such as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. In this work, the main enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems in pepper fruits from four varieties with different [...] Read more.
Capsicum is the genus where a number of species and varieties have pungent features due to the exclusive content of capsaicinoids such as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. In this work, the main enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems in pepper fruits from four varieties with different pungent capacity have been investigated at two ripening stages. Thus, a sweet pepper variety (Melchor) from California-type fruits and three autochthonous Spanish varieties which have different pungency levels were used, including Piquillo, Padrón and Alegría riojana. The capsaicinoids contents were determined in the pericarp and placenta from fruits, showing that these phenyl-propanoids were mainly localized in placenta. The activity profiles of catalase, total and isoenzymatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), the enzymes of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle (AGC) and four NADP-dehydrogenases indicate that some interaction with capsaicinoid metabolism seems to occur. Among the results obtained on enzymatic antioxidants, the role of Fe-SOD and the glutathione reductase from the AGC is highlighted. Additionally, it was found that ascorbate and glutathione contents were higher in those pepper fruits which displayed the greater contents of capsaicinoids. Taken together, all these data indicate that antioxidants may contribute to preserve capsaicinoids metabolism to maintain their functionality in a framework where NADPH is perhaps playing an essential role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Peptides from Different Carcass Elements of Organic and Conventional Pork—Potential Source of Antioxidant Activity
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090835 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The growing consumer interest in organic foods, as well as, in many cases, the inconclusiveness of the research comparing organic and conventional foods, indicates a need to study this issue further. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of meat [...] Read more.
The growing consumer interest in organic foods, as well as, in many cases, the inconclusiveness of the research comparing organic and conventional foods, indicates a need to study this issue further. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of meat origin (conventional vs. organic) and selected elements of the pork carcass (ham, loin, and shoulder) on the meat proteome and the antioxidant potential of its peptides. The peptidomic approach was used, while the ability of antioxidants to scavenge 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), to chelate Fe(II) ions, and to reduce Fe(III) was determined. Most peptides were derived from myofibrillary proteins. The meat origin and the element of the pork carcass did not have a significant effect on the proteome. On the other hand, the pork origin and the carcass element significantly affected the iron ion-chelating capacity (Fe(II)) and the reducing power of peptides. In particular, pork ham from conventional rearing systems had the best antioxidant properties in relation to potential antioxidant peptides. This could be a factor for human health, as well as for stabilized meat products (e.g., toward lipid oxidation). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Voltammetric Behavior, Flavanol and Anthocyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Skins and Seeds during Ripening (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot, Tannat, and Syrah)
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090800 - 27 Aug 2020
Abstract
Skin and seed grape extracts of three red varieties (Merlot, Tannat, and Syrah) at different stages of ripening were studied for their total phenolic content (TPC) by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by using spectrophotometric and electrochemical [...] Read more.
Skin and seed grape extracts of three red varieties (Merlot, Tannat, and Syrah) at different stages of ripening were studied for their total phenolic content (TPC) by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by using spectrophotometric and electrochemical assays. Flavanol and anthocyanin compositions were also investigated using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Results showed that seeds had the highest phenolic content and the highest antioxidant potential compared to skins at all stages of ripening. The highest TPC and TAC values were measured in seeds at close to veraison and veraison ripening stages. In skins, the highest values were found at the green stage, it was in accordance with the flavanols content. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using disposable single walled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SWCNT-SPCE). Three peaks on voltammograms were obtained at different oxidation potentials. The first anodic peak that oxidized at a low potential describes the oxidation of ortho-dihydroxy phenols and gallate groups, the second peak corresponds to the malvidin anthocyanins oxidation and the second oxidation of flavonoids. The third voltammetric peak could be due to phenolic acids such as p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid or the second oxidation of malvidin anthocyanins. The high linear correlation was observed between antioxidant tests and flavanols in skins (0.86 ≤ r ≤ 0.94), while in seeds, ‘r’ was higher between electrochemical parameters and flavanols (0.64 ≤ r ≤ 0.8). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Antioxidant, Antiinflammation, and Anticancer Activities and Anthraquinone Content from Rumex crispus Root Extract and Fractions
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080726 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Rumex crispus is a perennial plant that grows in humid environments across Korea. Its roots are used in traditional Korean medicine to treat several diseases, including diseases of the spleen and skin and several inflammatory pathologies. In this study, different solvent fractions ( [...] Read more.
Rumex crispus is a perennial plant that grows in humid environments across Korea. Its roots are used in traditional Korean medicine to treat several diseases, including diseases of the spleen and skin and several inflammatory pathologies. In this study, different solvent fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) from an ethanol extract of R. crispus roots were evaluated for the presence and composition of anthraquinone compounds and antioxidants by checking for such things as free radical scavenging activity, and electron and proton atom donating ability. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was measured by NO scavenging activity and inflammatory cytokine production; furthermore, anti-cancer activity was measured by apoptosis-inducing ability. Polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds were shown to be abundant in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, which also exhibited strong antioxidant activity, including free radical scavenging and positive results in FRAP, TEAC, and ORAC assays. HPLC analysis revealed that the dichloromethane fractions had higher anthraquinone contents than the other fractions; the major anthraquinone compounds included chrysophanol, emodin, and physcione. In addition, results of the anti-inflammatory assays showed that the ethyl acetate fraction showed appreciable reductions in the levels of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in Raw 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the anthraquinone-rich dichloromethane fraction displayed the highest anticancer activity when evaluated in a human hepatoma cancer cell line (HepG2), in which it induced increased apoptosis mediated by p53 and caspase activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Health-Promoting Functionality of Rye Bread by Fortification with Free and Microencapsulated Powders from Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070614 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study established the appropriate amounts of a functional Saskatoon berry fruit powder in fortified rye bread acceptable to consumers and determined the potential relative bioaccesibility of bioactive compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity, and enzymatic in vitro inhibitory activity against lipoxygenase, cyclooxigenase-1, cyclooxigenase-2, acetylcholinesterase, [...] Read more.
This study established the appropriate amounts of a functional Saskatoon berry fruit powder in fortified rye bread acceptable to consumers and determined the potential relative bioaccesibility of bioactive compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity, and enzymatic in vitro inhibitory activity against lipoxygenase, cyclooxigenase-1, cyclooxigenase-2, acetylcholinesterase, pancreatic lipase α-glucosidase, and α-amylase, as well as the relative digestibility of nutrients. The content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capability were strongly, positively correlated with the content of the functional additive. The highest phenolics content and antioxidant activity were determined in the products enriched with the powders microencapsulated with maltodextrin (an increase by 91% and 53%, respectively, compared with the control). The highest overall acceptability was shown for the products with 3% addition of the functional additive, regardless of its type. The simulated in vitro digestion released phenols (with the highest bioaccessibility shown for anthocyanins) and enhanced the antioxidant activity of rye bread. In turn, the microencapsulation contributed to the improvement in the relative bioaccesibility of antioxidant compounds. Bread fortification led to an increased inhibitory activity against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipoxygenase. Furthermore, the additive microencapsulated with maltodextrin and inulin improved the capacity to inhibit the activities of pancreatic lipase and cyclooxigenase-2. The results presented allowed concluding that the powders from Saskatoon berry fruits, especially microencapsulated ones, may be a promising functional additive dedicated for the enrichment of rye bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Biochemical Characterization of Traditional Varieties of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060556 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bioactive compounds of different Campania native sweet pepper varieties were evaluated. Polyphenols ranged between 1.37 mmol g−1 and 3.42 mmol g−1, β-carotene was abundant in the red variety “Cazzone” (7.05 μg g−1). Yellow and red varieties showed a [...] Read more.
Bioactive compounds of different Campania native sweet pepper varieties were evaluated. Polyphenols ranged between 1.37 mmol g−1 and 3.42 mmol g−1, β-carotene was abundant in the red variety “Cazzone” (7.05 μg g−1). Yellow and red varieties showed a content of ascorbic acid not inferior to 0.82 mg g−1, while in some green varieties the presence of ascorbic acid was almost inconsistent. Interrelationships between the parameters analyzed and the varieties showed that ascorbic acid could represent the factor mostly influencing the antioxidant activity. Polyphenol profile was different among the varieties, with a general prevalence of acidic phenols in yellow varieties and of flavonoids in red varieties. Principal Component Analysis, applied to ascorbic acid, total polyphenols and β-carotene, revealed that two of the green varieties (“Friariello napoletano” and “Friariello Sigaretta”) were well clustered and that the yellow variety “Corno di capra” showed similarity with the green varieties, in particular with “Friariello Nocerese”. This was confirmed by the interrelationships applied to polyphenol composition, which let us to light on a clustering of several red and yellow varieties, and that mainly the yellow ”Corno di capra” was closer to the green varieties of “Friariello”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Studies on Different Citrus Cultivars: A Revaluation of Waste Mandarin Components
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060517 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Peel, pulp and seed extracts of three mandarin varieties, namely Phlegraean mandarin (Citrus reticulata), Kumquat (Citrus japonica), and Clementine (Citrus clementina) were compared and characterised in terms of photosynthetic pigment content, total polyphenols amount, antioxidant activity and [...] Read more.
Peel, pulp and seed extracts of three mandarin varieties, namely Phlegraean mandarin (Citrus reticulata), Kumquat (Citrus japonica), and Clementine (Citrus clementina) were compared and characterised in terms of photosynthetic pigment content, total polyphenols amount, antioxidant activity and vitamin C to assess the amount of functional compounds for each cultivar. The highest polyphenols content was found in the Phlegraean mandarin, especially in peel and seeds, whereas Kumquat exhibited the highest polyphenols amount in the pulp. The antioxidant activity was higher in the peel of Phlegraean mandarin and clementine compared to Kumquat, which showed the highest value in the pulp. The antioxidant activity peaked in the seeds of Phlegraean mandarin. The vitamin C in the Phlegraean mandarin was the highest in all parts of the fruit, especially in the seeds. Total chlorophyll content was comparable in the peel of different cultivars, in the pulp the highest amount was found in clementine, whereas kumquat seeds showed the greatest values. As regards total carotenoids, peel and pulp of clementine exhibited higher values than the other two cultivars, whereas the kumquat seeds were the richest in carotenoids. Among the analysed cultivars Phlegraean mandarin may be considered the most promising as a source of polyphenols and antioxidants, compared to the clementine and Kumquat, especially for the functional molecules found in the seeds. Moreover, regardless of cultivars this study also highlights important properties in the parts of the fruit generally considered wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of the Kombucha Beverage Derived from White, Green, Black and Red Tea
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050447 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage prepared as a result of the symbiotic nature of bacterial cultures and yeast, the so-called SCOBY (Symbiotic Cultures of Bacteria and Yeasts). Kombucha is characterised by rich chemical content and healthy properties. It includes organic [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage prepared as a result of the symbiotic nature of bacterial cultures and yeast, the so-called SCOBY (Symbiotic Cultures of Bacteria and Yeasts). Kombucha is characterised by rich chemical content and healthy properties. It includes organic acids, minerals and vitamins originating mainly from tea, amino acids, and biologically active compounds—polyphenols in particular. Kombucha is prepared mainly in the form of black tea, but other tea types are increasingly often used as well, which can significantly impact its content and health benefits. This work shows that the type of tea has a significant influence on the parameters associated with the antioxidant potential, pH, as well as the content of acetic acid, alcohol or sugar. Red tea and green tea on the 1st and 14th day of fermentation are a particularly prominent source of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, including flavonoids. Therefore, the choice of other tea types than the traditionally used black tea and the subjection of these tea types to fermentation seems to be beneficial in terms of the healthy properties of kombucha. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of a New Variety of Avocados (Persea americana Mill. CV. Bacon) with High Vitamin E and Impact of Cold Storage on Tocochromanols Composition
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050403 - 09 May 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: Tocochromanols are a group of fat-soluble compounds including vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and plastochromanol-8, and just one avocado can contain up to 20% of the required vitamin E daily intake. (2) Methods: HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses were performed in avocados [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Tocochromanols are a group of fat-soluble compounds including vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and plastochromanol-8, and just one avocado can contain up to 20% of the required vitamin E daily intake. (2) Methods: HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses were performed in avocados of various varieties and origin for the identification and quantification of tocopherols, tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8. After selection of the variety with the highest vitamin E content, we evaluated to what extent short- (4 h) and long-term (10 d) cold storage influences the accumulation of tocochromanols. (3) Results: Analyses revealed that “Bacon” avocados (Persea americana Mill. cv. Bacon) were the richest in vitamin E compared to other avocado varieties (including the highly commercialized Hass variety), and they not only accumulated tocopherols (with 110 µg of α-tocopherol per g dry matter), but also tocotrienols (mostly in the form of γ-tocotrienol, with 3 µg per g dry matter) and plastochromanol-8 (4.5 µg per g dry matter). While short-term cold shock did not negatively influence α-tocopherol contents, it increased those of γ-tocopherol, γ-tocotrienol, and plastochromanol-8 and decreased those of δ-tocotrienol. Furthermore, storage of Bacon avocados for 10 d led to a 20% decrease in the contents of α-tocopherol, whereas the contents of other tocopherols, tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8 were not affected. (4) Conclusions: It is concluded that Bacon avocados (i) are very rich in α-tocopherol, (ii) not only contain tocopherols, but also tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8, and (iii) their nutritional vitamin E value is negatively influenced by long-term cold storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Domestic Sautéing with EVOO: Change in the Phenolic Profile
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010077 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
(1) Background: The health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a key component of the Mediterranean diet, are attributed to its polyphenol profile. EVOO is often consumed cooked, and this process may degrade and transform polyphenols. (2) Methods: In this work, we determined [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a key component of the Mediterranean diet, are attributed to its polyphenol profile. EVOO is often consumed cooked, and this process may degrade and transform polyphenols. (2) Methods: In this work, we determined how temperature, time, and the interaction between them affects the EVOO polyphenolic profile during a domestic pan-frying process, simulating the cooking conditions of a home kitchen, without the control of light or oxygen. Applying a 22 full factorial design experiment, “Hojiblanca” EVOO was processed at two temperatures (120 °C and 170 °C) either for a short time or a long time, mimicking a domestic process, and polyphenol content was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS. (3) Results: Temperature degraded the polyphenols of EVOO during the sauté cooking process, whereas time had an effect on some individual phenols, such as hydroxytyrosol, but not on the total phenol content. The polyphenol content decreased by 40% at 120 °C and 75% at 170 °C compared to raw EVOO. (4) Conclusions: Cooked EVOO still meets the parameters of the EU’s health claim. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) Seeds Gamma-Conglutin is an Anti-Inflammatory Protein Promoting Insulin Resistance Improvement and Oxidative Stress Amelioration in PANC-1 Pancreatic Cell-Line
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010012 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: Inflammation molecular cues and insulin resistance development are some of the main contributors for the development and advance of the pathogenesis of inflammatory-related diseases; (2) Methods: We isolated and purified γ-conglutin protein from narrow-leafed lupin (NLL or blue lupin) mature seeds [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Inflammation molecular cues and insulin resistance development are some of the main contributors for the development and advance of the pathogenesis of inflammatory-related diseases; (2) Methods: We isolated and purified γ-conglutin protein from narrow-leafed lupin (NLL or blue lupin) mature seeds using affinity-chromatography to evaluate its anti-inflammatory activities at molecular level using both, a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and an insulin resistance pancreatic cell models; (3) Results: NLL γ-conglutin achieved a plethora of functional effects as the strong reduction of cell oxidative stress induced by inflammation through decreasing proteins carbonylation, nitric oxide synthesis and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcriptional levels, and raising glutathione (GSH) levels and modulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes activities. γ-conglutin induced up-regulated transcriptomic and protein levels of insulin signalling pathway IRS-1, Glut-4, and PI3K, improving glucose uptake, while decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators as iNOs, TNFα, IL-1β, INFγ, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-27; (4) Conclusion: These results suggest a promising use of NLL γ-conglutin protein in functional foods, which could also be implemented in alternative diagnosis and therapeutic molecular tools helping to prevent and treat inflammatory-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Metabolism and Chlorophyll Fluorescence during the Acclimatisation to Ex Vitro Conditions of Micropropagated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Plants
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120615 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, the functioning of antioxidant metabolism and photosynthesis efficiency during the acclimatisation of Stevia rebaudiana plants to ex vitro conditions was determined. A high percentage of acclimatised plants (93.3%) was obtained after four weeks. According to the extent of lipid peroxidation, [...] Read more.
In this study, the functioning of antioxidant metabolism and photosynthesis efficiency during the acclimatisation of Stevia rebaudiana plants to ex vitro conditions was determined. A high percentage of acclimatised plants (93.3%) was obtained after four weeks. According to the extent of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress occurred during the first hours of acclimatisation. A lower activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) than dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) was observed after 2 days of acclimatisation. However, after 7 days of acclimatisation, stevia plants activated the MDHAR route to recycle ascorbate, which is much more efficient energetically than the DHAR route. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a peak of activity after 7 days of acclimatisation, suggesting a protection against reactive oxygen species. Peroxidase activity increased about 2-fold after 2 days of acclimatisation and remained high until day 14, probably linked to the cell wall stiffening and the lignification processes. In addition, a progressive increase in the photochemical quenching parameters and the electronic transport rate was observed, coupled with a decrease in the non-photochemical quenching parameters, which indicate a progressive photosynthetic efficiency during this process. Taken together, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and chlorophyll fluorescence are proven as suitable tools for the physiological state evaluation of micropropagated plants during acclimatisation to ex vitro conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Food Processing on In Vivo Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Properties of Green Tea Extracts
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120572 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Food processing can affect the nutrition and safety of foods. A previous study showed that tannase and ultrasound treatment could significantly increase the antioxidant activities of green tea extracts according to in vitro evaluation methods. Since the results from in vitro and in [...] Read more.
Food processing can affect the nutrition and safety of foods. A previous study showed that tannase and ultrasound treatment could significantly increase the antioxidant activities of green tea extracts according to in vitro evaluation methods. Since the results from in vitro and in vivo experiments may be inconsistent, the in vivo antioxidant activities of the extracts were studied using a mouse model of alcohol-induced acute liver injury in this study. Results showed that all the extracts decreased the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase in serum, reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and triacylglycerol in the liver, and increased the levels of catalase and glutathione in the liver, which can alleviate hepatic oxidative injury. In addition, the differences between treated and original extracts were not significant in vivo. In some cases, the food processing can have a negative effect on in vivo antioxidant activities. That is, although tannase and ultrasound treatment can significantly increase the antioxidant activities of green tea extracts in vitro, it cannot improve the in vivo antioxidant activities, which indicates that some food processing might not always have positive effects on products for human benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Anthocyanins: From the Field to the Antioxidants in the Body
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090819 - 02 Sep 2020
Abstract
Anthocyanins are biologically active water-soluble plant pigments that are responsible for blue, purple, and red colors in various plant parts—especially in fruits and blooms. Anthocyanins have attracted attention as natural food colorants to be used in yogurts, juices, marmalades, and bakery products. Numerous [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are biologically active water-soluble plant pigments that are responsible for blue, purple, and red colors in various plant parts—especially in fruits and blooms. Anthocyanins have attracted attention as natural food colorants to be used in yogurts, juices, marmalades, and bakery products. Numerous studies have also indicated the beneficial health effects of anthocyanins and their metabolites on human or animal organisms, including free-radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Thus, our aim was to review the current knowledge about anthocyanin occurrence in plants, their stability during processing, and also the bioavailability and protective effects related to the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins in human and animal brains, hearts, livers, and kidneys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
Open AccessReview
The Versatility of Antioxidant Assays in Food Science and Safety—Chemistry, Applications, Strengths, and Limitations
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080709 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Currently, there is a growing interest in screening and quantifying antioxidants from biological samples in the quest for natural and effective antioxidants to combat free radical-related pathological complications. Antioxidant assays play a crucial role in high-throughput and cost-effective assessment of antioxidant capacities of [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a growing interest in screening and quantifying antioxidants from biological samples in the quest for natural and effective antioxidants to combat free radical-related pathological complications. Antioxidant assays play a crucial role in high-throughput and cost-effective assessment of antioxidant capacities of natural products such as medicinal plants and food samples. However, several investigators have expressed concerns about the reliability of existing in vitro assays. Such concerns arise mainly from the poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. In addition, in vitro assays have the problem of reproducibility. To date, antioxidant capacities are measured using a panel of assays whereby each assay has its own advantages and limitations. This unparalleled review hotly disputes on in vitro antioxidant assays and elaborates on the chemistry behind each assay with the aim to point out respective principles/concepts. The following critical questions are also addressed: (1) What make antioxidant assays coloured? (2) What is the reason for working at a particular wavelength? (3) What are the advantages and limitations of each assay? and (4) Why is a particular colour observed in antioxidant–oxidant chemical reactions? Furthermore, this review details the chemical mechanism of reactions that occur in each assay together with a colour ribbon to illustrate changes in colour. The review ends with a critical conclusion on existing assays and suggests constructive improvements on how to develop an adequate and universal antioxidant assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessReview
Lycopene as a Natural Antioxidant Used to Prevent Human Health Disorders
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080706 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lycopene, belonging to the carotenoids, is a tetraterpene compound abundantly found in tomato and tomato-based products. It is fundamentally recognized as a potent antioxidant and a non-pro-vitamin A carotenoid. Lycopene has been found to be efficient in ameliorating cancer insurgences, diabetes mellitus, cardiac [...] Read more.
Lycopene, belonging to the carotenoids, is a tetraterpene compound abundantly found in tomato and tomato-based products. It is fundamentally recognized as a potent antioxidant and a non-pro-vitamin A carotenoid. Lycopene has been found to be efficient in ameliorating cancer insurgences, diabetes mellitus, cardiac complications, oxidative stress-mediated malfunctions, inflammatory events, skin and bone diseases, hepatic, neural and reproductive disorders. This review summarizes information regarding its sources and uses amongst different societies, its biochemistry aspects, and the potential utilization of lycopene and possible mechanisms involved in alleviating the abovementioned disorders. Furthermore, future directions with the possible use of this nutraceutical against lifestyle-related disorders are emphasized. Its protective effects against recommended doses of toxic agents and toxicity and safety are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessReview
Phenolic Compounds and Bioaccessibility Thereof in Functional Pasta
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040343 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Consumption of food products rich in phenolic compounds has been associated to reduced risk of chronic disease onset. Daily consumed cereal-based products, such as bread and pasta, are not carriers of phenolic compounds, since they are produced with refined flour or semolina. Novel [...] Read more.
Consumption of food products rich in phenolic compounds has been associated to reduced risk of chronic disease onset. Daily consumed cereal-based products, such as bread and pasta, are not carriers of phenolic compounds, since they are produced with refined flour or semolina. Novel formulations of pasta have been thus proposed, in order to obtain functional products contributing to the increase in phenolic compound dietary intake. This paper aims to review the strategies used so far to formulate functional pasta, both gluten-containing and gluten-free, and compare their effect on phenolic compound content, and bioaccessibility and bioavailability thereof. It emerged that whole grain, legume and composite flours are the main substituents of durum wheat semolina in the formulation of functional pasta. Plant by-products from industrial food wastes have been also used as functional ingredients. In addition, pre-processing technologies on raw materials such as sprouting, or the modulation of extrusion/extrusion-cooking conditions, are valuable approaches to increase phenolic content in pasta. Few studies on phenolic compound bioaccessibility and bioavailability in pasta have been performed so far; however, they contribute to evaluating the usefulness of strategies used in the formulation of functional pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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