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Appl. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 8 (April-2 2020) – 351 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Weather on Short-Term Metro Passenger Flow Forecasting Using a Deep LSTM Neural Network
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2962; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082962 - 25 Apr 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Metro systems play a key role in meeting urban transport demands in large cities. The close relationship between historical weather conditions and the corresponding passenger flow has been widely analyzed by researchers. However, few studies have explored the issue of how to use [...] Read more.
Metro systems play a key role in meeting urban transport demands in large cities. The close relationship between historical weather conditions and the corresponding passenger flow has been widely analyzed by researchers. However, few studies have explored the issue of how to use historical weather data to make passenger flow forecasting more accurate. To this end, an hourly metro passenger flow forecasting model using a deep long short-term memory neural network (LSTM_NN) was developed. The optimized traditional input variables, including the different temporal data and historical passenger flow data, were combined with weather variables for data modeling. A comprehensive analysis of the weather impacts on short-term metro passenger flow forecasting is discussed in this paper. The experimental results confirm that weather variables have a significant effect on passenger flow forecasting. It is interesting to find out that the previous variables of one-hour temperature and wind speed are the two most important weather variables to obtain more accurate forecasting results on rainy days at Taipei Main Station, which is a primary interchange station in Taipei. Compared to the four widely used algorithms, the deep LSTM_NN is an extremely powerful method, which has the capability of making more accurate forecasts when suitable weather variables are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computing and Artificial Intelligence for Visual Data Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
System Development for Diffusion Bonding of Multiple Unit Tubes to Produce Long Tubular Tungsten Heavy Alloys
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082988 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 396
Abstract
A diffusion bonding system to fabricate long tubular parts by joining of two- or more-unit tubes made of tungsten heavy alloys (THAs) is proposed and characterized in this study. The difficulty of powder processing of THA originates from the weak strength of the [...] Read more.
A diffusion bonding system to fabricate long tubular parts by joining of two- or more-unit tubes made of tungsten heavy alloys (THAs) is proposed and characterized in this study. The difficulty of powder processing of THA originates from the weak strength of the green compact and the high weight of the THA powders. The long tubular green compact is difficult to handle due to its weak structural integrity. Furthermore, gravity-induced slumping during liquid phase sintering induces dimensional distortion and degrades the mechanical performances. As a clue for solving these problems, the unit tubes are fabricated. However, the mass of green compacts for unit tubes is not sufficiently great as to cause problematic slumping; tubular unit tubes can be obtained without significant difficulty. Fabricated unit tubes are stacked in a furnace chamber and diffusion-bonded to produce a long tubular part having bond strength substantially equal to that of a monolithic tube. The proposed diffusion bonding system was well characterized and successfully applied to the industrial production line. The feasibility was also confirmed by investigating the bond quality, which can be assessed by metallographic microstructure and mechanical property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Homotopy Perturbation Method for Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Space Trusses
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082987 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 311
Abstract
The objective of this study is to explore a noble application of the improved homotopy perturbation procedure bases in structural engineering by applying it to the geometrically nonlinear analysis of the space trusses. The improved perturbation algorithm is proposed to refine the classical [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to explore a noble application of the improved homotopy perturbation procedure bases in structural engineering by applying it to the geometrically nonlinear analysis of the space trusses. The improved perturbation algorithm is proposed to refine the classical methods in numerical computing techniques such as the Newton–Raphson method. A linear of sub-problems is generated by transferring the nonlinear problem with perturbation quantities and then approximated by summation of the solutions related to several sub-problems. In this study, a nonlinear load control procedure is generated and implemented for structures. Several numerical examples of known trusses are given to show the applicability of the proposed perturbation procedure without considering the passing limit points. The results reveal that perturbation modeling methodology for investigating the structural performance of various applications has high accuracy and low computational cost of convergence analysis, compared with the Newton–Raphson method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of an Eco-Friendly Sanitizing Wash on Spinach Leaf Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082986 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Ready-to-eat (RTE) spinach is considered a high-risk food, susceptible to colonization by foodborne pathogens; however, other microbial populations present on the vegetable surface may interact with foodborne pathogens by inhibiting/inactivating their growth. In addition, sanitizers applied to minimally processed salad leaves should not [...] Read more.
Ready-to-eat (RTE) spinach is considered a high-risk food, susceptible to colonization by foodborne pathogens; however, other microbial populations present on the vegetable surface may interact with foodborne pathogens by inhibiting/inactivating their growth. In addition, sanitizers applied to minimally processed salad leaves should not disrupt this autochthonous barrier and should be maintained throughout the shelf life of the product. This investigation aimed at comparing the effects of a pH neutral electrochemically activated solution (ECAS), a peroxyacetic acid (PAA)-based commercial sanitizer (Ecolab Tsunami® 100), and tap water wash on the minimally processed spinach leaf microbiome profile for 10 days after washing. The bacterial microbiota composition on spinach samples was assessed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and downstream analyses. Predominant phyla observed in decreasing order of abundance were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes corresponding with the dominant families Micrococcaceae, Clostridiales Family XII, Flavobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Burkholderiaceae. Bacterial species richness and evenness (alpha diversity) and bacterial community composition among all wash types were not significantly different. However, a significant difference was apparent between sampling days, corresponding to a loss of overall heterogeneity over time. Analysis of composition of microbiome (ANCOM) did not identify any amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) or families having significantly different abundance in wash types; however, differences (17 ASVs and five families) were found depending on sampling day. This was the first bacterial microbiome composition study focused on ECAS and PAA-based wash solutions. These wash alternatives do not significantly alter microbial community composition of RTE spinach leaves; however, storage at refrigerated temperature reduces bacterial species heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Environmental Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle
A Fast and Accurate Method for Computing the Microwave Heating of Moving Objects
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082985 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
In this paper, we show a fast and accurate numerical method for simulating the microwave heating of moving objects, which is still a challenge because of its complicated mathematical model simultaneously coupling electromagnetic field, thermal field, and temperature-dependent moving objects. By contrast with [...] Read more.
In this paper, we show a fast and accurate numerical method for simulating the microwave heating of moving objects, which is still a challenge because of its complicated mathematical model simultaneously coupling electromagnetic field, thermal field, and temperature-dependent moving objects. By contrast with most discrete methods whose dielectric parameters of the heated samples are updated only when they move to a new position or even turn a circle, in our simulations a real-time procedure is added to renew the parameters during the whole heating process. Furthermore, to avoid the mesh-mismatch induced by remeshing the moving objects, we move the cavity instead of samples. To verify the efficiency and accuracy, we compared our method with the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian method, one of the most accurate methods for computing this process until now. For the same computation model, our method helps in decreasing the computing time by about 90% with almost the same accuracy. Moreover, the influence of the rotational speed on the microwave heating is systematically investigated by using this method. The results show the widely used speed in domestic microwave ovens, 5 rpm, is indeed a good choice for improving the temperature uniformity with high energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Computer-Aided Semi-Automatic Diagnosis System for Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia Classification with Temporal and Parietal Lesions: A Pilot Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082984 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Survivors of either a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke tend to acquire aphasia and experience spontaneous recovery during the first six months. Nevertheless, a considerable number of patients sustain aphasia and require speech and language therapy to overcome the difficulties. As a preliminary study, [...] Read more.
Survivors of either a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke tend to acquire aphasia and experience spontaneous recovery during the first six months. Nevertheless, a considerable number of patients sustain aphasia and require speech and language therapy to overcome the difficulties. As a preliminary study, this article aims to distinguish aphasia caused from a temporoparietal lesion. Typically, temporal and parietal lesions cause Wernicke’s aphasia and Anomic aphasia. Differential diagnosis between Anomic and Wernicke’s has become controversial and subjective due to the close resemblance of Wernicke’s to Anomic aphasia when recovering. Hence, this article proposes a clinical diagnosis system that incorporates normal coupling between the acoustic frequencies of speech signals and the language ability of temporoparietal aphasias to delineate classification boundary lines. The proposed inspection system is a hybrid scheme consisting of automated components, such as confrontation naming, repetition, and a manual component, such as comprehension. The study was conducted involving 30 participants clinically diagnosed with temporoparietal aphasias after a stroke and 30 participants who had experienced a stroke without aphasia. The plausibility of accurate classification of Wernicke’s and Anomic aphasia was confirmed using the distinctive acoustic frequency profiles of selected controls. Accuracy of the proposed system and algorithm was confirmed by comparing the obtained diagnosis with the conventional manual diagnosis. Though this preliminary work distinguishes between Anomic and Wernicke’s aphasia, we can claim that the developed algorithm-based inspection model could be a worthwhile solution towards objective classification of other aphasia types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Processing and Machine Learning for Biomedical Data)
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Open AccessArticle
Online Mining Intrusion Patterns from IDS Alerts
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082983 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The intrusion detection system (IDS) which is used widely in enterprises, has produced a large number of logs named alerts, from which the intrusion patterns can be mined. These patterns can be used to construct the intrusion scenarios or discover the final objectives [...] Read more.
The intrusion detection system (IDS) which is used widely in enterprises, has produced a large number of logs named alerts, from which the intrusion patterns can be mined. These patterns can be used to construct the intrusion scenarios or discover the final objectives of the malicious actors, and even assist the forensic works of network crimes. In this paper, a novel algorithm for the intrusion pattern mining is proposed which aimsto solve the difficult problems of the intrusion action sequence such as the loss of important intrusion actions, the disorder of the action sequence and the random noise actions. These common problems often occur in the real production environment which cause serious performance decrease in the analyzing system. The proposed algorithm is based on the online analysis of the intrusion action sequences extracted from IDS alerts, through calculating the influences of a particular action on the subsequent actions, the real intrusion patterns are discovered. The experimental results show that the method is effective in discovering pattern from the complex intrusion action sequences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Pressure Distribution against Root Canal Walls of NiTi Rotary Instruments by Finite Element Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082981 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the contact pressure distribution of two different nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic rotary instruments against the root canal walls and to virtually predict their centering ability during shaping with finite element analysis (FEA). Resin blocks simulating root [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the contact pressure distribution of two different nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic rotary instruments against the root canal walls and to virtually predict their centering ability during shaping with finite element analysis (FEA). Resin blocks simulating root canals were used. One was shaped with ProGlider and ProTaper Next (PTN) X1-X2 and one with ScoutRace and BioRace (BR) 1, 2 and 3. Both resin blocks were virtually replicated with computer-aided design (CAD) software. The endodontic instruments ProTaper Next (PTN) X2 and BioRace BR3 were also replicated with CAD. The NiTi instruments and the shaped blocks geometries were discretized and exported for FEA. The instrument rotation in the root canals was simulated. The finite element simulation was performed by applying an insertion and extraction force of 2.5 N with a constant rotational speed (300 rpm). To highlight possible differences between pressure distributions against the root canal portions outside and inside the canal curvature, the parameter Var was originally defined. Var values were systematically lower for PTN X2, revealing a better centering ability. FEA proved effective for the virtual prediction of the centering ability of NiTi instruments during an early design phase without the use of prototypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Mandible Integrity and Material Properties of the Periodontal Ligament during Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Finite-Element Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082980 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 313
Abstract
We used the finite-element method (FEM) to investigate the effects of jawbone model integrity and the material properties of the periodontal ligament (PDL) on orthodontic tooth movement. Medical imaging software and computer-aided design software were used to create finite-element models of a partial [...] Read more.
We used the finite-element method (FEM) to investigate the effects of jawbone model integrity and the material properties of the periodontal ligament (PDL) on orthodontic tooth movement. Medical imaging software and computer-aided design software were used to create finite-element models of a partial and complete mandibles based on dental cone beam computed tomography images of the human skull. Additionally, we exerted an orthodontic force on the canine crown in the direction of an orthodontic miniscrew under a lower molar root to compare the von Mises strain on the canine PDL in three models: a partial mandible model under orthodontic force (Model 1), a complete mandible model under orthodontic force (Model 2), and a complete mandible model under orthodontic force with clench occlusion in the intercuspal position (ICP; Model 3). Additionally, in the complete mandible model under orthodontic force with ICP occlusion, we analyzed the effects of a PDL with a low (Model 4), moderate (Model 5), and high (Model 6) linear elastic modulus and a PDL a bilinear elastic modulus (Model 7). The simulation results for mandible integrity indicated that the maximum von Mises strains on the canine PDL for Models 1, 2, and 3 were 0.461, 0.394, and 1.811, respectively. Moreover, for the models with different PDL material properties, the maximum von Mises strains on the canine PDLs for Models 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 6.047, 2.594, 0.887, and 1.811, respectively. When the FEM was used to evaluate tooth movement caused by orthodontic force, the transformation of a complete mandible model into a partial mandible model or alteration of the elastic modulus of the PDL influenced the biomechanical responses of the PDL. Additionally, the incorporation of daily ICP occlusion resulted in a larger effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Temperature Dependent Carrier Transport in FinFET and Gate-All-Around Nanowire FET
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082979 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The temperature dependent carrier transport characteristics of n-type gate-all-around nanowire field effect transistors (GAA NW-FET) on bulk silicon are experimentally compared to bulk fin field effect transistors (FinFET) over a wide range of temperatures (25–125 °C). A similar temperature dependence of threshold voltage [...] Read more.
The temperature dependent carrier transport characteristics of n-type gate-all-around nanowire field effect transistors (GAA NW-FET) on bulk silicon are experimentally compared to bulk fin field effect transistors (FinFET) over a wide range of temperatures (25–125 °C). A similar temperature dependence of threshold voltage (VTH) and subthreshold swing (SS) is observed for both devices. However, effective mobility (μeff) shows significant differences of temperature dependence between GAA NW-FET and FinFET at a high gate effective field. At weak Ninv (= 5 × 1012 cm2/V∙s), both GAA NW-FET and FinFET are mainly limited by phonon scattering in μeff. On the other hand, at strong Ninv (= 1.5 × 1013 cm2/V∙s), GAA NW-FET shows 10 times higher eff/dT and 1.6 times smaller mobility degradation coefficient (α) than FinFET. GAA NW-FET is less limited by surface roughness scattering, but FinFET is relatively more limited by surface roughness scattering in carrier transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Device Modeling for TCAD and Circuit Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Analysis of Vertical and Torsional Whipping Response Based on Full-Scale Measurement of a Large Container Ship
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082978 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 317
Abstract
In this study, as a preliminary attempt to reveal the whipping response of large container ships in actual seaways, the stress monitoring data of an 8600 TEU large container ship were analyzed. The measurement lasted approximately five years, and using a large amount [...] Read more.
In this study, as a preliminary attempt to reveal the whipping response of large container ships in actual seaways, the stress monitoring data of an 8600 TEU large container ship were analyzed. The measurement lasted approximately five years, and using a large amount of data, we investigated how the sea state and operational conditions affected the whipping response. In addition, the midship longitudinal stresses were decomposed into hull girder vertical bending, horizontal bending, and torsional and axial components. Thereafter, we found that the whipping magnitude on the torsional and horizontal bending components is much smaller than that on the vertical bending component. Future research would include the analysis of a larger amount of data, analysis of other sensor data, and effects of various patterns of vibrational response on the ultimate strength and fatigue strength. The obtained results will benefit the future design and operation of large container ships for safer navigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ships and Marine Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Shading on Photovoltaic Collectors on Rooftops
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082977 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems in urban environments play an important role in solar electric energy generation. Shading on PV collectors, by self-shading, walls and fences on rooftops, affect negatively the output energy of the PV systems. Increasing the distance between the collector rows, [...] Read more.
Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems in urban environments play an important role in solar electric energy generation. Shading on PV collectors, by self-shading, walls and fences on rooftops, affect negatively the output energy of the PV systems. Increasing the distance between the collector rows, and between the walls and fences near to the collectors, may minimize the shading losses. Practically, this option is usually limited, especially on rooftops. Rooftops may be of different types: horizontal, inclined, and saw-tooth, and may have obscuring structures like walls and fences. The distance between the shading objects and the PV collector rows determine the loss of energy due to shading. The study provides the PV system designer with mathematical expressions for distances from obscuring objects for the deployment of PV systems on rooftops. The optimal inclination and azimuths angles of a PV system on a triangular sloped rooftop are also illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Solar Cells, Modules and Applications 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimum Design of PID Controlled Active Tuned Mass Damper via Modified Harmony Search
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082976 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 408
Abstract
In this study, the music-inspired Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is modified for the optimization of active tuned mass dampers (ATMDs). The modification of HS includes the consideration of the best solution with a defined probability and updating of algorithm parameters such as harmony [...] Read more.
In this study, the music-inspired Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is modified for the optimization of active tuned mass dampers (ATMDs). The modification of HS includes the consideration of the best solution with a defined probability and updating of algorithm parameters such as harmony memory, considering rate and pitch adjusting rate. The design variables include all the mechanical properties of ATMD, such as the mass, stiffness and damping coefficient, and the active controller parameters of the proposed proportional–integral–derivative (PID) type controllers. In the optimization process, the analysis of an ATMD implemented structure is done using the generated Matlab Simulink block diagram. The PID controllers were optimized for velocity feedback control, and the objective of the optimization is the minimization of the top story displacement by using the limitation of the stroke capacity of ATMD. The optimum results are presented for different cases of the stroke capacity limit of ATMD. According to the results, the method is effective in reducing the maximum displacement of the structure by 53.71%, while a passive TMD can only reduce it by 31.22%. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Potential of Biogas Production from Processing Residues to Reduce Environmental Impacts from Cassava Starch and Crisp Production—A Case Study from Malaysia
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082975 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 367
Abstract
The cultivation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely spread in a variety of tropical countries with an estimated annual production of 291.9 million tons. The crop is the most important source of carbohydrates in producing countries. In Malaysia, cassava is mainly [...] Read more.
The cultivation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely spread in a variety of tropical countries with an estimated annual production of 291.9 million tons. The crop is the most important source of carbohydrates in producing countries. In Malaysia, cassava is mainly cultivated for starch production. Despite the economic and nutritional importance of cassava, there is only limited knowledge available regarding the overall environmental impacts of cassava starch production or the production of alternative food products like cassava crisps. This study presents an environmental assessment of different scenarios of cassava production and processing by a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The results indicate that the environmental impacts of cassava-based products can be reduced considerably with the utilization of processing residues for anaerobic digestion if the resulting biogas is used for the production of electricity and heat. In the industrial scenario, the results indicate that the highest relative reductions are achieved for cumulated energy demand (CED), global warming potential (GWP) and deforestation (DEF) with −39%, −26% and −18%, respectively, while in the advanced scenario, environmental impacts for CED, GWP, ozone formation potential (OFP) and water stress index (WSI) can be reduced by more than 10% with −281%, −37%, −16% and −14%, respectively. The impacts for global warming potential found in this study are slightly higher compared to other studies that focused on the carbon footprint of starch production from cassava, while the savings due to biogas production are similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
An FTIR Microspectroscopy Ratiometric Approach for Monitoring X-ray Irradiation Effects on SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2974; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082974 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 299
Abstract
The ability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in analyzing cells at a molecular level was exploited for investigating the biochemical changes induced in protein, nucleic acid, lipid, and carbohydrate content of cells after irradiation by graded X-ray doses. Infrared spectra from in [...] Read more.
The ability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in analyzing cells at a molecular level was exploited for investigating the biochemical changes induced in protein, nucleic acid, lipid, and carbohydrate content of cells after irradiation by graded X-ray doses. Infrared spectra from in vitro SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells following exposure to X-rays (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Gy) were analyzed using a ratiometric approach by evaluating the ratios between the absorbance of significant peaks. The spectroscopic investigation was performed on cells fixed immediately (t0 cells) and 24 h (t24 cells) after irradiation to study both the initial radiation-induced damage and the effect of the ensuing cellular repair processes. The analysis of infrared spectra allowed us to detect changes in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids attributable to X-ray exposure. The ratiometric analysis was able to quantify changes for the protein, lipid, and DNA components and to suggest the occurrence of apoptosis processes. The ratiometric study of Amide I band indicated also that the secondary structure of proteins was significantly modified. The comparison between the results from t0 and t24 cells indicated the occurrence of cellular recovery processes. The adopted approach can provide a very direct way to monitor changes for specific cellular components and can represent a valuable tool for developing innovative strategies to monitor cancer radiotherapy outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Medical Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy)
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Open AccessArticle
Source Code Assessment and Classification Based on Estimated Error Probability Using Attentive LSTM Language Model and Its Application in Programming Education
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2973; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082973 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 779
Abstract
The rate of software development has increased dramatically. Conventional compilers cannot assess and detect all source code errors. Software may thus contain errors, negatively affecting end-users. It is also difficult to assess and detect source code logic errors using traditional compilers, resulting in [...] Read more.
The rate of software development has increased dramatically. Conventional compilers cannot assess and detect all source code errors. Software may thus contain errors, negatively affecting end-users. It is also difficult to assess and detect source code logic errors using traditional compilers, resulting in software that contains errors. A method that utilizes artificial intelligence for assessing and detecting errors and classifying source code as correct (error-free) or incorrect is thus required. Here, we propose a sequential language model that uses an attention-mechanism-based long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network to assess and classify source code based on the estimated error probability. The attentive mechanism enhances the accuracy of the proposed language model for error assessment and classification. We trained the proposed model using correct source code and then evaluated its performance. The experimental results show that the proposed model has logic and syntax error detection accuracies of 92.2% and 94.8%, respectively, outperforming state-of-the-art models. We also applied the proposed model to the classification of source code with logic and syntax errors. The average precision, recall, and F-measure values for such classification are much better than those of benchmark models. To strengthen the proposed model, we combined the attention mechanism with LSTM to enhance the results of error assessment and detection as well as source code classification. Finally, our proposed model can be effective in programming education and software engineering by improving code writing, debugging, error-correction, and reasoning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Chloride Resistance of Early-Strength Concrete Using Blended Binder and Polycarboxylate-Based Chemical Admixture
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2972; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082972 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 280
Abstract
The mixing proportions of concrete were examined with regard to the durability performance and early strength in coastal areas. Research was conducted to improve the C24 mix (characteristic strength of 24 MPa). C35 concrete (characteristic strength of 35 MPa) was selected as a [...] Read more.
The mixing proportions of concrete were examined with regard to the durability performance and early strength in coastal areas. Research was conducted to improve the C24 mix (characteristic strength of 24 MPa). C35 concrete (characteristic strength of 35 MPa) was selected as a comparison group, as it exhibits the minimum proposed strength criterion for concrete in the marine environment. To secure the early strength of the C24 concrete, 50% of the total ordinary Portland cement (OPC) binder was replaced with early Portland cement (EPC); and to provide durability, 20% was substituted with ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). In addition, a polycarboxylate (PC)-based superplasticizer was used to reduce the unit water content. The compressive strength, chloride ion diffusion coefficient, chloride penetration depth, and pore structure were evaluated. After one day, the compressive strength improved by 40% when using EPC and GGBS, and an average increase of 20% was observed over 91 days. EPC and GGBS also reduced the overall porosity, which may increase the watertightness of concrete. The salt resistance performance was improved because the rapid early development of strength increased the watertightness of the surface and immobilization of chloride ions, decreasing the chloride diffusion coefficient by 50%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete and Mortar with Non-conventional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Lesion Progression and Depolarization Assessed by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2971; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082971 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The detection of early stages of caries is still one of the major challenges in preservative dentistry. Since it is known from polarized light microscopy (PLM) that intrinsic enamel birefringence is affected by demineralization, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) could facilitate the noninvasive [...] Read more.
The detection of early stages of caries is still one of the major challenges in preservative dentistry. Since it is known from polarized light microscopy (PLM) that intrinsic enamel birefringence is affected by demineralization, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) could facilitate the noninvasive detection and assessment of early carious lesions. The present study aims to correlate enamel lesion progression and depolarization measurements based on PSOCT in an artificial demineralization model. A total of 18 enamel slabs were prepared from bovine incisor teeth and demineralized in an acetic buffer solution for up to 49 days. The degree of polarization (DOP)—indicating depolarization and thus, demineralization—was calculated from PSOCT measurements and compared to lesion depth which was measured from PLM images. Artificial lesions showed characteristic zones of natural enamel demineralization in PLM images. DOP representations showed no depolarization for sound, nondemineralized enamel, whereas significant changes were found after 15 days of acid-exposition. The linear regression analysis of the DOP and the measured lesion depth showed a substantial correlation ( R 2 = 0.71 ). The results indicate that PSOCT-based depolarization imaging provides an unambiguous contrast for initial enamel demineralization which is correlated to the lesion progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Coherence Tomography and Its Applications II)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Grain Type on Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Stored Product Pests
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082970 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Fungal virulence is multifaceted and dependent on multiple abiotic factors. The present study represents an investigation of the effect of one such abiotic factor, that of the grain type, on the insecticidal action of three entomopathogenic fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: [...] Read more.
Fungal virulence is multifaceted and dependent on multiple abiotic factors. The present study represents an investigation of the effect of one such abiotic factor, that of the grain type, on the insecticidal action of three entomopathogenic fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on larvae of the three very common and destructive stored product pests: the khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To this end, we selected four different grains, i.e., Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), Oryza sativa L. (Poales: Poaceae), Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) and Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae). Bioassays were carried out in the lab, where experimental grains were sprayed with 1 mL of conidial suspension (108 conidia/mL) from each isolate. Mean mortality, median survival time and weight loss of seeds were estimated for each species. Our results suggest that the differences in the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi were dependent both on the isolates and the grain. The grain type as a factor is equally important to other abiotic factors. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Removal of Organic Micro-Pollutants by Conventional Membrane Bioreactors and High-Retention Membrane Bioreactors
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2969; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082969 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The ubiquitous presence of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in the environment as a result of continuous discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) into water matrices—even at trace concentrations (ng/L)—is of great concern, both in the public and environmental health domains. This fact essentially warrants [...] Read more.
The ubiquitous presence of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in the environment as a result of continuous discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) into water matrices—even at trace concentrations (ng/L)—is of great concern, both in the public and environmental health domains. This fact essentially warrants developing and implementing energy-efficient, economical, sustainable and easy to handle technologies to meet stringent legislative requirements. Membrane-based processes—both stand-alone or integration of membrane processes—are an attractive option for the removal of OMPs because of their high reliability compared with conventional process, least chemical consumption and smaller footprint. This review summarizes recent research (mainly 2015–present) on the application of conventional aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors used for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from wastewater. Integration and hybridization of membrane processes with other physicochemical processes are becoming promising options for OMP removal. Recent studies on high retention membrane bioreactors (HRMBRs) such as osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBRs) and membrane distillation bioreactors (MDBRs) are discussed. Future prospects of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and HRMBRs for improving OMP removal from wastewater are also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Organic Contaminants in Wastewater)
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Open AccessArticle
Cumulative Inaccuracies in Implementation of Additive Manufacturing Through Medical Imaging, 3D Thresholding, and 3D Modeling: A Case Study for an End-Use Implant
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2968; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082968 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
In craniomaxillofacial surgical procedures, an emerging practice adopts the preoperative virtual planning that uses medical imaging (computed tomography), 3D thresholding (segmentation), 3D modeling (digital design), and additive manufacturing (3D printing) for the procurement of an end-use implant. The objective of this case study [...] Read more.
In craniomaxillofacial surgical procedures, an emerging practice adopts the preoperative virtual planning that uses medical imaging (computed tomography), 3D thresholding (segmentation), 3D modeling (digital design), and additive manufacturing (3D printing) for the procurement of an end-use implant. The objective of this case study was to evaluate the cumulative spatial inaccuracies arising from each step of the process chain when various computed tomography protocols and thresholding values were independently changed. A custom-made quality assurance instrument (Phantom) was used to evaluate the medical imaging error. A sus domesticus (domestic pig) head was analyzed to determine the 3D thresholding error. The 3D modeling error was estimated from the computer-aided design software. Finally, the end-use implant was used to evaluate the additive manufacturing error. The results were verified using accurate measurement instruments and techniques. A worst-case cumulative error of 1.7 mm (3.0%) was estimated for one boundary condition and 2.3 mm (4.1%) for two boundary conditions considering the maximum length (56.9 mm) of the end-use implant. Uncertainty from the clinical imaging to the end-use implant was 0.8 mm (1.4%). This study helps practitioners establish and corroborate surgical practices that are within the bounds of an appropriate accuracy for clinical treatment and restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Bioactive Medical Device)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Spray-Dried Porcine Plasma (SDPP) based on Electronic Nose and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Data
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2967; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082967 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Recent studies have indicated that spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) is a potential transmission route for African swine fever (ASF). Therefore, it is essential to develop rapid, high-efficiency analytical methods to detect SDPP, aiming to both restrict the abuse of SDPP and block the [...] Read more.
Recent studies have indicated that spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) is a potential transmission route for African swine fever (ASF). Therefore, it is essential to develop rapid, high-efficiency analytical methods to detect SDPP, aiming to both restrict the abuse of SDPP and block the spread of ASF through feed additive. The feasibility of detecting SDPP using an electronic nose and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is explored and validated by a principal component analysis (PCA). Both discrimination experiments and prediction experiments were implemented to compare the detect feature of the two techniques. On this basis, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS–DA) under various preprocessing methods was used to develop a qualitative discriminant model for estimating the prediction performance. Before selecting a specific regression model for the quantitative analysis of SDPP, a continuum regression (CR) model was employed to explore and choose the potential most appropriate regression model for these two different types of datasets. The results showed that the optimal regression model adopted partial least squares regression (PLSR) with the Savitzky–Golay first derivative and mean-center preprocessing for the NIRS dataset ( R p 2 = 0.999, RMSEP = 0.1905). Overall, combining the NIRS technique with multivariate data analysis methods shows more possibilities than an electronic nose for rapidly detecting the usage of SDPP in mixed feed samples, which could provide an effective way to control the spread of ASF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Infrared Absorption Efficiency Enhancement of the CMOS Compatible Thermopile by the Special Subwavelength Hole Arrays
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2966; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082966 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 291
Abstract
The infrared absorption efficiency (IAE) enhancement of the complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductorCMOS compatible thermopile with special subwavelength hole arrays in an active area was numerically investigated by the finite-difference time-domain method. It was found that the absorption efficiency of that thermopile was enhanced when the subwavelength [...] Read more.
The infrared absorption efficiency (IAE) enhancement of the complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductorCMOS compatible thermopile with special subwavelength hole arrays in an active area was numerically investigated by the finite-difference time-domain method. It was found that the absorption efficiency of that thermopile was enhanced when the subwavelength rectangular-hole array added extra rectangular-columnar or ellipse-columnar structures in the hole array. The simulation results show that the IAEs of the better cases for the three types of rectangular columns and three ellipse columns were increased by 14.4% and 15.2%, respectively. Such special subwavelength hole arrays can be improved by the IAE of the CMOS compatible thermopile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Responses of a Supertall Building Subjected to a Severe Typhoon at Landfall
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2965; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082965 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Typhoon Mangkhut (1822) was one of the strongest tropical cyclones that ever impacted the south coast of China in past decades. During the passage of this typhoon, the structural health monitoring (SHM) system installed on a 303 m high building in this region [...] Read more.
Typhoon Mangkhut (1822) was one of the strongest tropical cyclones that ever impacted the south coast of China in past decades. During the passage of this typhoon, the structural health monitoring (SHM) system installed on a 303 m high building in this region worked effectively, and high-quality field measurements at nine height levels of the building were collected successfully, which provides a valuable opportunity to explore the dynamic properties of the building and the associated wind effects. In this study, the typhoon wind characteristics are presented first based on in-situ measurements at two sites. Acceleration responses of the building is then investigated, and the building’s serviceability is assessed against several comfort criteria. This study further focuses on the identification of modal parameters (i.e., natural frequency, damping ratio, and modal shape) via two methods: stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method and a method based on combined use of spectral analysis and random decrement technique (RDT). The good agreement between the two results demonstrates the effectiveness and the accuracy of the adopted methods. The obtained results are further compared with the stipulations in several technical codes as well as simulation results via finite element method to examine their performances in this real case. The amplitude dependence of natural frequencies and damping ratios of the studied building are also stressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration-Based Structural Health Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Scheduling of Large-Scale Wind-Hydro-Thermal Systems with Fixed-Head Short-Term Model
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2964; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082964 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 347
Abstract
In this paper, a Modified Adaptive Selection Cuckoo Search Algorithm (MASCSA) is proposed for solving the Optimal Scheduling of Wind-Hydro-Thermal (OSWHT) systems problem. The main objective of the problem is to minimize the total fuel cost for generating the electricity of thermal power [...] Read more.
In this paper, a Modified Adaptive Selection Cuckoo Search Algorithm (MASCSA) is proposed for solving the Optimal Scheduling of Wind-Hydro-Thermal (OSWHT) systems problem. The main objective of the problem is to minimize the total fuel cost for generating the electricity of thermal power plants, where energy from hydropower plants and wind turbines is exploited absolutely. The fixed-head short-term model is taken into account, by supposing that the water head is constant during the operation time, while reservoir volume and water balance are constrained over the scheduled time period. The proposed MASCSA is compared to other implemented cuckoo search algorithms, such as the conventional Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) and Snap-Drift Cuckoo Search Algorithm (SDCSA). Two large systems are used as study cases to test the real improvement of the proposed MASCSA over CSA and SDCSA. Among the two test systems, the wind-hydro-thermal system is a more complicated one, with two wind farms and four thermal power plants considering valve effects, and four hydropower plants scheduled in twenty-four one-hour intervals. The proposed MASCSA is more effective than CSA and SDCSA, since it can reach a higher success rate, better optimal solutions, and a faster convergence. The obtained results show that the proposed MASCSA is a very effective method for the hydrothermal system and wind-hydro-thermal systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of High Voltage AC/DC Grids into Modern Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Model of Risk Factors of Injury in Track and Field Athletes
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082963 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
This work aimed to develop a model to assess the likelihood of injury in track and field athletes, and to establish which factors have the greatest impact. Tests verifying their significance were also reviewed, as well as the method for selecting variables. The [...] Read more.
This work aimed to develop a model to assess the likelihood of injury in track and field athletes, and to establish which factors have the greatest impact. Tests verifying their significance were also reviewed, as well as the method for selecting variables. The key element was to confirm the quality of the classification system and to test the impact of individual factors on the likelihood of injury. The survey was carried out among physically active participants who take part in track and field sporting disciplines. The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.73, which can be considered an acceptable value for the survey. The seven most important factors influencing the risk of injury were selected from a group of twenty-four and were used to create the model. The Nagelkerke’s R2 reached 0.630 for the logit model, which indicates a good effect of the independent variables. The data suggested that the largest factor influencing the risk of injury was the number of prior injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Vulnerabilities That Can Occur When Generating One-Time Password
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2961; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082961 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 278
Abstract
A one-time password (OTP) is a password that is valid for only one login session or transaction, in IT systems or digital devices. This is one of the human-centered security services and is commonly used for multi-factor authentication. This is very similar to [...] Read more.
A one-time password (OTP) is a password that is valid for only one login session or transaction, in IT systems or digital devices. This is one of the human-centered security services and is commonly used for multi-factor authentication. This is very similar to generating pseudo-random bit streams in cryptography. However, it is only part of what is used as OTP in the bit stream. Therefore, the OTP mechanism requires an algorithm to extract portions. It is also necessary to convert hexadecimal to decimal so that the values of the bit strings are familiar to human. In this paper, we classify three algorithms for extracting the final data from the pseudo random bit sequence. We also analyze the fact that a vulnerability occurs during the extraction process, resulting in a high frequency of certain numbers; even if cryptographically secure generation algorithms are used. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Discontinuity Characterization of Rock Masses through Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Techniques Aimed at Slope Stability Assessment
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2960; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082960 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Stabilization projects of rock masses cannot be performed without a proper geomechanical characterization. The classical approaches, due to logistic issues, typically are not able to cover extensively the areas under study. Geo-structural analysis on point cloud from terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry from [...] Read more.
Stabilization projects of rock masses cannot be performed without a proper geomechanical characterization. The classical approaches, due to logistic issues, typically are not able to cover extensively the areas under study. Geo-structural analysis on point cloud from terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry from unmanned aerial vehicles are valid tools for analysis of discontinuity systems. Such methodologies provide reliable data even in complex environmental settings (active cliffs) or at inaccessible sites (excavation fronts in tunnels), offering advantages in terms of both safety of the operators and economic and time issues. We present the implementation of these techniques at a tuff cliff over the Santa Caterina beach (Campania) and at the main entrance of Castellana Caves (Apulia). In the first case study, we also perform an integration of the two techniques. Both sites are of significant tourist and economic value, and present instability conditions common to wide areas of southern Italy: namely, retrogressive evolution of active cliffs along the coast, and instability at the rims of natural and/or artificial sinkholes. The results show the reliability of the data obtained through semi-automatic methods to extract the discontinuity sets from the point clouds, and their agreement with data collected in the field through classical approaches. Advantages and drawbacks of the techniques are illustrated and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental and Sustainable Science and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Fault-Tolerant Tripod Gait Planning and Verification of a Hexapod Robot
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2959; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082959 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
In some hazardous or inaccessible applications, such as earthquake rescue, as a substitute for mankind, robots are expected to perform missions reliably. Unfortunately, the failure of components is difficult to avoid due to the complexity of robot composition and the interference of the [...] Read more.
In some hazardous or inaccessible applications, such as earthquake rescue, as a substitute for mankind, robots are expected to perform missions reliably. Unfortunately, the failure of components is difficult to avoid due to the complexity of robot composition and the interference of the environment. Thus, improving the reliability of robots is a crucial problem. The hexapod robot has redundant degrees of freedom due to its multiple joints, making it possible to tolerate the failure of one leg. In this paper, the Fault-Tolerant Tripod (F-TT) gait dealing with the failure of one leg is researched. The Denavit–Hartenberg (D-H) method is exploited to establish a kinematic model for the hexapod robot, the Jacobian matrix is analyzed, and it is proved that the body can be controlled when three legs are supported. Then, an F-TT gait phase sequence planning method based on a stability margin is established, and a method to improve stability is proposed. The trajectory for the center of gravity (COG) and foot is studied. Finally, a simulation model and prototype robot experiments are developed, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Waste Management by Biological Approach Employing Natural Substrates and Microbial Agents for the Remediation of Dyes’ Wastewater
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082958 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 322
Abstract
This article aims to provide information on two aspects: firstly, waste management of residual biological agro-industrial materials generated from agriculture, and secondly, for the sustainable remediation of textile wastewater. Annually, huge amounts of solid renewable biomass materials are generated worldwide from agricultural and [...] Read more.
This article aims to provide information on two aspects: firstly, waste management of residual biological agro-industrial materials generated from agriculture, and secondly, for the sustainable remediation of textile wastewater. Annually, huge amounts of solid renewable biomass materials are generated worldwide from agricultural and farming sectors. The generation of these vast amounts of solid wastes could be utilised as a valuable and renewable natural resource for various applications. The goal of promoting sustainable development has increased the interest in recycling wastes economically and in an eco-friendly way. This article reviews the published research on this topic and discusses the usage of these solid substrates in the remediation of a major environmental component, textile dye-contaminated water. The purpose of this article is to discuss an integrated and cross-disciplinary approach to sustainable solid and liquid waste management and remediation of environmental components and to report the biological approaches and their efficiency in a chemical-free and economically viable bioremediation process for large volumes of dye-contaminated water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnological Application of Agro-Industrial wastes)
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