Special Issue "Harmony Search Algorithm - Theoretical Background and Practical Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Computing and Artificial Intelligence".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Zong Woo Geem
Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Department of Energy IT, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
Interests: artificial neural network; evolutionary algorithm; computational intelligence; decision support technique; harmony search
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Harmony Search is a jazz-inspired evolutionary algorithm, and it has been applied to various optimization problems including engineering design, lane detection in driverless cars, and energy system scheduling, as well as music composition, fine art appreciation, and astronomical observation.

This Special Issue will review the recent developments in both the theory and applications of this algorithm. We invite original research articles as well as review articles and short communications.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Harmony Search
  • Theoretical background
  • Enhancement of stochastic derivative
  • Performance of searching behavior
  • Hybridization with other algorithms
  • Applications in engineering
  • Smart city (smart grid, smart city)
  • Sustainability

Prof. Zong Woo Geem
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Harmony Search
  • Theoretical background
  • Enhancement of stochastic derivative
  • Performance of searching behavior
  • Hybridization with other algorithms
  • Applications in engineering
  • Smart city (smart grid, smart city)
  • Sustainability

Published Papers (20 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
HASPO: Harmony Search-Based Parameter Optimization for Just-in-Time Software Defect Prediction in Maritime Software
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052002 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Software is playing the most important role in recent vehicle innovations, and consequently the amount of software has rapidly grown in recent decades. The safety-critical nature of ships, one sort of vehicle, makes software quality assurance (SQA) a fundamental prerequisite. Just-in-time software defect [...] Read more.
Software is playing the most important role in recent vehicle innovations, and consequently the amount of software has rapidly grown in recent decades. The safety-critical nature of ships, one sort of vehicle, makes software quality assurance (SQA) a fundamental prerequisite. Just-in-time software defect prediction (JIT-SDP) aims to conduct software defect prediction (SDP) on commit-level code changes to achieve effective SQA resource allocation. The first case study of SDP in the maritime domain reported feasible prediction performance. However, we still consider that the prediction model has room for improvement since the parameters of the model are not optimized yet. Harmony search (HS) is a widely used music-inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithm. In this article, we demonstrated that JIT-SDP can produce better performance of prediction by applying HS-based parameter optimization with balanced fitness value. Using two real-world datasets from the maritime software project, we obtained an optimized model that meets the performance criterion beyond the baseline of a previous case study throughout various defect to non-defect class imbalance ratio of datasets. Experiments with open source software also showed better recall for all datasets despite the fact that we considered balance as a performance index. HS-based parameter optimized JIT-SDP can be applied to the maritime domain software with a high class imbalance ratio. Finally, we expect that our research can be extended to improve the performance of JIT-SDP not only in maritime domain software but also in open source software. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Design of a Wrist Rehabilitation System with a Novel Mixed Structural Optimization Applying Improved Harmony Search
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041766 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 243
Abstract
This paper presents the development of a wrist rehabilitation system with a novel approach for structural design, based on the modeling of an optimization problem solved by a metaheuristic algorithm, Improved Harmony Search (ImHS). It is part of a project for developing low-cost [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of a wrist rehabilitation system with a novel approach for structural design, based on the modeling of an optimization problem solved by a metaheuristic algorithm, Improved Harmony Search (ImHS). It is part of a project for developing low-cost rehabilitation systems expressly designed for the population of Latin American countries. A mixed optimization problem is modeled for the design, where the material type is associated with an integer variable and the dimensions of the components are continuous parameters. The novelty is that each element is calculated individually, but considering the combined effect over the structure. The optimization works simultaneously on both the material selection and the meeting of the associated constraints, to guarantee that the system will not fail because of any load, neither it will be unsafe for the patients, since the operation will always be within the limits considered in the modeling. ImHS is a variant of the Harmony Search algorithm, modified to enhance the exploration and exploitation processes. It is a simple yet powerful metaheuristic, implemented in this development with additional modifications to handle constraints and mixed variables. The proposed approach produced quality results, indicating that ImHS can be applied to solve complex engineering problems, facilitating the manufacture and control processes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Performance of Optimum Tuned PID Controller with Different Feedback Strategies on Active-Controlled Structures
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041682 - 13 Feb 2021
Viewed by 247
Abstract
In this study, multi-story structures with different combinations (on each floor and only the first floor) of active tendon control systems driven by a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller were actively controlled. The PID parameters, Kp (proportional gain), Td (derivative gain), and T [...] Read more.
In this study, multi-story structures with different combinations (on each floor and only the first floor) of active tendon control systems driven by a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller were actively controlled. The PID parameters, Kp (proportional gain), Td (derivative gain), and Ti (integral gain) for each structure, were optimally tuned by using both the harmony search algorithm (HS) and flower pollination algorithm (FPA), which are metaheuristic algorithms. In two different active-controlled structures, which are formed according to the position of the PID, the structural responses under near-fault records defined in FEMA P-695 are examined to determine the appropriate feedback which was applied for displacement, velocity, acceleration, and total acceleration. The performance of the different feedback strategies on these two active-controlled structures is evaluated. As a result, the acceleration feedback is suitable for all combinations of the active control system with a PID controller. The HS algorithm outperforms the optimum results found according to the FPA. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Usage of the Harmony Search Algorithm for the Optimal Design Problem of Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031343 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
In this paper, the Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is utilized to perform single and multivariate parametric studies to acquire the optimization of both size and cost of reinforced concrete (RC) retaining walls embedded in pure frictional soils. The geotechnical properties of the backfill [...] Read more.
In this paper, the Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is utilized to perform single and multivariate parametric studies to acquire the optimization of both size and cost of reinforced concrete (RC) retaining walls embedded in pure frictional soils. The geotechnical properties of the backfill and foundation soil such as shear strength angle, unit weight, and the ultimate bearing pressure of the soil have been used to create different cases for evaluating the effects of site properties on the size and cost of the wall. The change of depth of excavation and surcharge loading condition is fictionalized for generating different environmental conditions for all envisaged soil profiles to predict possible rates of influences. The unit cost of the concrete has also been evaluated as a variant to show the economic constraints on the selection of structural materials. The results of the analyses represent the integrated influences of different significant parameters on the achievement of minimum cost-dimension optimization. Besides, a well-known commercial geotechnical engineering software is used to compare the appropriateness of the suggested designs in terms of both the attainment of geotechnical stability and the structural requirements. Consequently, this study can guide both researchers and designers to select the proper and optimal sections of RC-retaining wall systems with simultaneous analyses of parameters that are influenced by the design process. Furthermore, the optimization results indicate that a significant cost reduction may be achieved when compared with the traditional pre-design method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Parameter Estimation of Compartmental Epidemiological Model Using Harmony Search Algorithm and Its Variants
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031138 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Epidemiological models play a vital role in understanding the spread and severity of a pandemic of infectious disease, such as the COVID-19 global pandemic. The mathematical modeling of infectious diseases in the form of compartmental models are often employed in studying the probable [...] Read more.
Epidemiological models play a vital role in understanding the spread and severity of a pandemic of infectious disease, such as the COVID-19 global pandemic. The mathematical modeling of infectious diseases in the form of compartmental models are often employed in studying the probable outbreak growth. Such models heavily rely on a good estimation of the epidemiological parameters for simulating the outbreak trajectory. In this paper, the parameter estimation is formulated as an optimization problem and a metaheuristic algorithm is applied, namely Harmony Search (HS), in order to obtain the optimized epidemiological parameters. The application of HS in epidemiological modeling is demonstrated by implementing ten variants of HS algorithm on five COVID-19 data sets that were calibrated with the prototypical Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) compartmental model. Computational experiments indicated the ability of HS to be successfully applied to epidemiological modeling and as an efficacious estimator for the model parameters. In essence, HS is proposed as a potential alternative estimation tool for parameters of interest in compartmental epidemiological models. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Workload Stability-Aware Virtual Machine Consolidation Using Adaptive Harmony Search in Cloud Datacenters
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020798 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Owing to the increasing complexity of managing IT infrastructure caused by rapid technological advancements, organizations are transforming their datacenter management environments from on-premises to the cloud. Datacenters operating in the cloud environment have large amounts of IT infrastructure, such as servers, storage devices, [...] Read more.
Owing to the increasing complexity of managing IT infrastructure caused by rapid technological advancements, organizations are transforming their datacenter management environments from on-premises to the cloud. Datacenters operating in the cloud environment have large amounts of IT infrastructure, such as servers, storage devices, and network equipment, and are operational on all days of the year, thus causing power overconsumption problems. However, efforts to reduce power consumption are not the first priority as datacenters seek stable operation to avoid violating their service level agreements. Therefore, a research model that reduces power consumption of the datacenter while enabling stable operation by utilizing virtual machine (VM) consolidation is proposed here. To obtain the optimal solution for the proposed VM consolidation model, an adaptive harmony search methodology is developed, which expends less effort to set the parameters of the model compared to existing harmony search methods. Comparative experiments were conducted to validate the accuracy and performance of the proposed model. As a result, Original harmony search (HS) showed better performance than the existing heuristic algorithm, and novel self-adaptive (NS)-HS showed the best result among Adaptive HS. In addition, when considering workload stability, it showed better results in terms of datacenters (DC) stability than otherwise. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Harmony Search-Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Location-Inventory-Routing Problem in Supply Chain Network Design with Defect and Non-Defect Items
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6625; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186625 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
This paper considers a location-inventory-routing problem (LIRP) that integrates the strategic, tactical, and operational decision planning in supply chain network design. Both defect and non-defect items of returned products are considered in the cost of reverse logistics based on the economic production quantity [...] Read more.
This paper considers a location-inventory-routing problem (LIRP) that integrates the strategic, tactical, and operational decision planning in supply chain network design. Both defect and non-defect items of returned products are considered in the cost of reverse logistics based on the economic production quantity model. The objective of the LIRP is to minimize the total cost of location-allocation of established depots, the cost of inventory, including production setup and holding cost, as well as the cost of travelled distance by the vehicles between the open depots and assigned customers. A Hybrid Harmony Search-Simulated Annealing (HS-SA) algorithm is proposed in this paper. This algorithm incorporates the dynamic values of harmony memory considering rate and pitch adjustment rate with the local optimization techniques to hybridize with the idea of probabilistic acceptance rule from simulated annealing, to avoid the local extreme points. Computational experiments on popular benchmark data sets show that the proposed hybrid HS-SA algorithm outperforms a standard HS and an improved HS for all cases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Pheromone-Based Harmony Search Algorithm for the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6422; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186422 - 15 Sep 2020
Viewed by 503
Abstract
This paper presents a modification of the Harmony Search algorithm (HS) adjusted to an effective solving of instances of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem. The improvement of the technique spans the application of a pheromone, which, by serving the role of long-term memory, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a modification of the Harmony Search algorithm (HS) adjusted to an effective solving of instances of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem. The improvement of the technique spans the application of a pheromone, which, by serving the role of long-term memory, enables the improvement of the quality of determined results, especially for tasks characterized by a significant number of vertices. The publication includes the results of tests that suggest the achievement of effectiveness improvement through the modification of the HS and recommendations concerning the proper configuration of the algorithm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Self-Adaptive Global-Best Harmony Search Algorithm-Based Airflow Control of a Wells-Turbine-Based Oscillating-Water Column
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4628; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134628 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
The Harmony Search algorithm has attracted a lot of interest in the past years because of its simplicity and efficiency. This led many scientists to develop various variants for many applications. In this paper, four variants of the Harmony search algorithm were implemented [...] Read more.
The Harmony Search algorithm has attracted a lot of interest in the past years because of its simplicity and efficiency. This led many scientists to develop various variants for many applications. In this paper, four variants of the Harmony search algorithm were implemented and tested to optimize the control design of the Proportional-Integral-derivative (PID) controller in a proposed airflow control scheme. The airflow control strategy has been proposed to deal with the undesired stalling phenomenon of the Wells turbine in an Oscillating Water Column (OWC). To showcase the effectiveness of the Self-Adaptive Global Harmony Search (SGHS) algorithm over traditional tuning methods, a comparative study has been carried out between the optimized PID, the traditionally tuned PID and the uncontrolled OWC system. The results of optimization showed that the Self-Adaptive Global Harmony Search (SGHS) algorithm adapted the best to the problem of the airflow control within the wave energy converter. Moreover, the OWC performance is superior when using the SGHS-tuned PID. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Harmony Search Optimization of Nozzle Movement for Additive Manufacturing of Concrete Structures and Concrete Elements
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4413; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124413 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
There are several ways of using three-dimensional printing techniques in the construction industry. One method that seems quite feasible is the concreting of walls and structural components starting at the bottom and progressing up in layers according to the principles of additive manufacturing. [...] Read more.
There are several ways of using three-dimensional printing techniques in the construction industry. One method that seems quite feasible is the concreting of walls and structural components starting at the bottom and progressing up in layers according to the principles of additive manufacturing. The goal of this study is to optimize the movements of a nozzle at one level that will result in this operation. This study considers that the movements of the nozzle can be of two types: rectangular only (i.e., only in x and y directions) or more freely, including moving in diagonal directions. Applications are performed on four hypothetical flats (with 7, 8, 14, and 31 walls, respectively) and a structural component with 17 members. It is shown that as the number of walls and members increase, the problem of optimizing the movements of the nozzle becomes increasingly difficult due to exponentially increasing path combinations. A comparison is presented in terms of the ratio of movements of the nozzle without concreting to total distances traveled. The optimization process is conducted using the Harmony Search algorithm with a special coding and encoding system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Comprehensive Survey of the Harmony Search Algorithm in Clustering Applications
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3827; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113827 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
The Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm which has been successfully applied to a broad range of clustering applications, including data clustering, text clustering, fuzzy clustering, image processing, and wireless sensor networks. We provide a comprehensive survey of the [...] Read more.
The Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm which has been successfully applied to a broad range of clustering applications, including data clustering, text clustering, fuzzy clustering, image processing, and wireless sensor networks. We provide a comprehensive survey of the literature on HSA and its variants, analyze its strengths and weaknesses, and suggest future research directions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Optimisation of Shear and Lateral–Torsional Buckling of Steel Plate Girders Using Meta-Heuristic Algorithms
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3639; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103639 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
The shear buckling of web plates and lateral–torsional buckling are among the major failure modes of plate girders. The importance of the lateral–torsional buckling capacity of plate girders was further evidenced when several plate girders of a bridge in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada failed [...] Read more.
The shear buckling of web plates and lateral–torsional buckling are among the major failure modes of plate girders. The importance of the lateral–torsional buckling capacity of plate girders was further evidenced when several plate girders of a bridge in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada failed in 2015, because insufficient bracing led to the lateral buckling of the plate girders. In this study, we focus on the optimisation of the cross-sections of plate girders using a well-known and extremely efficient meta-heuristic optimisation algorithm called the harmony search algorithm. The objective of this optimisation is to design the cross-sections of the plate girders with the minimum area that satisfies requirements, such as the lateral–torsional buckling load and ultimate shear stress. The base geometry, material properties, applied load and boundary conditions were taken from an experimental study and optimised. It was revealed that the same amount of load-carrying capacity demonstrated by this model can be achieved with a cross-sectional area 16% smaller than that of the original specimen. Furthermore, the slenderness of the web plate was found to have a decisive effect on the cost-efficiency of the plate girder design. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Harmony Search Algorithm Based Management of Distributed Energy Resources and Storage Systems in Microgrids
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3252; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093252 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
Microgrids are composed of distributed energy resources (DERs), storage devices, electric vehicles, flexible loads and so on. They may either operate connected to the main electricity grid (on-grid operation) or separated from the grid (islanded operation). The outputs of the renewable energy sources [...] Read more.
Microgrids are composed of distributed energy resources (DERs), storage devices, electric vehicles, flexible loads and so on. They may either operate connected to the main electricity grid (on-grid operation) or separated from the grid (islanded operation). The outputs of the renewable energy sources may fluctuate and thus can cause deviations in the voltage magnitudes especially at islanded mode. This may affect the stability of the microgrids. This paper proposes an optimization model to efficiently manage controllable devices in microgrids aiming to minimize the voltage deviations both in on-grid and islanded operation modes. RSE Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DER-TF), which is a low voltage microgrid system in Italy, is used to verify the algorithm. The test system’s data is taken through an online software system (REDIS) and a harmony search based optimization algorithm is applied to control the device parameters. The experimental results show that the harmony search based optimization approach successfully finds the control parameters, and can help the system to obtain a better voltage profile. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Optimum Design of PID Controlled Active Tuned Mass Damper via Modified Harmony Search
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082976 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
In this study, the music-inspired Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is modified for the optimization of active tuned mass dampers (ATMDs). The modification of HS includes the consideration of the best solution with a defined probability and updating of algorithm parameters such as harmony [...] Read more.
In this study, the music-inspired Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is modified for the optimization of active tuned mass dampers (ATMDs). The modification of HS includes the consideration of the best solution with a defined probability and updating of algorithm parameters such as harmony memory, considering rate and pitch adjusting rate. The design variables include all the mechanical properties of ATMD, such as the mass, stiffness and damping coefficient, and the active controller parameters of the proposed proportional–integral–derivative (PID) type controllers. In the optimization process, the analysis of an ATMD implemented structure is done using the generated Matlab Simulink block diagram. The PID controllers were optimized for velocity feedback control, and the objective of the optimization is the minimization of the top story displacement by using the limitation of the stroke capacity of ATMD. The optimum results are presented for different cases of the stroke capacity limit of ATMD. According to the results, the method is effective in reducing the maximum displacement of the structure by 53.71%, while a passive TMD can only reduce it by 31.22%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A New Differential Mutation Based Adaptive Harmony Search Algorithm for Global Optimization
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2916; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082916 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The canonical harmony search (HS) algorithm generates a new solution by using random adjustment. However, the beneficial effects of harmony memory are not well considered. In order to make full use of harmony memory to generate new solutions, this paper proposes a new [...] Read more.
The canonical harmony search (HS) algorithm generates a new solution by using random adjustment. However, the beneficial effects of harmony memory are not well considered. In order to make full use of harmony memory to generate new solutions, this paper proposes a new adaptive harmony search algorithm (aHSDE) with a differential mutation, periodic learning and linear population size reduction strategy for global optimization. Differential mutation is used for pitch adjustment, which provides a promising direction guidance to adjust the bandwidth. To balance the diversity and convergence of harmony memory, a linear reducing strategy of harmony memory is proposed with iterations. Meanwhile, periodic learning is used to adaptively modify the pitch adjusting rate and the scaling factor to improve the adaptability of the algorithm. The effects and the cooperation of the proposed strategies and the key parameters are analyzed in detail. Experimental comparison among well-known HS variants and several state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms on CEC 2014 benchmark indicates that the aHSDE has a very competitive performance. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Feature Selection for Facial Emotion Recognition Using Cosine Similarity-Based Harmony Search Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082816 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
Nowadays, researchers aim to enhance man-to-machine interactions by making advancements in several domains. Facial emotion recognition (FER) is one such domain in which researchers have made significant progresses. Features for FER can be extracted using several popular methods. However, there may be some [...] Read more.
Nowadays, researchers aim to enhance man-to-machine interactions by making advancements in several domains. Facial emotion recognition (FER) is one such domain in which researchers have made significant progresses. Features for FER can be extracted using several popular methods. However, there may be some redundant/irrelevant features in feature sets. In order to remove those redundant/irrelevant features that do not have any significant impact on classification process, we propose a feature selection (FS) technique called the supervised filter harmony search algorithm (SFHSA) based on cosine similarity and minimal-redundancy maximal-relevance (mRMR). Cosine similarity aims to remove similar features from feature vectors, whereas mRMR was used to determine the feasibility of the optimal feature subsets using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PCC), which favors the features that have lower correlation values with other features—as well as higher correlation values with the facial expression classes. The algorithm was evaluated on two benchmark FER datasets, namely the Radboud faces database (RaFD) and the Japanese female facial expression (JAFFE). Five different state-of-the-art feature descriptors including uniform local binary pattern (uLBP), horizontal–vertical neighborhood local binary pattern (hvnLBP), Gabor filters, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and pyramidal HOG (PHOG) were considered for FS. Obtained results signify that our technique effectively optimized the feature vectors and made notable improvements in overall classification accuracy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Advanced Parameter-Setting-Free Harmony Search Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2586; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072586 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
In this paper, we propose an advanced parameter-setting-free (PSF) scheme to solve the problem of setting the parameters for the harmony search (HS) algorithm. The use of the advanced PSF method solves the problems of the conventional PSF scheme that results from a [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose an advanced parameter-setting-free (PSF) scheme to solve the problem of setting the parameters for the harmony search (HS) algorithm. The use of the advanced PSF method solves the problems of the conventional PSF scheme that results from a large number of iterations and shows good results compared to fixing the parameters required for the HS algorithm. In addition, unlike the conventional PSF method, the advanced PSF method does not use additional memory. We expect the advanced PSF method to be applicable to various fields that use the HS algorithm because it reduces the memory utilization for operations while obtaining better results than conventional PSF schemes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Energy-Efficient Resource Provisioning Using Adaptive Harmony Search Algorithm for Compute-Intensive Workloads with Load Balancing in Datacenters
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2323; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072323 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
Drastic variations in high-performance computing workloads lead to the commencement of large number of datacenters. To revolutionize themselves as green datacenters, these data centers are assured to reduce their energy consumption without compromising the performance. The energy consumption of the processor is considered [...] Read more.
Drastic variations in high-performance computing workloads lead to the commencement of large number of datacenters. To revolutionize themselves as green datacenters, these data centers are assured to reduce their energy consumption without compromising the performance. The energy consumption of the processor is considered as an important metric for power reduction in servers as it accounts to 60% of the total power consumption. In this research work, a power-aware algorithm (PA) and an adaptive harmony search algorithm (AHSA) are proposed for the placement of reserved virtual machines in the datacenters to reduce the power consumption of servers. Modification of the standard harmony search algorithm is inevitable to suit this specific problem with varying global search space in each allocation interval. A task distribution algorithm is also proposed to distribute and balance the workload among the servers to evade over-utilization of servers which is unique of its kind against traditional virtual machine consolidation approaches that intend to restrain the number of powered on servers to the minimum as possible. Different policies for overload host selection and virtual machine selection are discussed for load balancing. The observations endorse that the AHSA outperforms, and yields better results towards the objective than, the PA algorithm and the existing counterparts. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Hybrid Harmony Search Approach for the Analysis of Plane Stress Systems via Total Potential Optimization
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2301; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072301 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
By finding the minimum total potential energy of a structural system with a defined degree of freedoms assigned as design variables, it is possible to find the equilibrium condition of the deformed system. This method, called total potential optimization using metaheuristic algorithms (TPO/MA), [...] Read more.
By finding the minimum total potential energy of a structural system with a defined degree of freedoms assigned as design variables, it is possible to find the equilibrium condition of the deformed system. This method, called total potential optimization using metaheuristic algorithms (TPO/MA), has been verified on truss and truss-like structures, such as cable systems and tensegric structures. Harmony Search (HS) algorithm methods perfectly found the analysis results of the previous structure types. In this study, TPO/MA is presented for analysis of plates for plane stress members to solve general types of problems. Due to the complex nature of the system, a novel hybrid Harmony Search (HHS) approach was proposed. HHS is the hybridization of local search phases of HS and the global search phase of the Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA). The results found via HHS were verified with the finite element method (FEM). When compared with classical HS, HHS provides smaller total potential energy values, and needs less iterations than other new generation metaheuristic algorithms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Improved Novel Global Harmony Search Algorithm Based on Selective Acceptance
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10061910 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 552
Abstract
The novel global harmony search (NGHS) algorithm is proposed in 2010, and it is an improved harmony search (HS) algorithm which combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the genetic algorithm (GA). One of the main differences between the HS and NGHS algorithms [...] Read more.
The novel global harmony search (NGHS) algorithm is proposed in 2010, and it is an improved harmony search (HS) algorithm which combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the genetic algorithm (GA). One of the main differences between the HS and NGHS algorithms is that of using different mechanisms to renew the harmony memory (HM). In the HS algorithm, in each iteration, the new harmony is accepted and replaced the worst harmony in the HM while the fitness of the new harmony is better than the worst harmony in the HM. Conversely, in the NGHS algorithm, the new harmony replaces the worst harmony in the HM without any precondition. However, in addition to these two mechanisms, there is one old mechanism, the selective acceptance mechanism, which is used in the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed the selective acceptance novel global harmony search (SANGHS) algorithm which combines the NGHS algorithm with a selective acceptance mechanism. The advantage of the SANGHS algorithm is that it balances the global exploration and local exploitation ability. Moreover, to verify the search ability of the SANGHS algorithm, we used the SANGHS algorithm in ten well-known benchmark continuous optimization problems and two engineering problems and compared the experimental results with other metaheuristic algorithms. The experimental results show that the SANGHS algorithm has better search ability than the other four harmony search algorithms in ten continuous optimization problems. In addition, in two engineering problems, the SANGHS algorithm also provided a competition solution compared with other state-of-the-art metaheuristic algorithms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop