Special Issue "Advances on Structural Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jong Wan Hu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon, Korea
Interests: seismic design; smart structures; concrete materials; reinforced concrete; structural experiments; performance evaluation; finite element analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Junwon Seo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Interests: image-based seismic vulnerability and resiliency assessment; multihazard simulation of renewable energy structures; structural behavior examination of irregular structures; self-consolidating concrete; structural health monitoring; reliability analysis; load rating estimation of various bridge types; field testing and computational analyses; and lateral live-load distribution factor examination
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Structural engineering is centered on analysis, design, and evaluation of engineering structures. This Special Issue in Applied Sciences reports key findings from unpublished studies on advances and applications in all structural engineering fields.

Aware of the comprehensiveness of the suggested topic, we encourage you to send manuscripts containing scientific findings within the broad field of structural engineering, which include but are not limited to the following: structural analysis and design; bridge engineering; building assessment; earthquake engineering; wind engineering; impact engineering; reliability evaluation; structural monitoring; image analysis; noncontact sensors; control structures; multihazard simulation; computational analysis; lab and field testing; multiscale analysis; smart structures; disaster mitigation; and big data evaluation. Both theoretical and practice-oriented papers, including case studies and reviews, are encouraged.

Assoc. Prof. Jong Wan Hu
Assoc. Prof. Junwon Seo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • structural analysis and design
  • control structures
  • disaster mitigation
  • seismic design
  • structural monitoring
  • smart structures
  • big data evaluation
  • structural performance assessments
  • bridges

Published Papers (35 papers)

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Research

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Article
Ambient Vibration as a Basis for Determining the Structural Behaviour of Watchtowers against Horizontal Loads in Southeast Spain
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6114; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176114 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 516
Abstract
The Kingdom of Granada occupied the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, what today would be the current Spanish provinces of Granada, Malaga and Almeria. Having succeeded the Nasrid kingdom of Granada (1238–1492), it remained a geographical and administrative unit until 1834, defended from [...] Read more.
The Kingdom of Granada occupied the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, what today would be the current Spanish provinces of Granada, Malaga and Almeria. Having succeeded the Nasrid kingdom of Granada (1238–1492), it remained a geographical and administrative unit until 1834, defended from the advancement of Castilian troops by means of a large network of watchtowers located principally along its inland border. Following the Castilian conquest of Granada, the extensive coastline was also strengthened with a network of towers and fortifications that were progressively adapted to house artillery. A technical survey focusing on the characteristics of their geometrics and construction, as well as their performance in a series of non-destructive tests, such as ambient vibration testing, was undertaken to study the towers’ mechanical strength against both gravitational and seismic loads. The results propose a numerical estimate that defines the fundamental frequency of this type of structure, which in turn can be used to approximate the mechanical properties of the masonry. Such a precise definition based on objective data enables accurate and rigorous numerical analysis of this defensive architecture, thus reducing uncertainties. Furthermore, slenderness is found to be a relevant parameter for adjusting fundamental frequency and for analysing the towers’ historical evolution, enabling their initial height and number of levels to be estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
The New Approach to Analysis of Thin Isotropic Symmetrical Plates
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 5931; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175931 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
A new approach to solve plate constructions using combined analytical and numerical methods has been developed in this paper. It is based on an exact solution of an equilibrium equation. The proposed mathematical model is implemented as a computer program in which known [...] Read more.
A new approach to solve plate constructions using combined analytical and numerical methods has been developed in this paper. It is based on an exact solution of an equilibrium equation. The proposed mathematical model is implemented as a computer program in which known analytical formulae are rewritten as wrapper functions of two arguments. Partial derivatives are calculated using automatic differentiation. A solution of a system of linear equations is substituted to these functions and evaluated using the Einstein summation convention. The calculated results are presented and compared to other analytical and numerical ones. The boundary conditions are satisfied with high accuracy. The effectiveness of the present method is illustrated by examples of rectangular plates. The model can be extended with the ability to solve plates of any shape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Shaking Table Substructure Testing Based on Three-Variable Control Method with Velocity Positive Feedback
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5414; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165414 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
To improve the experimental accuracy and stability of shaking table substructure testing (STST), an explicit central difference method (CDM) and a three-variable control method (TVCM) with velocity positive feedback (VPF) are proposed in this study. First, the explicit CDM is presented for obtaining [...] Read more.
To improve the experimental accuracy and stability of shaking table substructure testing (STST), an explicit central difference method (CDM) and a three-variable control method (TVCM) with velocity positive feedback (VPF) are proposed in this study. First, the explicit CDM is presented for obtaining an improved control accuracy of the boundary conditions between the numerical and experimental substructures of STST. Compared with the traditional CDM, the proposed method can provide explicit control targets for displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Furthermore, a TVCM-VPF is proposed to improve the control stability and accuracy for loading the explicit control targets of displacement, velocity, and acceleration. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is validated by experiments on a three-story frame structure with a tuned liquid damper loaded on an old shaking table originally designed with the traditional displacement control mode. The experimental results show that the proposed explicit CDM works well, and the response rate and control accuracy of the shaking table are significantly improved with the contribution of the TVCM-VPF compared with those of the traditional proportional integral derivative (PID) controller. This indicates the advantage of the proposed TVCM-VPF over the traditional PID for STST. A comparison between the traditional shaking table test and STST shows that when the latter is based on the TVCM-VPF, it exhibits an excellent performance in terms of the stability and accuracy of displacement and an acceptable performance in terms of the acceleration accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Effect of Strain Hardening on Increase in Collapse Pressure during the Manufacture of ERW Pipe
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 5005; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10145005 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
Plastic deformation during the manufacture process of electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe determines the stress–strain relationship of the steel pipe, which affects the collapse pressure of offshore pipelines. To track the deformation history of the pipe, the entire process was simulated via finite [...] Read more.
Plastic deformation during the manufacture process of electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe determines the stress–strain relationship of the steel pipe, which affects the collapse pressure of offshore pipelines. To track the deformation history of the pipe, the entire process was simulated via finite element analysis using a solid element. A material model that considered both the Bauschinger effect and strain hardening was adopted. Various sizes of pipe cross-sections were simulated. As greater compression was applied during the sizing process, the strain hardening effect became more significant, so that the compressive yield strength was increased in the circumferential direction. The strain hardening effect was most prominent for a smaller diameter-to-thickness ratio (D/t), so that an increase in the collapse pressure could be obtained with a larger sizing ratio. Therefore, current design criteria for the collapse pressure recommended by Det Norske Verita (DNV) and API could be enhanced for a smaller D/t to consider the strain hardening effect during the sizing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
New Methodological Approach towards a Complete Characterization of Structural Fiber Reinforced Concrete by Means of Mechanical Testing Procedures
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4811; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144811 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
This work proposes a novel methodology for the complete characterization of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). The method includes bending tests of prismatic notched specimens, based on the Standards for FRC, tensile and pure shear tests. The values adopted by the standards for designing [...] Read more.
This work proposes a novel methodology for the complete characterization of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). The method includes bending tests of prismatic notched specimens, based on the Standards for FRC, tensile and pure shear tests. The values adopted by the standards for designing FRC are the obtained from bending tests, typically fR3, even for shear and pure tension loading. This paper shows that the remaining strength of FRC, supplied by the fibers, depends on the type of loading. In the case of shear and tensile loading the prescriptions of the standards may be unsafe. In this work, the remaining halves of specimens subjected to bending test are prepared and used for shear and tension tests. This means significant savings in specimen preparation and a greater amount of information for structural use of FRC. The results provide relevant information for the design of structural elements of FRC compared with the only use of data supplied by bending tests. In the case of tensile tests, fLOP values are 42% of the strength of the equivalent bending results, being 31% the average reduction in remaining resistance in comparison with the bending test. Pure shear tests showed, for 0.5 mm shear displacement, that the shear resistance is greater than 160% of that expressed according to bending tests. In addition, a video-extensometry system was used to analyze the crack generation and cracking patterns. The video-extensometry applied to shear tests allowed the assessment of the sliding values and crack opening values at the crack discontinuity. These values may be quite relevant for the study of the FRC behavior when subjected to shear according to the shear-friction model theories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Numerical Evaluation of Structural Safety for Aged Onshore Wind Foundation to Extend Service Life
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4561; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134561 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 501
Abstract
In this paper, for the case of “service life extension” with the same capacity for wind turbines, a structural safety evaluation was carried out to determine whether to extend the service life of the aged foundation. As a result of this study, it [...] Read more.
In this paper, for the case of “service life extension” with the same capacity for wind turbines, a structural safety evaluation was carried out to determine whether to extend the service life of the aged foundation. As a result of this study, it was found that the aged foundation satisfies the structural safety of material strength, ultimate strength, fatigue life, and serviceability up to the present. Although the in-service period has been over 16 years, it has been shown that the material properties of concrete have exceeded the design strength, and no significant material deterioration has occurred. Also, structural safety could be evaluated more realistically based on actual concrete properties. In particular, it has been shown that it has a fatigue life of 40 years or more, so service life can be extended. It is expected that the methodology used in this paper will be useful not only for structural safety evaluation of the foundation in service, but also for decision-making for extending the service life. Furthermore, a more technical approach should be explored by many researchers in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Real Geometrical Imperfection of Bow-String Arches—Measurement and Global Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4530; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134530 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
In order to analyse the buckling behaviour of existing bow-string arch bridges, it is necessary to deal with the imperfections that influence the global stability of their superstructures. Direct quantification of the material imperfections represents an extremely difficult task for this type of [...] Read more.
In order to analyse the buckling behaviour of existing bow-string arch bridges, it is necessary to deal with the imperfections that influence the global stability of their superstructures. Direct quantification of the material imperfections represents an extremely difficult task for this type of structure. On the other hand, the geometrical imperfections can be measured in more detail by using special scanners or high-accuracy surveying instruments. This contribution represents a beginning part of the research activities focusing on the real values of geometric imperfections of existing steel arch bridges using three-dimensional (3D) scanning. The possibility of using these data for further theoretical and numerical analysis based on the finite element method (FEM) and for further creating the building information modelling (BIM) of the bridges is proposed. When verifying the stability of bow-string arch bridges, much higher attention has to be paid to the out-of-plane stability of the arches. The numerical models of an existing bridge superstructure were developed to execute a nonlinear analysis with geometrical imperfections included. Both the theoretical and actual imperfections obtained by 3D scanning were taken into account. The obtained data, their comparison and the applicability of the presented method are finally discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Metallic Ribbon-Core Sandwich Panels Subjected to Air Blast Loading
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4500; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134500 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Sandwich structures provide a quite promising solution for blast alleviation techniques owing to their lightweight, high strength, and impressive energy absorption capabilities relative to solo metallic plates with equivalent density. The ability of the sandwich structure to withstand blast loading relies on its [...] Read more.
Sandwich structures provide a quite promising solution for blast alleviation techniques owing to their lightweight, high strength, and impressive energy absorption capabilities relative to solo metallic plates with equivalent density. The ability of the sandwich structure to withstand blast loading relies on its core topology. This paper numerically investigates the effectiveness of using ribbon shapes as an innovative core topology for sandwich structures subjected to blast loading. The hydro-code program (Autodyn) supported by the finite element program (ANSYS) is adopted to study the dynamic response of various sandwich panels. The accuracy of the finite element (FE) models were verified using available experimental results for a field blast test in the literature. The results show that the developed finite element model can be reliably exploited to simulate the dynamic behavior of the sandwich panels. The trapezoidal (TZ) and triangular (T) corrugated core topologies were selected to highlight the blast-resistant performance of the new ribbon core topology. Applying the ribbon topology to the traditional corrugated core topologies improved their blast performance. The facing front-plate’s deflection of the trapezoidal corrugated ribbon core sandwich structure (TZRC) has been improved by 45.3% and by 76.5% for the back-plate’s deflection, while for the triangular ribbon corrugated core (TRC), the front plate’s defection has been enhanced by 69.3% and by 112.1% for the back plate. The effect of various design parameters on the blast behavior of the Ribbon-Core Sandwich Panels (RCSPs) was investigated. A parametric study was conducted to evaluate performance indicators, including energy dissipated through plastic deformation and plate deflections. Finally, based on the parametric study, the results of this paper were recommended to be used as a guide for designing metallic ribbon sandwich structures with different protection levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Development of Track Support Stiffness Measurement and Evaluation System for Slab Tracks
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4344; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124344 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The track support stiffness measurement and evaluation system for slab tracks proposed in this study enables the calculation of the load–displacement diagram at the various measurement positions. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate the track support stiffness directly on-site without evaluating the spring [...] Read more.
The track support stiffness measurement and evaluation system for slab tracks proposed in this study enables the calculation of the load–displacement diagram at the various measurement positions. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate the track support stiffness directly on-site without evaluating the spring stiffness of the elastic material through sampling or in situ testing, also enabling the evaluation of the deterioration of the elastic material. In addition, the performance evaluation data for elastic materials obtained through field tests using measurement equipment and software to track support stiffness are integrated and managed on the administrator′s computer. Therefore, the replacement plan is established, and the maintenance history is managed by identifying the replacement time and location of elastic materials. It is possible to evaluate the performance and condition of the elastic material at various points during track inspection and the track support stiffness and durability of the elastic material (spring stiffness variation rate, replacement periods, among others) at the current operating condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Estimating the Dynamic Behavior of Highway Steel Plate Girder Bridges Using Real-Time Strain Measurements
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4215; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124215 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques are used to assess the behavior of structures during or after construction. The high cost of sensors is the main reason for the limited use of the SHM techniques. The present study investigates the dynamic behavior (dynamic acceleration, [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques are used to assess the behavior of structures during or after construction. The high cost of sensors is the main reason for the limited use of the SHM techniques. The present study investigates the dynamic behavior (dynamic acceleration, semi-static displacement, frequency and damping ratio) of highway steel plate girder bridges using strain measurements. The double filtration and polynomial prediction methods are used to estimate the dynamic behavior of the bridge using real-time strain measurements. To verify the accuracy of the developed method, the field monitoring measurements of the WonHyo bridge is used. The bridge behavior under different truck speeds and weights is observed and evaluated. The displacement and acceleration measurements are used to examine the results of the proposed method. The results of this study demonstrate that the strain measurements can be used to obtain an accurate semi-static displacement and dominant frequency content of the bridge. The accuracy of the developed model for the semi-static and dynamic behaviors is 99% and 69%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Seismic Fragility of Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls with Coupling Beams Designed Using a Performance-Based Procedure
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4075; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124075 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 657
Abstract
The seismic performance of ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls, that are commonly used in high-rise residential buildings in Korea (h < 60 m), but are prohibited for tall buildings (h ≥ 60 m), is evaluated in this research project within the framework of [...] Read more.
The seismic performance of ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls, that are commonly used in high-rise residential buildings in Korea (h < 60 m), but are prohibited for tall buildings (h ≥ 60 m), is evaluated in this research project within the framework of collapse probability. Three bidimensional analytical models comprised of both coupled and uncoupled shear walls exceeding 60 m in height were designed using nonlinear dynamic analysis in accordance with Korean performance-based seismic design guidelines. Seismic design based on nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed using different shear force amplification factors in order to determine an appropriate factor. Then, an incremental dynamic analysis was performed to evaluate collapse fragility in accordance with the (Federal Emergency Management Agency) FEMA P695 procedure. Four engineering demand parameters including inter-story drift, plastic hinge rotation angle, concrete compressive strain and shear force were introduced to investigate the collapse probability of the designed analytical models. For all analytical models, flexural failure was the primary failure mode but shear force amplification factors played an important role in order to meet the requirement on collapse probability. High-rise ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls designed using seven pairs of ground motion components and a shear force amplification factor ≥ 1.2 were adequate to satisfy the criteria on collapse probability and the collapse margin ratio prescribed in FEMA P695. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Improvement of the Performance-Based Seismic Design Method of Cable Supported Bridges with the Resilient-Friction Base Isolation Systems
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113942 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
In areas of civil engineering, the resilient friction base isolator (R-FBI) system has been used due to its enhanced isolation performance under seismic excitations. However, because nonlinear behavior of the R-FBI should be reflected in seismic design, effective stiffness (Keff) of [...] Read more.
In areas of civil engineering, the resilient friction base isolator (R-FBI) system has been used due to its enhanced isolation performance under seismic excitations. However, because nonlinear behavior of the R-FBI should be reflected in seismic design, effective stiffness (Keff) of the R-FBI is uniformly applied at both peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.08 g and 0.154 g which use a multimodal response spectrum (RS) method analysis. For rational seismic design of bridges, it should be required to evaluate the dynamics of the R-FBI from in-field tests and to improve the seismic design procedure based on the performance level of the bridges. The objective of this study is to evaluate the dynamics of the R-FBI and to suggest the performance-based seismic design method for cable-supported bridges with the R-FBI. From the comparison between the experiments’ results and modal shape analyses, the modal shape analyses using primary (Ku) or infinite stiffness (fixed end) showed a great agreement with the experimental results compared to the application of Keff in the shape analysis. Additionally, the RS or nonlinear time history method analyses by the PGA levels should be applied by reflecting the dynamic characteristics of the R-FBI for the reasonable and efficient seismic design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Development of Seismic Response Simulation Model for Building Structures with Semi-Active Control Devices Using Recurrent Neural Network
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3915; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113915 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
A structural analysis model to represent the dynamic behavior of building structure is required to develop a semi-active seismic response control system. Although the finite element method (FEM) is the most widely used method for seismic response analysis, when the FEM is applied [...] Read more.
A structural analysis model to represent the dynamic behavior of building structure is required to develop a semi-active seismic response control system. Although the finite element method (FEM) is the most widely used method for seismic response analysis, when the FEM is applied to the dynamic analysis of building structures with nonlinear semi-active control devices, the computational effort required for the simulation for optimal design of the semi-active control system can be considerable. To solve this problem, this paper used recurrent neural network (RNN) to make a time history response simulation model for building structures with a semi-active control system. Example structures were selected of an 11-story building structure with a semi-active tuned mass damper (TMD), and a 27-story building having a semi-active mid-story isolation system. A magnetorheological damper was used as the semi-active control device. Five historical earthquakes and five artificial ground motions were used as ground excitations to train the RNN model. Two artificial ground motions and one historical earthquake, which were not used for training, were used to verify the developed the RNN model. Compared to the FEM model, the developed RNN model could effectively provide very accurate seismic responses, with significantly reduced computational cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
A New Formulation for Predicting the Collision Damage of Steel Stiffened Cylinders Subjected to Dynamic Lateral Mass Impact
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3856; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113856 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
The objective of this study is to develop a new formulation for predicting the permanent local denting damage of steel ring and/or stringer-stiffened cylinders under dynamic lateral mass impact. The considered scenarios could represent the collisions of offshore cylindrical structures with bow or [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to develop a new formulation for predicting the permanent local denting damage of steel ring and/or stringer-stiffened cylinders under dynamic lateral mass impact. The considered scenarios could represent the collisions of offshore cylindrical structures with bow or stern of service vessels or floating objects. Before deriving the formulations, the numerical methods were developed using ABAQUS/Explicit to determine the deformation of these stiffened cylinder structures subjected to dynamic lateral mass impact. Next, rigorous parametric studies were performed on the actual design full-scaled stiffened cylinder examples using the developed numerical method. Based on the rigorous numerical results, new simple design formulations to predict the maximum permanent local dent depth of a stiffened cylinder are derived through a regression study as the function of a non-dimensional energy parameter. The accuracy and reliability of the derived formulations are confirmed by comparison with the available test results, nonlinear FEA and existing analytical, and empirical equations in the literature. A good agreement with existing test data for ship-offshore structure collisions was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Integration of Wavelet Denoising and HHT Applied to the Analysis of Bridge Dynamic Characteristics
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3605; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103605 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
When the dynamic characteristics of a bridge structure are analyzed though Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT), the noise contained in the bridge dynamic monitoring data may seriously affect the performance of the first natural frequency identification. A time-frequency analysis method that integrates wavelet threshold denoising [...] Read more.
When the dynamic characteristics of a bridge structure are analyzed though Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT), the noise contained in the bridge dynamic monitoring data may seriously affect the performance of the first natural frequency identification. A time-frequency analysis method that integrates wavelet threshold denoising and HHT is proposed to overcome this deficiency. The denoising effect of the experimental analysis on the simulated noisy signals proves the effectiveness of the proposed method. This method is used to perform denoising pre-processing on the dynamic monitoring data of Sutong Bridge, and the denoised results of different methods are compared and analyzed. Then, the best denoising data are selected as the input data of Hilbert spectrum analysis to identify the structural first natural frequency of the bridge. The results indicate that the wavelet-empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method effectively reduces the interference of random noise and eliminates useless intrinsic modal function (IMF) components, and the excellent properties of the signal evaluation index after denoising make the method suitable for processing non-stationary signals with noise. When Hilbert spectrum analysis is applied to the denoised data, the first natural frequency of the bridge structure can be identified clearly and is consistent with the theoretical calculation. The proposed method can effectively determine the natural vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Surrogate Neural Network Model for Prediction of Load-Bearing Capacity of CFSS Members Considering Loading Eccentricity
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3452; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103452 - 16 May 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
In this study, a surrogate Machine Learning (ML)-based model was developed, to predict the load-bearing capacity (LBC) of concrete-filled steel square hollow section (CFSS) members, considering loading eccentricity. The proposed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was trained and validated against experimental data using [...] Read more.
In this study, a surrogate Machine Learning (ML)-based model was developed, to predict the load-bearing capacity (LBC) of concrete-filled steel square hollow section (CFSS) members, considering loading eccentricity. The proposed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was trained and validated against experimental data using the following error measurement criteria: coefficient of determination (R2), slope of regression, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). A parametric study was conducted to calibrate the parameters of the ANN model, including the number of neurons, activation function, cost function and training algorithm, respectively. The results showed that the ANN model can provide reliable and effective prediction of LBC (R2 = 0.975, Slope = 0.975, RMSE = 294.424 kN and MAE = 191.878 kN). Sensitivity analysis showed that the geometric parameters of the steel tube (width and thickness) and the compressive strength of concrete were the most important variables. Finally, the effect of eccentric loading on the LBC of CFSS members is presented and discussed, showing that the ANN model can assist in the creation of continuous LBC maps, within the ranges of input variables adopted in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Seismic Performance of Various Piles Considering Soil–Pile Interaction under Lateral Cycle Loads for Integral Abutment Jointless Bridges (IAJBs)
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3406; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103406 - 14 May 2020
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The flexural pile foundation is used in integral abutment jointless bridges (IAJBs) in practical engineering to effectively dissipate the horizontal reciprocating deformation induced by the ambient temperature or earthquake loadings. Various types of flexural piles including the H-shaped steel pile (HP), prestressed concrete [...] Read more.
The flexural pile foundation is used in integral abutment jointless bridges (IAJBs) in practical engineering to effectively dissipate the horizontal reciprocating deformation induced by the ambient temperature or earthquake loadings. Various types of flexural piles including the H-shaped steel pile (HP), prestressed concrete pile (PC), prestressed high-strength concrete pile (PHC) as well as the reinforcement concrete pile (RC) have been implemented in IAJBs. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on the flexural deformation and seismic performances of these piles. In order to investigate and compare their mechanical behaviors and seismic performances, a low-cycle pseudo-static test on several different types of piles was carried out. The test results indicated that the plastic hinge location of piles moved to a deeper pile depth with the increase of reinforcement ratio, buried pile depth and prestressing level, which led to better pile–soil interaction. The crack resistance of a concrete pile was improved as the reinforcement ratio and prestressing level increased. Moreover, the rectangular pile had a better soil–pile interaction and energy dissipation capacity than the circular pile. The inflection point of the pile deformation shifted deeper as reinforcement ratio, buried pile depth and prestressing level increased, which improved the effective length and horizontal deformation capacity of piles. The H-shaped steel pile showed a better elastic-plastic deformation capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity as compared to the concrete pile. Moreover, the pile having a higher bearing ratio sustained larger lateral loads whereas the surrounding soil was subjected to higher loads. Finally, new seismic design criteria of three-stage seismic fortification and five damage level for the concrete piles of IAJBs were proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Estimation of Rock Load of Multi-Arch Tunnel with Cracks Using Stress Variable Method
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3285; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093285 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
In multi-arch tunnels, the increased rock load on the concrete lining of the main tunnel and side walls due to the excavation of adjacent tunnels is critical and must be considered in the design stage. Therefore, this study estimates the rock load of [...] Read more.
In multi-arch tunnels, the increased rock load on the concrete lining of the main tunnel and side walls due to the excavation of adjacent tunnels is critical and must be considered in the design stage. Therefore, this study estimates the rock load of a multi-arch tunnel using two-dimensional numerical analysis, considering rock mass classifications, overburden, and construction steps. The rock load is estimated using two criteria: the factor of safety and stress variable. The rock load is underestimated when the factor of safety is applied to rock mass class III. However, the stress variable method reveals a reasonable rock load as overburden increases. Particularly, the rock load is estimated to be equal to the overburden in shallow tunnels and approximately 0.7 times the tunnel width in deep tunnels. Additionally, the crack-induced rock load is computed using back analysis at the excavation completion stage of adjacent tunnels, yielding the relation between the rock load height and the deformation modulus of the rock mass. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the rock load of multi-arch tunnels emphasizes the importance of a more economical and realistic design and must be addressed in the process of performance-based tunnel design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Flexural Behavior of a 30-Meter Full-Scale Simply Supported Prestressed Concrete Box Girder
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093076 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Compared with scaled-model testing, full-scale destructive testing is more reliable since the test has no size effect and can truly record the mechanical performance of the structure. However, due to the high cost, only very few full-scale destructive tests have been conducted on [...] Read more.
Compared with scaled-model testing, full-scale destructive testing is more reliable since the test has no size effect and can truly record the mechanical performance of the structure. However, due to the high cost, only very few full-scale destructive tests have been conducted on the flexural behavior of prestressed concrete (PC) box girders with girders removed from decommissioned bridges. Moreover, related destructive testing on the flexural behavior of a new precast box girder has been rarely reported. To investigate the flexural behavior and optimize the design, destructive testing of a 30-meter full-scale simply supported prestressed box girder was conducted at the construction site. It is illustrated that the failure mode of the tested girder was fracture of the prestressing tendon, and the corresponding maximum compressive strain in the top flange was only 1456 μ ε , which is far less than the ultimate compressive strain (3300 μ ε ). Therefore, the concrete in the top flange was not fully utilized. A nonlinear analysis procedure was performed using the finite strip method (FSM). The validity of the analysis was demonstrated by comparing the analytical results with those of the full-scale test in the field and a scaled model test in a laboratory. Using the developed numerical method, parametric analyses of the ratio of reinforcement were carried out. The prestressing tendon of the tested girder was increased from four strands to six strands in each duct. After the optimization of the prestressed reinforcement, the girder was ductile and the bearing capacity could be increased by 44.3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Improved Homotopy Perturbation Method for Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Space Trusses
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082987 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
The objective of this study is to explore a noble application of the improved homotopy perturbation procedure bases in structural engineering by applying it to the geometrically nonlinear analysis of the space trusses. The improved perturbation algorithm is proposed to refine the classical [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to explore a noble application of the improved homotopy perturbation procedure bases in structural engineering by applying it to the geometrically nonlinear analysis of the space trusses. The improved perturbation algorithm is proposed to refine the classical methods in numerical computing techniques such as the Newton–Raphson method. A linear of sub-problems is generated by transferring the nonlinear problem with perturbation quantities and then approximated by summation of the solutions related to several sub-problems. In this study, a nonlinear load control procedure is generated and implemented for structures. Several numerical examples of known trusses are given to show the applicability of the proposed perturbation procedure without considering the passing limit points. The results reveal that perturbation modeling methodology for investigating the structural performance of various applications has high accuracy and low computational cost of convergence analysis, compared with the Newton–Raphson method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Fuzzy Based Risk Assessment for Decommissioning Concrete Bioshield Structures in Nuclear Power Plants: Structural Risks and Worker Safety
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072614 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Few studies have assessed the safety issues involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities, especially from a structural and job perspective; in most developed countries, the focus is generally on the radiological risks. This study highlights the inadequacy of existing deterministic risk assessment methods, which [...] Read more.
Few studies have assessed the safety issues involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities, especially from a structural and job perspective; in most developed countries, the focus is generally on the radiological risks. This study highlights the inadequacy of existing deterministic risk assessment methods, which cannot account for the uncertainty and complexity of hazards that workers are exposed to. We instead propose a fuzzy logic based safety assessment model that can analyze and compare alternatives utilizing a step-by-step risk quantification and multidimensional approach. This enables personnel to assess the various risks involved when decontaminating and decommissioning nuclear power plant structures that cannot be quantitatively assessed owing to a lack of data. Our proposed fuzzy based risk assessment model can also be applied to risk assessment in other engineering fields that depend on the judgment of experts supported by little or no statistical data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Non-Uniform Temperature Field of Spatial Grid Structure under Construction Induced by Solar Radiation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072445 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
The temperature of spatial structures under construction can have a significant non-uniform distribution induced by intense solar radiation. This temperature distribution affects the component assembly and results in closure difficulties, potentially causing safety hazards. A spatial grid structure model was designed and subjected [...] Read more.
The temperature of spatial structures under construction can have a significant non-uniform distribution induced by intense solar radiation. This temperature distribution affects the component assembly and results in closure difficulties, potentially causing safety hazards. A spatial grid structure model was designed and subjected to temperature field test under sunlight to study the temperature distribution of the structure and for comparison with numerical simulation methods. The distribution characteristics and the time-varying laws were analyzed based on the test data. Then, the ray-casting algorithm was introduced to analyze the shadow influence between members, so that the temperature distribution of the model was simulated accurately, which was verified by the test data. The results show that the spatial grid structure had an obvious non-uniform temperature distribution, with a maximum temperature rise of 16 °C when compared with ambient temperature and a maximum temperature difference between members of 11 °C. The variation laws were gained both from the test and the numerical simulation. The numerical simulation method proposed herein can be used to calculate the shadow distribution and the temperature field of the structure effectively. The research methods and conclusions can provide valuable references for thermal design, monitoring, and control of spatial grid structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Damage Identification Based on Adding Mass for Liquid–Solid Coupling Structures
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072312 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Damage identification for liquid–solid coupling structures remains a challenging topic due to the influence of liquid and the limitation of experimental conditions. Therefore, the adding mass method for damage identification is employed in this study. Adding mass to structures is an effective method [...] Read more.
Damage identification for liquid–solid coupling structures remains a challenging topic due to the influence of liquid and the limitation of experimental conditions. Therefore, the adding mass method for damage identification is employed in this study. Adding mass to structures is an effective method for damage identification, as it can increase not only the experimental data but also the sensitivity of experimental modes to local damage. First, the fundamental theory of the adding mass method for damage identification is introduced. After that, the method of equating the liquid to the attached mass is proposed by considering the liquid–solid coupling. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of damage identification, based on adding mass for liquid–solid coupling structures, are verified through experiments of a submerged cantilever beam and liquid storage tank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Comparative Study of Wheel–Rail Contact Impact Force for Jointed Rail and Continuous Welded Rail on Light-Rail Transit
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2299; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072299 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
In this study, the measured track impact factor induced by the wheel–rail contact impact force of each test section (two continuous welded rails on slab tracks and rail joint on a ballasted track) was compared with the design track impact factor under service [...] Read more.
In this study, the measured track impact factor induced by the wheel–rail contact impact force of each test section (two continuous welded rails on slab tracks and rail joint on a ballasted track) was compared with the design track impact factor under service conditions of a curved light-rail transit system. The measured track impact factor (TIF) was estimated from the measured dynamic wheel load and vertical rail displacement at each test section. In the case of the rail joint section, the rail joint was found to directly affect the track impact factor. Moreover, the dynamic wheel load fluctuation and vertical rail displacement were found to be significantly greater than those of the continuous welded rails (CWRs) on slab tracks. In addition, vertical rail displacements were measured by field measurement and finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to simulate dynamic wheel load on the jointed rail. Using the field measurements, the rate of dynamic wheel load fluctuation and the TIF were calculated for the CWR and rail joint sections. Subsequently, the calculated TIF values were analytically validated through a comparison with the measured vertical rail displacement, the results of FEA, and the designed TIF for rail joints and CWRs. Finally, the TIF measured by field measurement was compared with the result predicted by FEA. The difference between the results of field measurements and FEA for vertical rail displacement was within approximately 4%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Rail Pad Corrosion Effects on the Dynamic Behavior of Direct Fixation Track Systems in Marine Environments
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072245 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
This study experimentally investigated the effects of rail pad corrosion on the performance of the direct fixation track on a long-span railway bridge in marine conditions. In this study, the dynamic behavior of a direct fixation track on a railway bridge in the [...] Read more.
This study experimentally investigated the effects of rail pad corrosion on the performance of the direct fixation track on a long-span railway bridge in marine conditions. In this study, the dynamic behavior of a direct fixation track on a railway bridge in the presence of corroded rail pads, was determined. Field measurements in this study show that the replacement of corroded rail pads does not affect the track support stiffness. The hard rail pads used in direct fixation tracks are intended to provide electrical insulation rather than flexural track behavior, and so their influence on track support stiffness was found to be insignificant given their high spring stiffness. Additionally, samples of new and corroded rail pads were collected and the spring stiffness of rail pads were analyzed using static, dynamic, and aging tests. The spring stiffnesses of new and corroded rail pads were found to be similar. This means that spring stiffness is not significantly affected by corrosion, a finding that could be explained by the fact that the deformation due to passing train loads was extremely small. Therefore, even though the rail pads on the study bridge exhibited some surface corrosion, their function was not impaired, and they did not need replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Numerical Analysis for Critical Structures Protection against Blast Loading Using Metallic Panels
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062121 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
The need for building protection against blast loads is a crucial issue nowadays due to the escalating threat of terrorist attacks, which affect people’s lives and critical structures. Consequently, design of protective panels to segregate building façades from the effect of a nearby [...] Read more.
The need for building protection against blast loads is a crucial issue nowadays due to the escalating threat of terrorist attacks, which affect people’s lives and critical structures. Consequently, design of protective panels to segregate building façades from the effect of a nearby explosion is required. Such design mainly depends on the ability of protective panels to mitigate and diffract the blast wave before reaching building façades. Five protective panel models with different designs, referred to as the Combined Protection System (CPS), are introduced in this paper. The main objective of this research was to achieve a design that could sustain a blast load with minimum plastic deformations. The introduced CPS designs included two steel plates linked by connector plates. The CPS dimensions were 3 m × 3 m × 0.35 m, representing length, width, and height, respectively. After that, the successful panel design was supported by placing these panels onto a masonry wall in different configurations. The protective panels were tested against 50 kg of trinitrotoluene (TNT) with a standoff distance of one meter. The final run of the optimum model was carried out using a blast load equivalent to 500 kg of TNT. The air–structure interactions were simulated using finite element analysis software called “ANSYS AUTODYN”, where the deformation of the panel was the governing parameter to evaluate the behavior of different designs. The analysis showed minimum deformation of the CPS design with vertical and horizontal connecting plates in a masonry wall distanced at 500 mm from the panel. However, the other designs showed promising results, which could make them suitable for critical structural protection on different scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Mechanical Properties of Concrete Pipes with Pre-Existing Cracks
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041545 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Concrete pipes are the most widely used municipal drainage pipes in China. When concrete pipes fall into years of disrepair, numerous problems appear. As one of the most common problems of concrete pipes, cracks impact on the deterioration of mechanical properties of pipes, [...] Read more.
Concrete pipes are the most widely used municipal drainage pipes in China. When concrete pipes fall into years of disrepair, numerous problems appear. As one of the most common problems of concrete pipes, cracks impact on the deterioration of mechanical properties of pipes, which cannot be ignored. In the current work, normal concrete pipes and those with pre-existing cracks are tested on a full scale under an external compressive load. The effects of the length, depth, and location of cracks on the bearing capacity and mechanical properties of the concrete pipes are quantitatively analyzed. Based on the full-scale tests, three-dimensional finite element models of normal and cracked concrete pipes are developed, and the measured results are compared with the data of the finite element analysis. It is clear that the test measurements are in good agreement with the simulation results; the bearing capacity of a concrete pipe is inversely proportional to the length and depth of the crack, and the maximum circumferential strain of the pipe occurs at the location of the crack. The strain of the concrete pipe also reveals three stages of elasticity, plasticity, and failure as the external load rises. Finally, when the load series reaches the limit of the failure load of the concrete pipe with pre-existing cracks, the pipe breaks along the crack position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Structural Topology Design Optimization Using the Binary Bat Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041481 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
In this study, the binary bat algorithm (BBA) for structural topology optimization is implemented. The problem is to find the stiffest structure using a certain amount of material and some constraints using the bit-array representation method. A new filtering algorithm is proposed to [...] Read more.
In this study, the binary bat algorithm (BBA) for structural topology optimization is implemented. The problem is to find the stiffest structure using a certain amount of material and some constraints using the bit-array representation method. A new filtering algorithm is proposed to make BBA find designs with no separated objects, no checkerboard patterns, less unusable material, and higher structural performance. A volition penalty function for topology optimization is also proposed to accelerate the convergence toward the optimal design. The main effect of using the BBA lies in the fact that the BBA is able to handle a large number of design variables in comparison with other well-known metaheuristic algorithms. Based on the numerical results of four benchmark problems in structural topology optimization for minimum compliance, the following conclusions are made: (1) The BBA with the proposed filtering algorithm and penalty function are effective in solving large-scale numerical topology optimization problems (fine finite elements mesh). (2) The proposed algorithm produces solid-void designs without gray areas, which makes them practical solutions that are applicable in manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Hybrid Simulation of Seismic Responses of a Typical Station with a Reinforced Concrete Column
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041331 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
During the 1995 Kobe earthquake, damages were observed in the Daikai subway station and adjacent tunnels. It was the first large-scale underground structure that failed under the earthquake excitation. Numerical and experimental analyses have been conducted to study the failure process of the [...] Read more.
During the 1995 Kobe earthquake, damages were observed in the Daikai subway station and adjacent tunnels. It was the first large-scale underground structure that failed under the earthquake excitation. Numerical and experimental analyses have been conducted to study the failure process of the Daikai station. However, the issue of the scale ratio still exists in the shaking table tests of underground structures. In order to tackle this issue, a hybrid simulation technique is developed here to study the seismic performance of a typical subway station. Based on the previous research, it is found that the central column is the critical component of the structure. Therefore, a reinforced concrete central column is physically tested in the hybrid simulation process. On the other hand, the remaining parts of the structure and soil domain are numerically modeled at the same time. Four hybrid simulation cases are conducted with peak ground accelerations of 0.01 g, 0.1 g, 0.22 g, and 0.58 g. The test results of displacement and shear force are compared with the analytical results. Moreover, the good agreement between the test results and numerical results validate the accuracy of the proposed hybrid test method. After the hybrid simulation process, a quasi-static test is conducted to illustrate the mechanical properties of the central column after the earthquake excitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Cyclic Behavior of Anchored Blind-Bolted Extended End-Plate Joints to CFST Columns
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030904 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
As the square steel tube in the tension zone is always the weakest part of moment-resisting joints, modified blind bolts (Hollo-Bolts) and a locally strengthened steel tube in the panel zone were adopted to enhance the joint performance. Cyclic loading tests were carried [...] Read more.
As the square steel tube in the tension zone is always the weakest part of moment-resisting joints, modified blind bolts (Hollo-Bolts) and a locally strengthened steel tube in the panel zone were adopted to enhance the joint performance. Cyclic loading tests were carried out on eight anchored blind-bolted extended end-plate joints between square concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel beams. The test parameters included the end-plate thickness, steel tube wall thickness, beam section size, local strengthening connection method, blind bolt anchorage method, and stiffeners. The failure mode, hysteretic behavior, stiffness, strength, ductility, strength degradation, stiffness degradation, and energy dissipation capacity of the joints were studied and analyzed. The test results showed that the application of anchored blind bolts and a locally strengthened steel tube can fully utilize the bolt strength and significantly improve the joint performance, especially in terms of strength and strength degradation. The test observations revealed three typical failure modes for the joints, and the failure mode depended on the weakest component. In addition, the local reinforcement of C-channel and change in the anchorage method had a limited effect on the initial stiffness. Greater end-plate thickness and the use of stiffeners significantly increased the joint stiffness and decreased the rate of stiffness degradation. The use of stiffeners also significantly enhanced the ductility and energy dissipation by moving plastic hinge outward from the joints. Finally, finite element analysis (FEA) models were developed and validated against the experimental results, and the stress distribution and force transfer pattern were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Analysis of the Cause and Mechanism of Hydraulic Gate Vibration during Flood Discharging from the Perspective of Structural Dynamics
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020629 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
According to the results of a dynamic prototype test for the surface outlet radial gate on the Jinping high arch dam during the flood discharging process, a novel cause of vibration fundamentally different from the traditional causes of flow-induced radial gate vibration, is [...] Read more.
According to the results of a dynamic prototype test for the surface outlet radial gate on the Jinping high arch dam during the flood discharging process, a novel cause of vibration fundamentally different from the traditional causes of flow-induced radial gate vibration, is analyzed for the first time. Under the condition that the flood is discharged only from mid-level outlets, an accompanying vibration of the surface outlet gate is induced by the vibration of the closely spaced mid-level outlet gates. It is counterintuitive that the most intense vibration occurs when the surface outlet gate is closed and, on the contrary, the vibration is reduced when the gate is opened and subjected to flow excitation. In order to analyze and explain this accompanying vibration phenomenon, a theoretical model is developed based on the conventional theory of passive vibration absorbers. The difference between the proposed and conventional theoretical models is that more complex load and damping conditions are considered, and more attention was paid to the dynamic behavior of the accessory structure. Then, the cause and mechanism for the surface outlet gate vibration is clarified in detail, based on the proposed theoretical model. The comprehensive analysis and mutual verification of the prototype test, theoretical derivation and numerical simulation, indicate that the clarification and the proposed theoretical model is reasonable and accurate. The research reported in this paper will be beneficial for the design, operation and maintenance of the hydraulic gates installed on high arch dams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Climate Change: Impacts on Climatic Actions and Structural Reliability
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5416; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245416 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Climatic loads on structures are commonly defined under the assumption of stationary climate conditions; but, as confirmed by recent studies, they can significantly vary because of climate change effects, with relevant impacts not only for the design of new structures but also for [...] Read more.
Climatic loads on structures are commonly defined under the assumption of stationary climate conditions; but, as confirmed by recent studies, they can significantly vary because of climate change effects, with relevant impacts not only for the design of new structures but also for the assessment of the existing ones. In this paper, a general methodology to evaluate the influence of climate change on climatic actions is presented, based on the analysis of observed data series and climate projections. Illustrative results in terms of changes in characteristic values of temperature, precipitation, snow, and wind loads are discussed for Italy and Germany, with reference to different climate models and radiative forcing scenarios. In this way, guidance for potential amendments in the current definition of climatic actions in structural codes is provided. Finally, the influence of climate change on the long-term structural reliability is estimated for a specific case study, showing the potential of the proposed methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Probabilistic Models for Vehicle Interactions in Fatigue Assessment of Bridges
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5338; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245338 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Fatigue assessments of bridges depend on vehicle interactions, occurring when several vehicles travel simultaneously on the bridge or when two individual stress histories, caused by vehicles traveling in different times, generate a more damaging combined stress history. When interactions are significant, stress histories [...] Read more.
Fatigue assessments of bridges depend on vehicle interactions, occurring when several vehicles travel simultaneously on the bridge or when two individual stress histories, caused by vehicles traveling in different times, generate a more damaging combined stress history. When interactions are significant, stress histories cannot be directly determined using conventional fatigue load models provided in Codes, unless suitable theoretical models for vehicle interactions are available. In the paper, original approaches are proposed to study different aspects of the problem. Concerning interactions due to simultaneity, the novelty is to consider the bridge a service system. Since the process of vehicle arrivals is a Markov process, vehicle interactions can be studied in the framework of the queuing theory. In this way, in the appropriate context, interacting vehicles are equivalent to queued requests (vehicles) in the service system. The method considers two subcases, to be tackled in the given sequence, so that the solution is noticeably simplified. The first subcase refers to vehicles traveling simultaneously in one lane; the second subcase to vehicle and vehicle convoys traveling simultaneously on two or more lanes. In the first subcase the problem is solved considering each lane as a single channel system with a waiting queue, where the number of vehicles in the queue and the waiting time, depending on the number of vehicles in the queue, are limited. A modified vehicle flow on each bridge lane is thus obtained, composed by vehicles and vehicle convoys separately traveling the lane, which is, if relevant, the input for the second subcase. In the second subcase the multilane bridge is modeled as a multichannel system without the waiting queue. When the number of requests exceeds the number of channels, r , the surplus is lost and cannot reenter the system. The results regarding simultaneity are much more relevant than it appears at the first sight: Two relevant examples demonstrated that they can be fruitfully used to implement optimized Monte Carlo algorithms for artificial traffic generation, as well for adaptation of traffic measurements, when flows are modified. Finally, a “non-interacting traffic flow” is obtained, whose elements (vehicle, vehicle convoy, cluster of vehicles) travel individually on the bridge. The global stress history results thus a mere random assembly of the stress histories induced by each element of the non-interacting traffic flow. These stress histories can only combine, as simultaneity interactions are excluded for them. Combination of stress histories is a complex issue, especially when, as in the Eurocodes, fatigue load models are composed by a set of standardized lorries. In fact, questions concerning: Conditions for the combination; stress history which can combine; expected number of occurrences of combined stress histories and of the remaining individual ones; are still open. Really, they can be tackled resorting to sophisticated and time-consuming simulations based on Monte Carlo methods, but elementary solutions have not been proposed so far. The original method proposed here, whose practical application is illustrated referring to an important case study, allows to solve the problem providing simple recursive formulae. Finally, two relevant examples illustrate, with specific reference to the Eurocodes, some important implications of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Article
Stepped Spillways and Energy Dissipation: A Non-Uniform Step Length Approach
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5071; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235071 - 24 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
A stepped spillway, which is defined as a spillway with steps on the chute, can be used to improve the energy dissipation of descending water. Although uniform stepped spillways have been studied comprehensively, non-uniform stepped spillways need more attention. In the interest of [...] Read more.
A stepped spillway, which is defined as a spillway with steps on the chute, can be used to improve the energy dissipation of descending water. Although uniform stepped spillways have been studied comprehensively, non-uniform stepped spillways need more attention. In the interest of maximum energy dissipation, in this study, non-uniform stepped spillways were investigated numerically. To this end, within the range of skimming flow, four different types of non-uniform step lengths, including convex, concave, random, and semi-uniform configurations, were tested in InterFOAM. To evaluate the influence of non-uniform step lengths on energy dissipation, the height and number of steps in all models were fixed and equal to a constant number. The results indicated that in semi-uniform stepped spillways, when the ratio between the lengths of the successive steps is 1:3, a vortex interference region occurs within the two adjacent cavities of the entire stepped chute, and as a result, the energy dissipation increases by up to 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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Review

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Review
Non-Uniform Temperature Fields and Effects of Steel Structures: Review and Outlook
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5255; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155255 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Due to the dynamic coupling effects of solar radiation, longwave radiation, convective heat transfer, shadows, and other factors, the temperature field and effect of steel structures are significantly non-uniform, differing from traditional concepts that regard the temperature variation of steel structures as a [...] Read more.
Due to the dynamic coupling effects of solar radiation, longwave radiation, convective heat transfer, shadows, and other factors, the temperature field and effect of steel structures are significantly non-uniform, differing from traditional concepts that regard the temperature variation of steel structures as a slow and uniform progress. This difference can hinder the correct understanding of the thermal behavior of steel structures and ignore some potential safety hazards. This paper provides a review of the studies for the non-uniform temperature field and effect of steel structures, and presents some outlooks on future developments on the basis of the current research situation. A summary of research on the temperature field and effect of space structures, bridges and radio telescopes initially establishes the basic cognitive framework for this field. In addition, then, the basic principles of the numerical simulation of temperature fields are introduced through heat transfer mechanism, and the experimental test methods of temperature and its effects are described based on typical test cases. Finally, with a view to the future, some suggestions and opinions are provided in consideration of deficiencies in the current research status. This paper hopes to provide some valuable references for future research in this field through research summary, method introduction and outlook. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Structural Engineering)
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