Special Issue "Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jaroslaw Zmudzki
Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical Technological Faculty, Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Interests: Biomaterials and manufacturing technology; efficacy of dental solutions; load distribution in dentures; reinforcement; dental composites; implant and abutment screw failure; friction forces; lubrication and wear of materials; teeth and mucous membrane; soft tissue pressure pain threshold; oral appliances; hard and soft tissue behavior; mandible and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) biomechanics; bruxism and occlusion dysfunction treatment; TMJ replacement; maxillofacial surgery virtual planning; bone fixation and prosthesis design; simulation in orthognathic surgery; bone and teeth fracture and sport mouthguards.
• The behavior of soft mucous membrane, periodontal ligaments, and temporomandibular joint discs.
• Mandible and maxillae biomechanics in the correct conditions and during dysfunctions, deformities and defect replacement.
• Friction and wear of appliances and tissues.
• Bone and teeth fracture analysis and treatment.
• Optical investigations in esthetics evaluation.

Special Issue Information

Simulation and experimental research in dentistry assess clinical solutions in unequivocal and comparable conditions.

In dentistry we ask the following questions:

  • Is it safe?
  • Is it better than others?
  • Is it worth trying out?

Comparable conditions can be created in a computer simulation (finite element analysis – FEA), a physical in vitro experiment, but also in the oral cavity. Areas of interest for this Special Issue include the following:

  • The influence of given manufacturing technologies, installation techniques, and exploitation in bulk and surface properties of materials and efficacy of dental solutions.
  • Mechanical and thermal load distribution in dentures, implants, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, as well as the answer of bone tissue, dentine, and enamel.
  • The behavior of soft mucous membrane, periodontal ligaments, and temporomandibular joint discs.
  • Mandible and maxillae biomechanics in the correct conditions and during dysfunctions, deformities and defect replacement.
  • Friction and wear of appliances and tissues.
  • Bone and teeth fracture analysis and treatment.
  • Optical investigations in esthetics evaluation.

Dr. Jaroslaw Zmudzki
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  1. Dental materials,
  2. Mandible biomechanics,
  3. Denture strength,
  4. Finite element analysis (FEA),
  5. Implant failure
  6. Teeth wear
  7. Jawbone fracture fixation
  8. Maxillofacial surgery planning
  9. Prosthetic crown and bridge design
  10. Temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) force

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Functional Evaluation of a Novel Multi-Axial Alveolar Distractor—Preliminary In Vivo Animal Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041898 - 22 Feb 2021
Abstract
This study evaluates the biomechanical performance of a new multi-axial alveolar distractor using an animal study. The multi-axial alveolar distractor is designed with a ball and socket joint mechanism that can rotate up to 60° toward the buccal/lingual and mesial/distal sides intra-operatively to [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the biomechanical performance of a new multi-axial alveolar distractor using an animal study. The multi-axial alveolar distractor is designed with a ball and socket joint mechanism that can rotate up to 60° toward the buccal/lingual and mesial/distal sides intra-operatively to achieve vector control. The transport segment can be moved through activating the transport screw with 0.25 pitch, allowing 13 mm in distraction height. This distractor was fixed at the right angulus mandibular of experimental rabbits and adjusted 15° toward the mesial side and 25° toward the buccal side as Group TMB (toward mesial-buccal) (n = 3), and 15° toward the mesial side as Group TM (toward mesial) (n = 3). Group TC (control) was the control group. The distractors were activated 1 mm/day for 13 days. Living bone growth was observed at various periods. The total bone growth length at the angulus region and buccal side distraction thickness after distraction were calculated. The variations in bone growth geometric shape at the mandible angulus were also recorded. Fracture testing was performed to understand the variations in the mechanical strength between the distracted and intact bone specimens. The digital radiography results showed that the osteotomy areas at the mandible angulus were healed and the bone growth completed after surgery. The average bone growth length of Group TMB was 17.68 mm. This was greater than that of Group TM at 14.79 mm. The corresponding buccal side distractor thicknesses for Group TMB and TM after distraction were 5.12 ± 0.52 mm and 3.32 ± 0.37 mm, respectively. The tensile strengths of the bone specimens after distraction of Groups TMB, TM and TC were 172.13 N, 119.27 N and 304.24 N, respectively, and the percentage of distraction bone tensile strength to normal bone was 57% and 39% for Groups TMB and TM, respectively. This study concluded that this new multi-axial alveolar bone distractor can drive bones to grow in accordance with the direction/angle of the distraction plan. The bone growth healed gradually and presented insufficient mechanical strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Digital Technique to Analyze the Influence of the Operator Experience on the Accuracy of the Orthodontic Micro-Screws Placement
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010400 - 04 Jan 2021
Abstract
To analyze the influence of the operator experience on the accuracy of orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws placement, a total of 60 orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws were randomly distributed into two study groups: Group A. Orthodontic micro-screws placement by an orthodontist with 10 years of experience [...] Read more.
To analyze the influence of the operator experience on the accuracy of orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws placement, a total of 60 orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws were randomly distributed into two study groups: Group A. Orthodontic micro-screws placement by an orthodontist with 10 years of experience (n = 30); and B. Orthodontic micro-screws placement by an orthodontist student without experience (n = 30). Cone-beam computed tomography scans and intraoral scans were performed before and after the orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws placement and uploaded in 3D implant-planning software to analyze the deviation angle and the horizontal deviation measured at the coronal entry point and apical endpoint between orthodontic micro-screws planned and performed. In addition, intraoperative complications such as root perforations after orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws placement and fracture of the orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws during their placement were also analyzed. The paired t-test revealed statistically significant differences at the apical endpoint (p = 0.004) of planned and performed orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws between the orthodontist with 10 years of experience and the orthodontist student without experience. However, the paired t-test revealed no statistically significant differences at the coronal entry point (p = 0.220) and angular deviations (p = 0.602) of planned and performed orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws between the orthodontist with 10 years of experience and the orthodontic student without experience. Furthermore, five root perforations were observed in the no experience study group and three orthodontic self-tapping micro-screws were fractured in each study group. In conclusion, the results show that the greater experience of the operator influences the accuracy of orthodontic micro-screws placement, resulting in less intraoperative complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Full Digital Workflow to Design and Mill a Splint for a Patient with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010372 - 02 Jan 2021
Abstract
In the rehabilitation of a patient with loss of vertical dimension, repositioning of the condyle may be crucial to avoid loading on the retrodiscal area of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). However, establishing a new position of the condyle within the glenoid cavity is [...] Read more.
In the rehabilitation of a patient with loss of vertical dimension, repositioning of the condyle may be crucial to avoid loading on the retrodiscal area of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). However, establishing a new position of the condyle within the glenoid cavity is not a simple procedure, and several indications exist in the literature. Digital techniques and 3D visualization using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can help. In this clinical case, the procedure for the repositioning of the condyle is described on the basis of the restoration of the normal widths of the intra-articular spaces using a recently introduced software (Avantis3D). After the end of the rehabilitation with the splint, a second examination confirmed the accuracy of the repositioning with this full digital procedure which represents, in selected cases, a useful choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Application of Computer-Based 3D Simulation on Acquisition of Knowledge of Guidance of Mandibular Movement
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010060 - 23 Dec 2020
Abstract
Recently, computer-aided three-dimensional (3D) simulation has expanded to modern education. This study aims to investigate the effects of 3D computer simulation on the learning and self-assessment of the guidance of the mandibular movement. Sixty second-grade dental students were randomly distributed into three groups [...] Read more.
Recently, computer-aided three-dimensional (3D) simulation has expanded to modern education. This study aims to investigate the effects of 3D computer simulation on the learning and self-assessment of the guidance of the mandibular movement. Sixty second-grade dental students were randomly distributed into three groups in an occlusion class. Various teaching protocols were used for each group. Students in the first group (lecture (L)) were taught exclusively through a textbook and two-dimensional illustrations. The conventional lecture method followed by computer-aided 3D simulation was applied to the second group (lecture-to-simulation (LtS)). Lastly, students in the third group (lecture with simulation (LwS)) were simultaneously taught using the conventional lecture and computer-aided 3D simulation methods. After teaching each group, a paper-based examination was conducted; actual and expected scores were obtained on the same day as the occlusal class. Analyses of variance with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis were used to compare the teaching protocols, whereas the independent t test was used for comparing between actual and expected scores (α = 0.05). The LwS group exhibited significantly higher actual and student-expected scores than the L and LtS groups (p < 0.001). The expected score was significantly lower than the actual score in the L group (p = 0.035). However, in the LtS and LwS groups, no statistical difference was observed between expected (p = 0.114) and actual (p = 0.685) scores. The distribution of actual scores in the grading systems indicated higher percentages of excellent (grade A) and good (grade B) scores in the LwS (96.7%) and LtS (79.7%) groups, respectively, than in the L group (53.4%). Using computer-aided 3D simulation to teach the guidance of mandibular movement improved the learning outcomes and self-assessment of students, especially when 3D simulation was combined with conventional lecturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Challenging the Resin-Zirconia Interface by Thermal Cycling or Mechanical Load Cycling or Their Combinations
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7352; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207352 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of mechanical load cycling (MLC), which simulated mastication, alone or combined with thermal cycling (TC), on the resin shear bond strength (SBS) to zirconia. Two resin cements (Panavia F2.0 and RelyX [...] Read more.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of mechanical load cycling (MLC), which simulated mastication, alone or combined with thermal cycling (TC), on the resin shear bond strength (SBS) to zirconia. Two resin cements (Panavia F2.0 and RelyX U200) were bonded (bonding area: 2.38 mm) to air-abraded zirconia (Everest ZS-Ronde). The specimens were subjected to SBS test before and after TC (5000 cycles), MLC (5000 cycles in 37 °C water), TC/MLC, or MLC/TC aging (n = 15). Before SBS test, the mechanical and physical properties of the two resin cements were studied (n = 5). For both resins, unlike TC (p > 0.05), the three MLC-containing aging conditions significantly decreased the SBS values when compared to the non-aged condition (p < 0.05). In the case of MLC-only aging, RelyX U200, with significantly higher hydrophobicity (p = 0.004), showed a significantly higher SBS value than Panavia F2.0 (p = 0.035). The MLC aging-containing groups showed increased occurrence of mixed failure. The application of MLC combined with TC may more closely simulate intraoral conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of the Smear Layer Removal Capability between EndoVac and Endoactivator Endodontic Irrigation Systems at the Root Canal System and Isthmus: A Micro-Computed Tomography Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7033; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207033 - 10 Oct 2020
Abstract
The aim of this comparative study is to analyze the efficacy of EndoVac and Endoactivator endodontic irrigation systems for removing the endodontic smear layer present in the coronal, middle, and apical root third of the root canal system (RCS) and the isthmus from [...] Read more.
The aim of this comparative study is to analyze the efficacy of EndoVac and Endoactivator endodontic irrigation systems for removing the endodontic smear layer present in the coronal, middle, and apical root third of the root canal system (RCS) and the isthmus from mesial roots from the first lower molar teeth using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The study was performed on 40 mesial roots that were randomly assigned to the following groups: Group A, EndoVac endodontic irrigation system (EV) (n = 10); Group B, Endoactivator endodontic irrigation system (EA) (n = 10); Group C, Root canal systems performed with F2 ProTaper Gold endodontic rotary system but not irrigated (Positive control) (n = 10); Group D, Root canal systems not performed or irrigated (Negative control) (n = 10). The samples were exposed to micro-CT analysis and the mesial roots were segmented using an advanced image segmentation technique based on partial differential equations (ROI: 10 × 10 × 10 mm) and the root canal systems and isthmus were reconstructed at a resolution of 25 microns per voxel. The EA study group showed statistically significant different residual endodontic smear layer volume (0.48 ± 0.24 mm3) compared to the EV study group (0.18 ± 0.15 mm3) (p = 0.016). The EV endodontic irrigation system performed a higher smear layer removal at coronal and middle root thirds, compared to the EA endodontic irrigation system; however, the EA endodontic irrigation system performed a higher smear layer removal at the apical root third, compared to the EV endodontic irrigation system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Effects of MicroRepair®BIOMA-Based Toothpaste and Chewing Gum on Orthodontic Elastics Contaminated In Vitro with Saliva from Healthy Donors: A Pilot Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6721; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196721 - 25 Sep 2020
Abstract
Several new products with innovative formulations are being proposed to facilitate oral care. Here, we evaluated the effects of a commercially available product, a toothpaste and chewing gum named Biorepair Peribioma, on oral microorganisms of healthy subjects. Saliva from six volunteers was collected [...] Read more.
Several new products with innovative formulations are being proposed to facilitate oral care. Here, we evaluated the effects of a commercially available product, a toothpaste and chewing gum named Biorepair Peribioma, on oral microorganisms of healthy subjects. Saliva from six volunteers was collected during 20 min of mastication of a traditional gum (gum A) and the Biorepair Peribioma gum (gum P). Orthodontic elastics (OE) were in vitro contaminated with salivary samples, both A and P, and subsequently exposed or not to a Biorepair Peribioma toothpaste-conditioned supernatant (Tp-SUP). The salivary samples were tested for initial microbial load; hence, the contaminated OE were assessed for microbial growth, adhesion, biofilm formation and persistence; moreover, species identification was assessed. We found that the salivary samples A and P had similar microbial load; upon contamination, microbial adhesion onto the OE was detected to a lower extent when using saliva P with respect to saliva A. Microbial growth and biofilm formation, assessed at 24 h, remained at lower levels in OE exposed to saliva P, compared to saliva A. This difference between salivary samples A and P was confirmed when measuring biofilm persistence (48 h), while it was lost in terms of microbial re-growth (48 h). The Tp-SUP treatment drastically affected microbial load at 24 h and strongly impaired biofilm formation/persistence, in OE exposed to both salivary samples A and P. Finally, such treatment resulted in consistent overgrowth of Lactobacilli, bacterial species originally present both in the Biorepair Peribioma toothpaste and gum. In conclusion, by an in vitro pilot study, we show that the Biorepair Peribioma toothpaste and gum deeply affect oral microorganisms’ behavior, drastically impairing their ability to contaminate and produce plaque onto orthodontic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Rubber Dam Isolation and High-Volume Suction Reduce Ultrafine Dental Aerosol Particles: An Experiment in a Simulated Patient
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6345; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186345 - 11 Sep 2020
Abstract
The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered the paralysis of dental services ascribed to the potential spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2. Aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) are common in dentistry, which in turn increase the risk of infection of the dental [...] Read more.
The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered the paralysis of dental services ascribed to the potential spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2. Aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) are common in dentistry, which in turn increase the risk of infection of the dental personnel due to the salivary presence of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients. The use of rubber dam isolation (RDI) and high-volume evacuators (HVE) during AGPs is recommended to control dental aerosols, but the evidence about their effectiveness is scarce. This first study aimed to compare, in a simulated patient, the effectiveness of the following strategies: standard suction (SS), RDI and RDI + HVE. Using the laser diffraction technique, the effect of each condition on the volume distribution, average size and concentration of coarse (PM10), fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) particles were evaluated. During the teeth drilling, the highest volume fraction of dental aerosol particles with SS was below 1 μm of aerodynamic diameter. Additionally, the RDI + HVE significantly reduced both the ultrafine dental aerosol particles and the concentration of total particulate matter. AGPs represent a potential risk for airborne infections in dentistry. Taken together, these preliminary results suggest that isolation and high-volume suction are effective to reduce ultrafine dental aerosol particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Computer-Based 3D Simulation Method in Dental Occlusion Education: Student Response and Learning Effect
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6073; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176073 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Occlusion is a fundamental subject in dental education, and occlusal adjustment is clinically essential in daily dental practices. This study aimed to assess the effects of computer-based 3D simulations on learner responses and learning effect on the principles of occlusal adjustment in undergraduate [...] Read more.
Occlusion is a fundamental subject in dental education, and occlusal adjustment is clinically essential in daily dental practices. This study aimed to assess the effects of computer-based 3D simulations on learner responses and learning effect on the principles of occlusal adjustment in undergraduate dental students in comparison with the traditional approach. Two teaching methods, i.e., paper-based 2D presentation and computer-based 3D simulation, were used for teaching the occlusal adjustment concepts. Sixty dental students were divided into two groups using a pair-matching randomization method. In the 2D presentation group, a textbook with 2D illustrations was used. 3D graphic dental models and computer design software were applied in the 3D simulation group. After the course, an attitudinal survey and examination were conducted to evaluate the participants’ feedback and the learning effects resulting from the teaching methods. The independent t test was used to compare the test scores between groups (with α = 0.5). Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to investigate the agreement between the survey data and test scores. Most of the students’ feedback indicated that the 3D simulation method would be effective in acquiring knowledge on occlusion and jaw movement. The examination scores were significantly higher in the 3D simulation group compared with those in the 2D presentation group in the questions for centric relation (P = 0.034). Conversely, the scores were insignificant in the questions for eccentric relation (P = 0.403). There was no correlation observed between the survey data and the actual examination score. Computer-based 3D simulation could increase the participants’ expectations and learning effects in dental occlusion education. Further studies in diversified learning environments are required on the efficacy of digital educational modality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Health Care Costs by Dental Health Care Costs and Periodontal Status
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3140; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093140 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Reducing heath care costs is an important issue in Japan. The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of oral health to health care costs and to predict health care costs by statistical modeling. Data from 46 individuals (29 men and [...] Read more.
Reducing heath care costs is an important issue in Japan. The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of oral health to health care costs and to predict health care costs by statistical modeling. Data from 46 individuals (29 men and 17 women; mean age of 44.6 ± 1.7 years) on health care costs, dental health care costs, and the results of the salivary levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) over two years were provided by the association. Multilayer perceptron neural networks were applied to predict the health care costs from data from the previous year and included health care costs, dental health care costs, and salivary levels of LD. Nonlinear relationships were observed between medical health care costs, dental health care costs, and periodontal conditions. The health care costs from the previous year were the most important predictor of health care costs. The simulation results showed that health care costs decreased with the increase in dental health care costs from the previous year. Health care costs increased with increasing salivary levels of LD from the previous year. Improvements in periodontal conditions and dental health care may play some roles in reducing health care costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Biomechanical Evaluation of Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Fixation Techniques in Mandibular Setback
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093031 - 26 Apr 2020
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical behavior of internal fixation techniques in bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomies (BSSROs) for mandibular setback. Artificial polyurethane mandibles were used in this study. The distal segment of the mandible was repositioned [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical behavior of internal fixation techniques in bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomies (BSSROs) for mandibular setback. Artificial polyurethane mandibles were used in this study. The distal segment of the mandible was repositioned in an 8-mm setback position. All mandibles were divided into three groups: Group 1 had a straight plate with a four-hole monocortical fixation, Group 2 had a curved plate with a four-hole monocortical fixation, and Group 3 had a three–inverted L-type bicortical screw fixation. Vertical loads were applied on the incisal edge by a material testing system. The resistance force at 1, 3, 5, and 10 mm of displacement was analyzed. From the experimental results, Group 1 showed significantly lower results than Groups 2 and 3. No significant difference was observed between Groups 2 and 3 at 1, 3, and 5 mm of displacement. However, at 10 mm of displacement, the resistance force of Group 3 was greater than that of Group 2. For BSSROs, this study concluded that curved plate fixation exhibited the same rigidity as the inverted-L bicortical screw fixation did at ≤5 mm displacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Mandible Integrity and Material Properties of the Periodontal Ligament during Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Finite-Element Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082980 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
We used the finite-element method (FEM) to investigate the effects of jawbone model integrity and the material properties of the periodontal ligament (PDL) on orthodontic tooth movement. Medical imaging software and computer-aided design software were used to create finite-element models of a partial [...] Read more.
We used the finite-element method (FEM) to investigate the effects of jawbone model integrity and the material properties of the periodontal ligament (PDL) on orthodontic tooth movement. Medical imaging software and computer-aided design software were used to create finite-element models of a partial and complete mandibles based on dental cone beam computed tomography images of the human skull. Additionally, we exerted an orthodontic force on the canine crown in the direction of an orthodontic miniscrew under a lower molar root to compare the von Mises strain on the canine PDL in three models: a partial mandible model under orthodontic force (Model 1), a complete mandible model under orthodontic force (Model 2), and a complete mandible model under orthodontic force with clench occlusion in the intercuspal position (ICP; Model 3). Additionally, in the complete mandible model under orthodontic force with ICP occlusion, we analyzed the effects of a PDL with a low (Model 4), moderate (Model 5), and high (Model 6) linear elastic modulus and a PDL a bilinear elastic modulus (Model 7). The simulation results for mandible integrity indicated that the maximum von Mises strains on the canine PDL for Models 1, 2, and 3 were 0.461, 0.394, and 1.811, respectively. Moreover, for the models with different PDL material properties, the maximum von Mises strains on the canine PDLs for Models 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 6.047, 2.594, 0.887, and 1.811, respectively. When the FEM was used to evaluate tooth movement caused by orthodontic force, the transformation of a complete mandible model into a partial mandible model or alteration of the elastic modulus of the PDL influenced the biomechanical responses of the PDL. Additionally, the incorporation of daily ICP occlusion resulted in a larger effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Concentration in Saliva and Antibacterial Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum: In Vivo and In Vitro Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2900; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082900 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Purpose. The saliva concentration of xylitol released from two chewing gums was recorded, the first containing xylitol as the only sweetener (100% xylitol) and the second containing only 22% of the polyol. In addition, the in vitro antibacterial effect of the two [...] Read more.
Purpose. The saliva concentration of xylitol released from two chewing gums was recorded, the first containing xylitol as the only sweetener (100% xylitol) and the second containing only 22% of the polyol. In addition, the in vitro antibacterial effect of the two chewing gums was evaluated. Materials and Methods. The salivary concentration of Xylitol in 32 subjects was determined before and at 0.30, 1.00, 2.00, 5.00, and 10.00 min while using the chewing gums, and at 15.00, 20.00, and 25.00 min after the gums were discarded. In vitro antibacterial activity was determined on a pooled subgingival plaque sample obtained from four patients with periodontal disease. Cariogenic and periodontal bacteria were evaluated before and 15 min, 60 min, and 24 h after gum contact. Results. Using the 100% xylitol chewing gum, saliva levels increased bimodally, one peak after 30 s (1.49 ± 1.41 logμg/L) and a second one at a 10-min evaluation (1.41 ± 1.11 logμg/L); the 22% chewing gum peaked only two minute after contact (1.21 ± 1.24 logμg/L). Overall, a statistically significantly higher salivary concentration of xylitol was detected using the 100% xylitol gum. All bacteria decreased after the addition of the two chewing gums; the 100% gum achieved a greater decrease than the 22% gum. Conclusion. The use of both chewing gums increased the concentrations of xylitol in saliva, with a statistically significantly higher concentration using the 100% xylitol gum. Cariogenic and periodontal bacteria were reduced by both chewing gums; 100% xylitol gum produced the highest and longest lasting effect. This study opens up to the use of xylitol against periodontal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Occlusal Thickness and Radicular Extension on the Fracture Resistance of Premolar Endocrowns from Different All-Ceramic Materials
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2696; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082696 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Endocrowns are primarily recommended in a molar region with a standardized preparation design. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different occlusal preparation depths, pulp chamber-radicular extension, and all-ceramic materials on the fracture resistance of premolar endocrowns. Ninety human [...] Read more.
Endocrowns are primarily recommended in a molar region with a standardized preparation design. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different occlusal preparation depths, pulp chamber-radicular extension, and all-ceramic materials on the fracture resistance of premolar endocrowns. Ninety human premolar teeth were root canal treated, randomly divided into three main groups according to all-ceramic material used for fabrication as Lithium Disilicate (LD) ceramic, Polymer infiltrated ceramic (PIC) and High translucency zirconia (HTZ). They were further subdivided into three subgroups (n = 10) according to preparation design of 2 mm occlusal reduction, 4.5 mm occlusal reduction and 4.5 mm occlusal reduction with 2 mm radicular extension. The endocrowns from respective restorative materials were fabricated, surface conditioned, and cemented with self-adhesive resin cement. All samples were thermocycled for 5000 cycles and subjected to compressive static load at 45° angluation with the cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute until the fracture. The mean fracture resistance of LD ceramic at 2 mm, 4.5 mm thickness and radicular extension was 62.55 MPa, 45.80 MPa, 74.27 MPa respectively. The corresponding values for the PIC and HTZ ceramics were 26.30 MPa, 21.65 MPa, 25.66 Mpa and 23.47 MPa, 27.30 MPa, 37.29 MPa respectively. The LD ceramic and greater extension inside the pulp chamber had higher fracture resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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Open AccessCase Report
Virtual Reality Simulation and Augmented Reality-Guided Surgery for Total Maxillectomy: A Case Report
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6288; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186288 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the improvement in computer graphics and sensors, technologies like virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have created new possibilities for developing diagnostic and surgical techniques in the field of surgery. VR and AR are the latest technological modalities that have been [...] Read more.
With the improvement in computer graphics and sensors, technologies like virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have created new possibilities for developing diagnostic and surgical techniques in the field of surgery. VR and AR are the latest technological modalities that have been integrated into clinical practice and medical education, and are rapidly emerging as powerful tools in the field of maxillofacial surgery. In this report, we describe a case of total maxillectomy and orbital floor reconstruction in a patient with malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the maxilla, with preoperative planning via VR simulation and AR-guided surgery. Future developments in VR and AR technologies will increase their utility and effectiveness in the field of surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Simulation and Experiment Research in Dentistry)
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