Special Issue "Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (23 November 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mark King
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Professor of Sports Biomechanics, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: sports biomechanics; racket sports; cricket

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Computer simulation modelling in sport gives researchers and coaches alike an understanding of the mechanics behind sports movements that is not possible with traditional experimental methodologies. Over the last 20 or so years, we have seen computer models in sport develop from very simple models with only a few degrees of freedom to far more complex multibody models to cover a broad range of activities and give the scientific and sports community an insight that was not previously possible. This Special Issue welcomes papers from the computer simulation community with a focus on either understanding/optimising performance or reducing injuries in sport.

Prof. Dr. Mark King
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Relationships between Racket Arm Joint Moments and Racket Head Speed during the Badminton Jump Smash Performed by Elite Male Malaysian Players
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020880 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 129
Abstract
Three-dimensional position data of nineteen elite male Malaysian badminton players performing a series of maximal jump smashes were collected using a motion capture system. A ‘resultant moments’ inverse dynamics analysis was performed on the racket arm joints (shoulder, elbow and wrist). Relationships between [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional position data of nineteen elite male Malaysian badminton players performing a series of maximal jump smashes were collected using a motion capture system. A ‘resultant moments’ inverse dynamics analysis was performed on the racket arm joints (shoulder, elbow and wrist). Relationships between racket head speed and peak joint moments were quantified using correlational analyses, inclusive of a Benjamini–Hochberg correction for multiple-hypothesis testing. The racket head centre speed at racket–shuttlecock contact was, on average, 61.2 m/s with a peak of 68.5 m/s which equated to average shuttlecock speeds of 95.2 m/s with a peak of 105.0 m/s. The correlational analysis revealed that a larger shoulder internal rotation moment (r = 0.737), backwards shoulder plane of elevation moment (r = 0.614) and wrist extension moment (r = −0.564) were associated with greater racket head centre speed at racket–shuttlecock contact. Coaches should consider strengthening the musculature associated with shoulder internal rotation, plane of elevation and wrist extension. This work provides a unique analysis of the joint moments of the racket arm during the badminton jump smash performed by an elite population and highlights significant relationships between racket head speed and peak resultant joint moments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Article
Patellar Tendon Force Differs Depending on Jump-Landing Tasks and Estimation Methods
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010488 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 95
Abstract
Patellar tendinopathy is a chronic overuse injury of the patellar tendon which is prevalent in jump-landing activities. Sports activities can require jumping not only with a vertical component but also in a forward direction. It is yet unknown how jumping in the forward [...] Read more.
Patellar tendinopathy is a chronic overuse injury of the patellar tendon which is prevalent in jump-landing activities. Sports activities can require jumping not only with a vertical component but also in a forward direction. It is yet unknown how jumping in the forward direction may affect patellar tendon forces. The main purpose of this study was to compare PTF between landings preceded by a vertical jump and a forward jump in volleyball players. The second purpose was to compare two different estimation methods of the patellar tendon force. Fifteen male volleyball players performed vertical and forward jump-landing tasks at a controlled jump height, while kinetics and kinematics were recorded. Patellar tendon forces were calculated through two estimation methods based on inverse dynamic and static optimization procedures, using a musculoskeletal model. Results showed that forward jump-landing generated higher patellar tendon forces compared to vertical jump-landing for both estimation methods. Surprisingly, although the static optimization method considered muscle co-contraction, the inverse kinematic method provided statistically significant higher patellar tendon force values. These findings highlight that limiting the forward velocity component of the aerial phase appears to reduce the load on the patellar tendon during landing and may help to prevent patellar tendinopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Article
A Novel Approach of Modelling and Predicting Track Cycling Sprint Performance
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 12098; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112412098 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
In cycling, performance models are used to investigate factors that determine performance and to optimise competition results. We present an innovative and easily applicable mathematical model describing time-resolved approaches for both the physical aspects of tractional resistance and the physiological side of propelling [...] Read more.
In cycling, performance models are used to investigate factors that determine performance and to optimise competition results. We present an innovative and easily applicable mathematical model describing time-resolved approaches for both the physical aspects of tractional resistance and the physiological side of propelling force generated by muscular activity and test its validity to reproduce and forecast time trials in track cycling. Six elite track cyclists completed a special preparation and two sprint time trials in an official velodrome under continuous measurement of crank force and cadence. Fatigue-free force-velocity profiles were calculated, and their fatigue-induced changes were determined by non-linear regression analysis using a monoexponential equation at a constant slope. Model parameters were calibrated based on pre-exercise performance testing and the first of the two time-trials and then used to predict the performance of the second sprint. Measured values for power output and cycling velocity were compared to the modelled data. The modelled results were highly correlated to the measured values (R2>0.99) without any difference between runs (p>0.05; d<0.1). Our mathematical model can accurately describe sprint track cycling time trial performance. It is simple enough to be used in practice yet sufficiently accurate to predict highly dynamic maximal sprint performances. It can be employed for the evaluation of completed runs, to forecast expected results with different setups, and to study various contributing factors and quantify their effect on sprint cycling performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Article
Are Torque-Driven Simulation Models of Human Movement Limited by an Assumption of Monoarticularity?
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3852; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093852 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Subject-specific torque-driven computer simulation models employing single-joint torque generators have successfully simulated various sports movements with a key assumption that the maximal torque exerted at a joint is a function of the kinematics of that joint alone. This study investigates the effect on [...] Read more.
Subject-specific torque-driven computer simulation models employing single-joint torque generators have successfully simulated various sports movements with a key assumption that the maximal torque exerted at a joint is a function of the kinematics of that joint alone. This study investigates the effect on model accuracy of single-joint or two-joint torque generator representations within whole-body simulations of squat jumping and countermovement jumping. Two eight-segment forward dynamics subject-specific rigid body models with torque generators at five joints are constructed—the first model includes lower limb torques, calculated solely from single-joint torque generators, and the second model includes two-joint torque generators. Both models are used to produce matched simulations to a squat jump and a countermovement jump by varying activation timings to the torque generators in each model. The two-joint torque generator model of squat and countermovement jumps matched measured jump performances more closely (6% and 10% different, respectively) than the single-joint simulation model (10% and 24% different, respectively). Our results show that the two-joint model performed better for squat jumping and the upward phase of the countermovement jump by more closely matching faster joint velocities and achieving comparable amounts of lower limb joint extension. The submaximal descent phase of the countermovement jump was matched with similar accuracy by the two models (9% difference). In conclusion, a two-joint torque generator representation is likely to be more appropriate for simulating dynamic tasks requiring large joint torques and near-maximal joint velocities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Article
A Simulation of the Effects of Badminton Serve Release Height
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 2903; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11072903 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
In this work, we develop and calibrate a model to represent the trajectory of a badminton shuttlecock and use it to investigate the influence of serve height in view of a new serve rule instated by the Badminton World Federation. The new rule [...] Read more.
In this work, we develop and calibrate a model to represent the trajectory of a badminton shuttlecock and use it to investigate the influence of serve height in view of a new serve rule instated by the Badminton World Federation. The new rule means that all players must launch the shuttlecock below a height of 1.15 m, as opposed to the old rule whereby the required launch height was under the rib cage of the server. The model is based on a forward dynamics model of ballistic trajectory with drag, and it is calibrated with experimental data. The experiments also served to determine the actual influence of the new rule on the shuttlecock launch position. The model is used in a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical influence of the new serve rules on the player’s ability to perform good serves; i.e., serves with little opportunity for the receiver to attack. We conclude that, for the female player in question, serving below a height of 1.15 m makes it marginally more difficult to perform excellent serves. We also conclude that there might be alternative launch positions that would be less likely to produce the best serves but could be exploited as a tactical option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Article
Practical Application of the Whipple and Carvallo Stability Model on Modern Bicycles with Pedal Assistance
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5672; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165672 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Increasingly more people cycle with electrically-powered pedal assistance. The reduced pedalling effort attracts physically challenged people and seniors, who have a higher risk of falling. Since electric bicycles are heavier and the centre of masses are located higher, accidents happen easily. This study [...] Read more.
Increasingly more people cycle with electrically-powered pedal assistance. The reduced pedalling effort attracts physically challenged people and seniors, who have a higher risk of falling. Since electric bicycles are heavier and the centre of masses are located higher, accidents happen easily. This study analyses the influence of the addition of a battery and motor unit on the stability behaviour of common bicycles for women. Based on market research, seven typical bicycle configurations are determined. Geometrics, mass values, and cycling postures are measured, and the theoretical stability behaviour is determined analytically based on the stability model of Whipple and Carvallo. The research shows that bicycles without pedal assistance have a smaller self-stable and semi-stable range than most electric bicycles. The electric bicycle with a motor implemented in the front wheel perform best, as the extra weight of the motor enhances the gyroscopic self-stabilization of the front wheel. Furthermore, a battery in the lower mid-tube is preferred over one in the luggage rack as it lowers the center of mass of the rear frame assembly. Knowledge about the optimal configuration to maximize the stability will enhance the cycling comfort and minimize the chance of accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Article
Biomechanical Evaluation of Initial Stability of a Root Analogue Implant Design with Drilling Protocol: A 3D Finite Element Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4104; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124104 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to biomechanically evaluate the initial stability of a patient-specific root analogue implant (RAI) design with drilling protocol by comparing it to designs without drilling protocol through a 3D finite element analysis (FEA). Methods: A 3D surface [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to biomechanically evaluate the initial stability of a patient-specific root analogue implant (RAI) design with drilling protocol by comparing it to designs without drilling protocol through a 3D finite element analysis (FEA). Methods: A 3D surface model of an RAI for the upper right incisor was constructed. To evaluate the effect of root apex drilling, four modified RAI shapes were designed with the press-fit implantation method: Non-modified, wedge added at root surface, lattice added at root surface, and apex-anchor added at root apex (AA). Each model was subjected to an oblique load of 100 N. To simulate the initial stability of implantation, contact conditions at the implant–bone interface were set to allow for the sliding phenomenon with low friction (frictional coefficient 0.1–0.5). Analysis was performed to evaluate micro-displacements of the implants and peak stress on the surrounding bones. Results: Under all low frictional coefficient conditions, the lowest von Mises stress level on the cortical bone and fewest micro-displacements of the implant were observed in the AA design. Conclusion: In view of these results, the AA design proved superior in reducing the stress concentration on the supporting cortical bone and the micro-displacement of RAI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Article
Developing a Model of Risk Factors of Injury in Track and Field Athletes
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082963 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
This work aimed to develop a model to assess the likelihood of injury in track and field athletes, and to establish which factors have the greatest impact. Tests verifying their significance were also reviewed, as well as the method for selecting variables. The [...] Read more.
This work aimed to develop a model to assess the likelihood of injury in track and field athletes, and to establish which factors have the greatest impact. Tests verifying their significance were also reviewed, as well as the method for selecting variables. The key element was to confirm the quality of the classification system and to test the impact of individual factors on the likelihood of injury. The survey was carried out among physically active participants who take part in track and field sporting disciplines. The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.73, which can be considered an acceptable value for the survey. The seven most important factors influencing the risk of injury were selected from a group of twenty-four and were used to create the model. The Nagelkerke’s R2 reached 0.630 for the logit model, which indicates a good effect of the independent variables. The data suggested that the largest factor influencing the risk of injury was the number of prior injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Article
Prediction of Optimized Color Design for Sports Shoes Using an Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051560 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Product design is a complicated activity that is highly reliant on individual impressions, feelings and emotions. Back-propagated neural networks have already been applied in Kansei engineering to solve difficult design problems. However, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have a slow rate of convergence, and [...] Read more.
Product design is a complicated activity that is highly reliant on individual impressions, feelings and emotions. Back-propagated neural networks have already been applied in Kansei engineering to solve difficult design problems. However, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have a slow rate of convergence, and find it difficult to devise a suitable network structure and find the global optimal solution. This study developed an ANN-based predictive model enhanced with a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization technique to search for close-to-optimal sports shoe color schemes for a given product image. The design factors of the sports shoe were set as the network inputs, and the Kansei objective value was the output of the GA-based ANN model. The results show that a model built with three hidden layers (28 × 38 × 19) could predict the object value reliably. The R2 of the preference objective was equal to 0.834, suggesting that the developed model is a feasible and efficient tool for predicting the objective value of product images. This study also found that the prediction accuracy for shoes with two colors was higher than that for shoes with only one color. In addition, the prediction accuracy for shoes with a relatively familiar shape was also higher. However, the prediction of color preferences is relatively difficult, because the respondents had different individual color preferences. Exploring the sensitivity and importance of the visual factors (form, color, texture) for various image words is a worthy topic for future research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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Review

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Review
A Review of Forward-Dynamics Simulation Models for Predicting Optimal Technique in Maximal Effort Sporting Movements
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041450 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The identification of optimum technique for maximal effort sporting tasks is one of the greatest challenges within sports biomechanics. A theoretical approach using forward-dynamics simulation allows individual parameters to be systematically perturbed independently of potentially confounding variables. Each study typically follows a four-stage [...] Read more.
The identification of optimum technique for maximal effort sporting tasks is one of the greatest challenges within sports biomechanics. A theoretical approach using forward-dynamics simulation allows individual parameters to be systematically perturbed independently of potentially confounding variables. Each study typically follows a four-stage process of model construction, parameter determination, model evaluation, and model optimization. This review critically evaluates forward-dynamics simulation models of maximal effort sporting movements using a dynamical systems theory framework. Organismic, environmental, and task constraints applied within such models are critically evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding future directions and best practices. The incorporation of self-organizational processes representing movement variability and “intrinsic dynamics” remains limited. In the future, forward-dynamics simulation models predicting individual-specific optimal techniques of sporting movements may be used as indicative rather than prescriptive tools within a coaching framework to aid applied practice and understanding, although researchers and practitioners should continue to consider concerns resulting from dynamical systems theory regarding the complexity of models and particularly regarding self-organization processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
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