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Adm. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 27 articles

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Article
Authentic Talent Development in Women Leaders Who Opted Out: Discovering Authenticity, Balance, and Challenge through the Kaleidoscope Career Model
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020060 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 171
Abstract
We investigated the parameters of authenticity, balance, and challenge as viewed through the lens of the Kaleidoscope Career Model to discern the career motives of women who opted out and then returned to the workforce. We also were interested in comparing women and [...] Read more.
We investigated the parameters of authenticity, balance, and challenge as viewed through the lens of the Kaleidoscope Career Model to discern the career motives of women who opted out and then returned to the workforce. We also were interested in comparing women and men in their leader practices. We triangulated quantitative and qualitative methods to explore these phenomena. First, in Study 1, 2009 individuals completed both the Kaleidoscope Career Self Inventory (the KCSI) as well as an abbreviated version of Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Practices Inventory (the LPI). Participants rated their needs for authenticity, balance, and challenge on the KCSI as well as their leader practices of challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, modeling the way, enabling others to act, and Encouraging the Heart. Women were found to exceed the leader practices of men, and women were most interested in authenticity. In Study 2, situational mapping and life history process was used to determine themes of eight high-achieving women who opted out. We interviewed an additional 15 women to deeply understand and assess their opt-out and re-entry experiences as well as “career shocks” they experienced upon returning to the workforce. Our second study offers a robust, deep, penetrating look into social ascription processes and endemic discriminatory social structures that hold women back from achieving advancement. To stop this “brain drain” of talent, we propose a series of actions for human resource professionals to develop the authentic leadership talent of women who reenter the workforce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Servant Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness)
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Case Report
Citizen Coproduction and Social Media Communication: Delivering a Municipal Government’s Urban Services through Digital Participation
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020059 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
This study investigated how social media is used by a municipal government agency for communication of citizen coproduction initiatives, through social media content analysis of the government’s official Twitter account. This article identified that the dominant form of social media coproduction in the [...] Read more.
This study investigated how social media is used by a municipal government agency for communication of citizen coproduction initiatives, through social media content analysis of the government’s official Twitter account. This article identified that the dominant form of social media coproduction in the Bandung municipal government in Indonesia is government-to-citizen (G2C) interaction, focused primarily on informing and nudging (86.62%) citizens, as well as some limited elements of citizen-to-government (C2G) communication, such as citizen sourcing and citizen reporting (8.96%). The municipal government uses various visual tools on Twitter to disseminate G2C information and convey its messages. Regarding the phase of the service cycle, this study found that the majority of social media communications are related to co-assessment (52.26%) and co-designing (42.24%), with a limited number of tweets about co-delivery (3.25%). Based on these findings, this article discusses the shifting relationship between government and citizens brought on by the adoption of this social media platform in its service delivery arrangement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue E-administration—Its Use and Spread)
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Review
Living Labs for Public Sector Innovation: An Integrative Literature Review
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020058 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
The public administration literature and adjacent fields have devoted increasing attention to living labs as environments and structures enabling the co-creation of public sector innovation. However, living labs remain a somewhat elusive concept and phenomenon, and there is a lack of understanding of [...] Read more.
The public administration literature and adjacent fields have devoted increasing attention to living labs as environments and structures enabling the co-creation of public sector innovation. However, living labs remain a somewhat elusive concept and phenomenon, and there is a lack of understanding of its versatile nature. To gain a deeper understanding of the multiple dimensions of living labs, this article provides a review assessing how the environments, methods and outcomes of living labs are addressed in the extant research literature. The findings are drawn together in a model synthesizing how living labs link to public sector innovation, followed by an outline of knowledge gaps and future research avenues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights of Value Co-creation in Public Sector)
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Review
The Psychology behind Knowledge Hiding in an Organization
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020057 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 549
Abstract
This study aimed to understand the psychological process behind employees’ knowledge hiding (KH) behaviors in organizations. KH is an intentional act of concealing knowledge when it is requested by a colleague and can lead to counterproductive consequences for the organization. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
This study aimed to understand the psychological process behind employees’ knowledge hiding (KH) behaviors in organizations. KH is an intentional act of concealing knowledge when it is requested by a colleague and can lead to counterproductive consequences for the organization. Therefore, this study synthesized previous studies (n = 88) on KH through a systematic literature review. We used the cognitive–motivational–relational (CMR) theory of emotion to create a framework for the studies’ findings. Based on the framework, the psychological process behind KH has two stages—personal goal generation and the knowledge-request event appraisal process, each of which contains its own CMR process. In the first stage, an individual’s internal and external attributes related to the organization shape their personal goals. In the second stage, an individual appraises the features of a knowledge-request event in terms of both their personal goal and the internal and external attributes that created the goal. If the knowledge request is appraised as harmful for the personal goal, emotion arises and leads to the manifestation of KH. This study contributes to the knowledge management literature as, to our knowledge, it is the first to propose a CMR theory-based framework to understand the overall psychological process behind KH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behavior)
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Article
Industry 4.0 Readiness of Technology Companies: A Pilot Study from Malaysia
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020056 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Industry 4.0 has the potential to cause both evolutionary (operational) and revolutionary (strategic) changes, but assessing the readiness of companies towards Industry 4.0 has largely been a challenge. Industry 4.0 readiness is also important as it is the first step for companies that [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 has the potential to cause both evolutionary (operational) and revolutionary (strategic) changes, but assessing the readiness of companies towards Industry 4.0 has largely been a challenge. Industry 4.0 readiness is also important as it is the first step for companies that want to adopt Industry 4.0 technologies. This paper pilot surveys 100 technology companies in Malaysia to understand their overall readiness towards Industry 4.0. In particular, this research paper contributes to the assessment of Industry 4.0 readiness in terms of seven key areas: (i) Market pressure, (ii) risk-taking, (iii) knowledge, (iv) management support, (v) competencies, (vi) motivation and (vii) freedom. These findings can act as stepping stones for managers and companies that are aiming towards the implementation of Industry 4.0 readiness. Full article
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Article
Value Co-Creation between Public Service Organizations and the Private Sector: An Organizational Capabilities Perspective
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020055 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 670
Abstract
Theoretically based on public service logic (PSL), this paper explores the barriers and capabilities surrounding public sector value co-creation with private sector organizations in the context of digital transformation. Specifically, value co-creation efforts at a large public transport and rail infrastructure provider are [...] Read more.
Theoretically based on public service logic (PSL), this paper explores the barriers and capabilities surrounding public sector value co-creation with private sector organizations in the context of digital transformation. Specifically, value co-creation efforts at a large public transport and rail infrastructure provider are examined from multiple perspectives using an exploratory case study approach. Based on qualitative interview data, six barriers that hinder value co-creation in public service ecosystems and five corresponding organizational capabilities required to overcome them are identified. The study contributes to the field of public management research by shedding light on the concept of value co-creation in public-private sector digitalization collaborations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights of Value Co-creation in Public Sector)
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Article
Family Firms and Innovation from Founder to Successor
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020054 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Several empirical investigations indicate that family firms are more innovative under the founding generation’s leadership and become less innovative in later stages, while others state the opposite. Within this debate, limited attention has been devoted to understanding how intra-family succession might be an [...] Read more.
Several empirical investigations indicate that family firms are more innovative under the founding generation’s leadership and become less innovative in later stages, while others state the opposite. Within this debate, limited attention has been devoted to understanding how intra-family succession might be an opportunity to maintain or improve family firms’ innovativeness. This paper aims to explore how family firms’ innovativeness may evolve from the first to the second generation and understand which conditions may favour or hamper this change. A qualitative approach based on a multiple case study was adopted, conducting seven face-to-face semi-structured interviews with founders and successors that formed the basis of four case studies. The results reveal four different dynamics that characterise how a first-generation family firm’s innovation capacities are or are not passed on to the second generation: decline, transformation, consolidation and preservation. Findings also show that these dynamics depend on the founders and successors’ approaches towards innovation. To better depict differences between them, we propose a typology of founders (lone innovator, collaborative innovator and orchestrator innovator) and successors (prodigal son, game changer, talent scout, faithful disciple) and explain how they influence the evolution of innovation from the founder generation to the next. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Performance and Family Firms)
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Article
The Social Media “Magic”: Virtually Engaging Visitors during COVID-19 Temporary Closures
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020053 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore what types of digital content cultural institutions implemented during COVID-19 temporary closures and their effects on social media engagement. Existing research identified the role of digital content and social media in cultural institutions, but only [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore what types of digital content cultural institutions implemented during COVID-19 temporary closures and their effects on social media engagement. Existing research identified the role of digital content and social media in cultural institutions, but only in times of normal operations. This study adds to the existing literature by exploring the types of digital content implemented, impacts on social media engagement, measures of social media engagement, and future implications in regard to COVID-19 temporary closures. This study recruited 66 cultural institutions from across the United States to take part in in-depth semi-structured phone interviews to fulfill the research goals. Museums, zoos, aquariums, performing arts organizations, heritage foundations, and historical societies were represented. A qualitative approach was adopted, and content analysis on the interview transcripts indicated that cultural institutions implemented digital content to build communities through live and serialized content, partnerships, fundraising, increased transparency, and increased accessibility during temporary closures. Using primarily Instagram and Facebook with their digital content, cultural institutions increased social media engagement during this time. Although there was no consensus on best practices in measuring social media engagement, many institutions highlighted tracking active engagement such as likes, comments, and shares. As a result of the success of the digital content, cultural institutions planned continued digital content campaigns such as videos, blogs, partnerships, and paid educational content in times of normal operations. Full article
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Article
Informal Network Structure and Knowledge Sharing in Organizations: An Empirical Study of a Korean Paint Manufacturing Company
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020052 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
This study investigates the potentially different roles of informal social networks in promoting knowledge sharing. Specifically, it aims to examine the effects of the focal subgroup’s between-subgroup network size and strength on knowledge sharing with other subgroups and the moderating effect of within-subgroup [...] Read more.
This study investigates the potentially different roles of informal social networks in promoting knowledge sharing. Specifically, it aims to examine the effects of the focal subgroup’s between-subgroup network size and strength on knowledge sharing with other subgroups and the moderating effect of within-subgroup network strength on the relationship of between-subgroup network size to knowledge sharing. Two different online surveys were conducted to assess social networks and knowledge sharing at a paint manufacturing company located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The final sample consisted of 536 employees in 58 teams. The team-level regression results showed that the focal subgroup’s between-subgroup network strength has a significant effect on knowledge sharing with other subgroups, indicating that strong ties among subgroups are more advantageous to external knowledge sharing than weak ties. The results also demonstrated that the focal subgroup’s within-subgroup network strength negatively moderates the effect of its between-subgroup network size on knowledge sharing, indicating that higher levels of between-subgroup network size are positively related to external knowledge sharing when within-subgroup network strength is weak and negatively when within-subgroup network strength is strong. The study’s findings suggest that strong ties among subgroups and weak ties among subgroup members are advantageous to external knowledge sharing. Full article
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Article
Sound and Safe: The Role of Leader Motivating Language and Follower Self-Leadership in Feelings of Psychological Safety
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020051 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
This manuscript presents a study on how leader motivating language and follower self-leadership act to influence a follower’s feelings of psychological safety. This study found that both constructs significantly influenced psychological safety in samples from India and the USA. Additionally, this study [...] Read more.
This manuscript presents a study on how leader motivating language and follower self-leadership act to influence a follower’s feelings of psychological safety. This study found that both constructs significantly influenced psychological safety in samples from India and the USA. Additionally, this study found that this influence occurred through the mediating processes of trust in leadership, leader inclusiveness, and role clarity. These mediators fully explained motivating language’s relationship with psychological safety, but only partially explained self-leadership’s relationship. Differences existed in the model between samples, but self-leadership showed an overall consistency between the samples for most relationships. Follow-up analysis indicated that self-leadership without leader communication support lead to a weak or non-existent relationship between self-leadership and psychological safety, but a positive and relatively strong relationship in the presence of motivating language. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Leadership)
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Article
The Effect of Ethical Leadership on Work Engagement and Workaholism: Examining Self-Efficacy as a Moderator
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020050 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
This study aims to investigate how ethical leadership can influence work engagement and workaholism through the potential moderating effect of self-efficacy. There have been debates on the similarities, their negative correlation, and differences between these two work outcomes. To show one new aspect [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate how ethical leadership can influence work engagement and workaholism through the potential moderating effect of self-efficacy. There have been debates on the similarities, their negative correlation, and differences between these two work outcomes. To show one new aspect of evidence regarding the debate, we chose ethical leadership as the common antecedent of the outcomes and analyzed the relationships while considering a boundary condition, self-efficacy. For this purpose, using an online questionnaire, we collected primary data from 80 graduate students from a university in Indonesia. An experimental research design was applied, and we used t-test and hierarchical regression analysis to confirm the relationship mentioned above. Results indicate that ethical leadership has a positive effect on work engagement, while it has an insignificant effect on workaholism. Moreover, self-efficacy did not moderate the relationships between ethical leadership and work engagement, or ethical leadership and workaholism. One novelty of the present study is the finding of different consequences of the two “similar” work outcomes from ethical leadership. Implications, limitations, and direction for future research are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behavior)
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Review
Understandings of Social Innovation within the Danish Public Sector: A Literature Review
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020049 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Social innovation is an emerging theme within innovation theory, and so is the concept of public service innovation networks for social innovation (PSINSIs). The purpose of this article is to explore how social innovation in Danish public services is conceptualised and enacted through [...] Read more.
Social innovation is an emerging theme within innovation theory, and so is the concept of public service innovation networks for social innovation (PSINSIs). The purpose of this article is to explore how social innovation in Danish public services is conceptualised and enacted through the lenses of public service innovation networks for social innovation. To do this, a thorough integrative review of the literature dealing with the Danish context is conducted. The Danish context is interesting in order to investigate these network arrangements, firstly because they are not well understood in the context of the Nordic welfare states, which Denmark is part of, and then because municipalities and civil society have historically had a mutually dependent relationship in Denmark. The article highlights that social innovation is framed in several ways in the Danish public sector. In particular, the results show that the literature can be grouped according to four themes: (1) samskabelse (co-creation), (2) collaboration with civil society, (3) social entrepreneurs and social innovation and (4) public–private innovation partnerships. Moreover, the article presents and discusses a number of Danish empirical projects that may be understood through the lens of the PSINSI framework. Hence, the paper contributes with new theoretical perspectives, in addition to contributing to practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights of Value Co-creation in Public Sector)
Review
Environmental Management, Human Resource Management and Green Human Resource Management: A Literature Review
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020048 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on human resource management (HRM) and environmental management. Moreover, the paper shows the role that green human resource management (GHRM) plays in environmental management activities. This article examines the main relationships between [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on human resource management (HRM) and environmental management. Moreover, the paper shows the role that green human resource management (GHRM) plays in environmental management activities. This article examines the main relationships between human resource management and environmental strategy, emphasizing reciprocal influences. Moreover, the main human resource practices used in the literature are examined. In addition, methodological approaches that can be appropriate to advance the study of the link between human resource management and environmental strategy are proposed. Ideas for future research are also provided. As the role of human capital in implementing environmental management is a mature field of research, a new topic known as green human resource management has emerged. We examine studies that analyze both the relationship between general human resource management and environmental strategy and between green human resource management and environmental strategy. Full article
Article
Towards a Model of Muslim Women’s Management Empowerment: Philosophical and Historical Evidence and Critical Approaches
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020047 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
This paper constructs a culturally appropriate model for Muslim women’s empowerment in management and leadership positions that addresses sustainability goals of quality education, gender equality, economic growth and reducing inequalities, as well as national and cultural differences from Western women’s empowerment models. The [...] Read more.
This paper constructs a culturally appropriate model for Muslim women’s empowerment in management and leadership positions that addresses sustainability goals of quality education, gender equality, economic growth and reducing inequalities, as well as national and cultural differences from Western women’s empowerment models. The approach to model building begins with two sources of evidence for women’s empowerment—first, the empowerment of women recognised in the Qur’an and Sunnah, and in the historical-biographical record, particularly in the early Islamic period that draws to some extent on hermeneutics. This is followed by identifying four approaches that can be used in constructing a comprehensive model of Muslim women’s empowerment: Bourdieu’s social, cultural and intellectual capital theory; multiple modernities theory that recognises societal diversity; cultural security arguments for the preservation of cultures; and postcolonial critiques that argue for diversity through decolonising. The main argument of this paper is that sustainability goals cannot be achieved without a model appropriate to the valuational, cultural and societal context in which women are educated and work. The final section of this paper proposes a multidimensional and multilevel model that can be used as a guidance for empowering Muslim women in management and leadership positions. The model construction is based partly on Côté and Levine’s psychosocial cultural model that identifies multiple levels and dimensions of identity, role and social institution construction. This article contributes to the current literature by proposing a theoretical foundation and a multidimensional model that can inform and shape the empowerment of Muslim women in management and leadership positions in different societies. Full article
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Article
Clusters of Elements for Quality Assurance of Health Worker Protection Measures in Times of COVID-19 Pandemic
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020046 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 560
Abstract
The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) pandemic has had a significant impact on the healthcare delivery system worldwide. Many pre-pandemic norms, standards, and methods of providing medical services in most medical facilities had to be changed and re-evaluated. Many of them will likely stay changed [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) pandemic has had a significant impact on the healthcare delivery system worldwide. Many pre-pandemic norms, standards, and methods of providing medical services in most medical facilities had to be changed and re-evaluated. Many of them will likely stay changed and will probably never be provided in the same way in post-pandemic reality. The COVID-19 crisis is still ongoing and some sources say that we should be prepared for a third wave of the pandemic. The scope of the analysis conducted in this publication is related to the healthcare sector, including services and Polish healthcare professionals’ work quality during the COVID-19 crisis. The research gap, the basis for conducting new research, is the lack of clarified results analysing the quality assurance of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is necessary to ask about healthcare professionals’ rate of personal protective equipment quality in Polish medical facilities. The result of cluster analysis will help us to know what the clusters for variables on quality assurance of protection measures for healthcare workers are. The research was carried out using a questionnaire survey on a sample of 21 medical personnel in Polish hospitals. The main findings of this publication are problems with information flow between staff and staff managers and determining appropriate zones. The quality of the personal protective equipment offered by medical facilities’ management and their availability is at an appropriate level. The publication aims to analyse the level of quality assurance of health care worker protection measures in the example of Silesian voivodeships in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue E-administration—Its Use and Spread)
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Article
The Impact of Entrepreneurial Passion on the Entrepreneurial Intention; Moderating Impact of Perception of University Support
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020045 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Passion is fundamental to starting a business because it stimulates motivation, improves intellectual activity, and provides meaning for daily work. This research investigates the role of entrepreneurial passion as a prelude to entrepreneurial intention. The theory of planned behavior was used as an [...] Read more.
Passion is fundamental to starting a business because it stimulates motivation, improves intellectual activity, and provides meaning for daily work. This research investigates the role of entrepreneurial passion as a prelude to entrepreneurial intention. The theory of planned behavior was used as an underpinning theory. A conceptual framework was developed and tested to determine their contributions to entrepreneurial intentions. The correlation between entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intentions is moderated by perception of university support to determine if it enhances the entrepreneurial intention to become a successful entrepreneur. The sample (N = 395) was identified using a convenience sampling technique and is comprised of university business students in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The questionnaire comprised two sections used for data collection, and Smart-PLS was used to analyze the hypotheses. The findings have indicated that there is a strong positive relationship between entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intentions. The analysis showed that the concept of university support alleviates the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intention. The moderation effect of perception of university support on the association between entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intention was recognized in this study. Thus, it called for exploring this moderating effect from other perspectives. As an implication to policy, the government bodies should ensure students have access to an entrepreneurial atmosphere. Specifically, the ministry of education and HEC Pakistan could consider this for the design of university syllabuses, thereby leading to more impactful education of entrepreneurship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Intentions–Taking in the Context)
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Review
The Role of Top Managers in Implementing Corporate Sustainability—A Systematic Literature Review on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020044 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
This systematic literature review investigates whether corporate sustainability (CS), according to the triple bottom line concept (TBL), is implemented in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and further identifies associated drivers. Building on upper echelon theory (UET) and the Schwartz value system (SVS) this [...] Read more.
This systematic literature review investigates whether corporate sustainability (CS), according to the triple bottom line concept (TBL), is implemented in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and further identifies associated drivers. Building on upper echelon theory (UET) and the Schwartz value system (SVS) this study aims to analyze and contextualize extant empirical research. We developed a PRISMA-based framework to select relevant studies systematically. Based on an initial sample of 1249 articles between 2000 and 2020, we provide critical analysis of 31 best practice, peer-reviewed journal articles. Our findings suggest seven specifications of CS in SMEs that are driven by either internal or external motivations. Our review reveals that, overwhelmingly, SMEs engage in CS but fail to report it (“green blushing”). Furthermore, we find that the top managers of SMEs are a huge driver of CS. Oftentimes, they are even pioneers of good social and environmental practices. Finally, we identify four value dimensions (benevolence, achievement, power, and conformity values) according to the dimensions of the SVS that drive SMEs’ top managers’ engagement in CS. We contribute to the current state of research by conducting the first literature review that exclusively investigates how SMEs’ executives influence the enterprise’s commitment towards CS, based on the UET and the SVS. Thereby, we discuss implications and provide valuable recommendations for researchers, practitioners, and regulators alike. Full article
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Article
Ethical Leadership, Ethical Climate and Integrity Violation: A Comparative Study in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020043 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 570
Abstract
The primary aim of this study is to investigate the relationship among the ethical leadership, ethical climate and integrity violation of the local government of two countries, Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Past studies indicate that ethical leadership and ethical climate influenced the integrity [...] Read more.
The primary aim of this study is to investigate the relationship among the ethical leadership, ethical climate and integrity violation of the local government of two countries, Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Past studies indicate that ethical leadership and ethical climate influenced the integrity of local government. However, studies were mostly conducted in Western countries. Given the lack of comparative studies in Muslim-oriented countries, we intend to fill the gap by building upon previous studies on the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical climate and integrity violation of the local government. The study used survey to collect data from local authorities in the two nations. PLS-SEM was used to analyze the survey data. The findings demonstrated that the relationship between ethical leadership and integrity violation is not significant for Malaysians. Thus, the study assumption is not supported. By contrast, Saudi showed a different result in the relationship between ethical leadership and integrity violation; the relationship between ethical leadership and integrity violation in Saudi is negatively significant. Hence, the assumption is supported for Saudi participants. In regard to the ethical climate, results reveal that for Malaysia and Saudi, ethical climate negatively and significantly influence integrity violation. Thus, the assumption for both countries is supported. The findings of this study are useful for the practical development of local authorities as the findings provide information for the local government to safeguard against integrity violation. The findings also contribute social implications by educating organizations toward the role of ethical climate in preventing integrity violation. In addition, the study contributes to the growing interest in comparative studies. Full article
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Article
Influence of Gender Determinants on Informal Care and Health Service Utilization in Spain: Ten Years after the Approval of the Equality Law
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020042 - 12 Apr 2021
Viewed by 570
Abstract
The existence of gender inequalities in health, in the use of health services, and in the development of informal care has been demonstrated throughout scientific literature. In Spain, a law was passed in 2007 to promote effective equality between men and women. Despite [...] Read more.
The existence of gender inequalities in health, in the use of health services, and in the development of informal care has been demonstrated throughout scientific literature. In Spain, a law was passed in 2007 to promote effective equality between men and women. Despite this, different studies have shown that the previous gender inequalities are still present in Spanish society. For all these reasons, the objective of this paper is to study the differences by sex in informal care and in the use of emergency care, and to identify the existence of gender inequalities in Spain 10 years after the adoption of the aforementioned equality law. In this case, we development a cross-sectional study based on the 2017 Spanish National Health Survey of the Spanish population aged 16 and over. To analyze the influence of gender determinants on informal care and emergency care utilization, logistic regressions were performed, model 1 was adjusted for age, and model 2 was further adjusted too by the variables of the Andersen care demand model. The results showed that informal care and the use of the emergency care continues to be higher in women than in men. Informal care in women was related to a higher level of education. In emergency care, the older the age, the lower the probability of utilization, and living in a rural municipality was related to a higher probability of utilization for both sexes. Finally, we concluded that there is still a need for studies that analyze gender inequalities in different contexts, such as the informal care and the use of health services. This is especially relevant in Spain, where economic changes have led to a change in roles, mainly for women, and new management strategies are needed to achieve equity in care and effective equality between men and women. Full article
Article
Self-Leadership and Psychological Capital as Key Cognitive Resources for Shaping Health-Protective Behaviors during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020041 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
As COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, health researchers and practitioners have focused attention on identifying the factors that may help to shape health-protective behaviors, protecting individual health and well-being, and helping to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. This study explores the potential [...] Read more.
As COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, health researchers and practitioners have focused attention on identifying the factors that may help to shape health-protective behaviors, protecting individual health and well-being, and helping to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. This study explores the potential role of self-leadership and psychological capital (PsyCap) as key cognitive resources for shaping health-protective behaviors. Using multiple theoretical frameworks (social cognitive theory, psychological resources theory, and the health belief model), this paper develops and tests a hypothesized serial mediation model in which PsyCap and coping self-efficacy mediate the relationship between self-leadership and health-protective behaviors including hand washing, wearing face masks, and social distancing. Results suggest that PsyCap and coping self-efficacy mediate the positive relationship between self-leadership and health-protective behaviors. These results yield valuable insights regarding the usefulness of self-leadership and PsyCap as cognitive resources for shaping health-protective behaviors and for possible self-leadership and PsyCap interventions, potentially tailored to at-risk populations, which should have practical benefits for both the current and future pandemics and health crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Leadership)
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Article
Utilizing Self-Leadership to Enhance Gratitude Thought Patterns
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020040 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 580
Abstract
This article explores the value of integrating thought self-leadership (TSL) and gratitude as a resource for employees to create positive and productive personal and work environments. We propose a conceptual model showing the relationships between TSL, emotional state of gratitude, thought patterns about [...] Read more.
This article explores the value of integrating thought self-leadership (TSL) and gratitude as a resource for employees to create positive and productive personal and work environments. We propose a conceptual model showing the relationships between TSL, emotional state of gratitude, thought patterns about gratitude, and performance. Given the positive benefits of the practice of gratitude in people’s everyday lives and the positive benefits within organizations, TSL can be an important mechanism to enhance the development of gratitude. We argue that the level of gratitude experienced by individuals can be increased through the utilization of TSL. We propose a model which combines the constructs of TSL, gratitude, and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Leadership)
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Article
The Effect of Servant Leadership on Self-Efficacy and Innovative Behaviour: Verification of the Moderated Mediating Effect of Vocational Calling
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020039 - 08 Apr 2021
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Abstract
This study aimed to verify the impact of servant leadership on innovative behaviour in non-governmental organisations (NGOs). It particularly investigated the role of a mediator for self-efficacy in the relationship between servant leadership and innovative behaviour. This study defined the organisational psychology-behaviour mechanism [...] Read more.
This study aimed to verify the impact of servant leadership on innovative behaviour in non-governmental organisations (NGOs). It particularly investigated the role of a mediator for self-efficacy in the relationship between servant leadership and innovative behaviour. This study defined the organisational psychology-behaviour mechanism in non-profit organisations by verifying the moderated mediating effect of vocational calling in the relationship between servant leadership, self-efficacy, and innovative behaviour. The 174 pilot samples used in this study comprised community service participants in NGOs. The analysis verified the hypothesis set through causal correlations among four variables using regression analysis and the PROCESS macro developed by Hayes. Vocational calling played a moderating role in the relationship between servant leadership and self-efficacy, and vocational calling had a conditional effect on the impact of servant leadership on innovative behaviour through self-efficacy. Meanwhile, self-efficacy fully mediated servant leadership and innovative behaviour. Based on the verification of the mechanism of organisational psychology-action, this study sought ways to develop the organisation of NGOs and improve the working environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Leadership)
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Article
The Impact of New Ways of Working on Organizations and Employees: A Systematic Review of Literature
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020038 - 07 Apr 2021
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Abstract
A new research stream emerged in the 2000s dedicated to flexible work arrangements in public and private organizations, called “new ways of working” (NWW). This article aims to examine NWW from both a theoretical and empirical perspective, focusing on definitional issues as well [...] Read more.
A new research stream emerged in the 2000s dedicated to flexible work arrangements in public and private organizations, called “new ways of working” (NWW). This article aims to examine NWW from both a theoretical and empirical perspective, focusing on definitional issues as well as on HR outcomes of this new concept. Current definitions of NWW are manifold and based on rather vague theoretical foundations. As NWW outcomes may be both positive and/or negative, we mobilize the “mutual gains” vs. “conflicting outcomes” theoretical debate to discuss the results of our literature review. This review is based on 21 articles (out of 90 initially selected for eligibility) dealing with NWW as a concept or as a bundle of practices. Findings demonstrate that NWW definitions are diverse and somewhat imprecise, lacking theoretical foundations and leading to fragmented research designs and findings. Findings also highlight the current lack of empirical data, which therefore does not allow any real conclusions on NWW’s effects on employees’ and organizations’ well-being and performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behavior)
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Article
Does Person Organization Fit and Person-Job Fit Mediate the Relationship between Public Service Motivation and Work Stress among U.S. Federal Employees?
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020037 - 07 Apr 2021
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Abstract
A plethora of research has extolled the benefits of public service motivation (PSM) in public organizations. However, much less empirical attention has focused on its relationship to work stress. Even though it has been theorized that high levels of PSM causes individuals to [...] Read more.
A plethora of research has extolled the benefits of public service motivation (PSM) in public organizations. However, much less empirical attention has focused on its relationship to work stress. Even though it has been theorized that high levels of PSM causes individuals to be more resilient in stressful public service work environments, empirical research has failed to provide support. Only one study has been conducted which has revealed that high levels of PSM is directly associated with high levels of job stress among public employees, but that its beneficial effects are partially mediated by person-organization (PO) fit. That is, employees with high levels of PSM and high levels of fit to their organizations did not appear to suffer from high stress. This study sought to add to this limited body of research and explore the extent to which person-job (PJ) improves the field’s understanding of the relationships among PSM, PO fit, and work stress. Based on a sample of federal employees in the United States, this study challenged and confirmed the findings of existing research. For instance, PSM had no direct relationship to work stress. However, PSM maintained an indirect relationship to stress through PO fit. The respondents with high levels of PSM reported that they had high levels of fit to their organizations which was associated with significantly lower levels of work stress. Similarly, PSM was not directly related to PJ fit, but was indirectly related through its association with PO fit. PSM was associated with high levels of fit between employees and public organizations, which was subsequently associated with high levels of fit with public service jobs and lower work stress. Above all, this research clarifies the process of how PSM influences work stress among public employees, through PO fit and PJ fit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behavior)
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Article
Eco-Efficiency and Stock Market Volatility: Emerging Markets Analysis
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020036 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Climate change, the accelerated industrialization of emerging countries, as well as the growing demand for transparency from stakeholders, are all factors that influence the environmental performance of companies. Thus, eco-efficient behavior can improve financial performance by increasing wealth generation and decreasing the volatility [...] Read more.
Climate change, the accelerated industrialization of emerging countries, as well as the growing demand for transparency from stakeholders, are all factors that influence the environmental performance of companies. Thus, eco-efficient behavior can improve financial performance by increasing wealth generation and decreasing the volatility of listed financial assets. There is a lot of previous literature showing diverse results of the effect of eco-efficiency on corporate profitability, but this is not the case when we refer to risk. This study analyzes the relationship between eco-efficient behavior and the share price volatility of companies traded in emerging markets. For this purpose, a sample of 346 companies listed in 24 countries was studied for the period between 2010 and 2017. The results show a positive effect. Thus, the recommendation is that a clear commitment to eco-efficient investment can improve the environmental impact of companies, from the private, public, and institutional spheres. Full article
Article
A Spoonful of Sugar: Gamification as Means for Enhancing Employee Self-Leadership and Self-Concordance at Work
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020035 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Organizations today continue to seek new and effective ways to engage and motivate their workers. Gamification is an emerging means for enhancing employee engagement and motivation at work. Self-leadership is a comprehensive self-influence process that has the potential to help employees find meaning [...] Read more.
Organizations today continue to seek new and effective ways to engage and motivate their workers. Gamification is an emerging means for enhancing employee engagement and motivation at work. Self-leadership is a comprehensive self-influence process that has the potential to help employees find meaning and purpose from their jobs. This paper develops and presents a conceptual model of the relationships between gamification, self-leadership, and valued workplace outcomes. The model suggests that gamification elements trigger multiple self-leadership processes and states that interact in a multiplicative fashion leading to a state of self-concordance in which individuals perceive a close alignment between their work tasks and their personal interests and core values. This serial mediation model helps to explain how and why gamification operates through the mediating mechanisms of self-leadership and self-concordance to effect important individual and organizational outcomes. Future research directions and implications for the proposed conceptual model are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Leadership)
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Article
Trust Model for Online Reviews of Tourism Services and Evaluation of Destinations
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11020034 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 867
Abstract
Obtaining information about destinations and services they provide is ever more based on user-generated content (UGC), which includes reviews of tourism services as well as evaluation of attractions and destinations by visitors. The growing importance of reviews of tourism services is recognized by [...] Read more.
Obtaining information about destinations and services they provide is ever more based on user-generated content (UGC), which includes reviews of tourism services as well as evaluation of attractions and destinations by visitors. The growing importance of reviews of tourism services is recognized by tourism service providers, and some of them influence the content of reviews on review sites. At the same time, procedures for the prevention of false and misleading reviews, as well as their detection, are being intensively developed. This is documented in relevant sources, which were identified especially on the Web of Science, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Researchgate and the websites of MDPI, Emerald and Taylor & Francis Online. The aim of this study is to reveal how the verification of reviews can be improved with the intention to increase confidence in the review sites. In the form of case studies of TripAdvisor and Booking.com, the current rise of trust in reviews on these review sites was analysed and documented. The outputs of research include a SWOT analysis, processual analysis and an analysis of verification process, conditions, factors affecting trust in reviews on review sites. On these bases, a conceptual model for providing verified reviews of tourism services or verified destination assessment and two process models for providing verified reviews of tourism services and for providing verified destination assessment have been drawn up. Full article
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