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Animals, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 137 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In northern Minnesota, video cameras and microphones connected to the Internet were placed in 6 wild black bear dens. Intimate details of birth, maternal behavior, and cub development were unobtrusively observed until the families emerged in spring. Observations included den type, labor, pre-parturient genital swelling, birthing, post-partum vocalizations, maternal responses to newborn cubs, nursing frequency, nipple order establishment, interactions of yearlings with mother and cubs, ingestion of snow and ice, foot pad ingestion, urination and defecation in latrine areas, toilet-licking, eye opening, reciprocal tongue-licking, play, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, possible dreaming, and reactions to wildlife intruders. The use of this new method for observing natural bear dens allowed the identification of many behaviors undescribed for any species of wild bear in natural dens. View this paper.
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11 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Mass Production of the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Reared on Three Manure Types
by Chelsea D. Miranda, Jonathan A. Cammack and Jeffery K. Tomberlin
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071243 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 10373
Abstract
Recent interest in the mass production of black soldier fly (BSF) larvae has resulted in many studies being generated. However, a majority of the studies are benchtop, or small-scale, experiments. Results generated from such studies may not translate to large-scale/industrial production. The current [...] Read more.
Recent interest in the mass production of black soldier fly (BSF) larvae has resulted in many studies being generated. However, a majority of the studies are benchtop, or small-scale, experiments. Results generated from such studies may not translate to large-scale/industrial production. The current study was conducted at a conventional large-scale (10,000 larvae/treatment fed seven kg) to determine the impact on selected life-history traits when BSF were fed seven kg of manure (swine, dairy, or poultry) or a control diet (Gainesville diet: 50% wheat bran, 30% alfalfa meal, and 20% corn). Results showed larvae fed dairy manure took one to two days longer to develop to prepupation, with lower survivorship (45%) compared to those fed poultry or swine manure (>70%). Furthermore, the maximum larval weight was reached on day six for those fed swine manure, while other treatments achieved the maximum weight on day seven. However, larvae fed swine manure averaged 150 mg, while those fed the other diets ranged between 175 and 200 mg. Data from this study may be valuable for the industrialization of BSF. Companies using a scale varying from previously published work, including this study, should conduct pilot studies to optimize their system prior to implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Black Soldier Fly Production and Applications)
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11 pages, 1346 KiB  
Article
Historical Changes and Description of the Current Hungarian Hucul Horse Population
by János Posta, Enikő Somogyvári and Sándor Mihók
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071242 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
Gene conservation and management of small populations requires proper knowledge of the background and history of the breed. The aim of the study was the evaluation of population structure and changes of the Hungarian Hucul horse population. Population changes were described for the [...] Read more.
Gene conservation and management of small populations requires proper knowledge of the background and history of the breed. The aim of the study was the evaluation of population structure and changes of the Hungarian Hucul horse population. Population changes were described for the actual breeding stock as well as for groups of 10-year epochs reflecting major periods of change in the breed. Pedigree data of the registered population were analyzed using Endog and GRain software. The average value of equivalent complete generations was above nine for the actual breeding population. The longest generation interval was the sire-to-daughter pathway. The fe/f ratio had smaller changes than fa/fe ratio across the population history. Inbreeding and average relatedness as well as ancestral coefficients had increased during history. Kalinowski’s decomposition of inbreeding showed that present inbreeding is smaller than it was done earlier during the last 20 years. Due to the continuous imports from other breeder countries, the genetic variability increased during the evaluated time periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horse Breeding and Genetics)
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15 pages, 301 KiB  
Review
Economic Viability of Adoption of Automated Oestrus Detection Technologies on Dairy Farms: A Review
by Adewale Henry Adenuga, Claire Jack, Kehinde Oluseyi Olagunju and Austen Ashfield
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071241 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4144
Abstract
The decision for dairy farmers to invest in automated oestrus detection (AOD) technologies involves the weighing up of the costs and benefits of implementation. In this paper, through a review of the existing literature, we examine the impacts of investment in AOD technologies [...] Read more.
The decision for dairy farmers to invest in automated oestrus detection (AOD) technologies involves the weighing up of the costs and benefits of implementation. In this paper, through a review of the existing literature, we examine the impacts of investment in AOD technologies in relation to the profitability and technical performance of dairy farms. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1970 and 2019 on the investment viability of AOD technologies were collated and analysed. We capture the different measures used in assessing the economic performance of investment in AOD technologies over time which include net present value (NPV), milk production, Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period (PBP). The study concludes that investment in AOD technologies is not only worthwhile but also contributes to farm profitability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal System and Management)
14 pages, 2191 KiB  
Article
Effect of Medetomidine, Dexmedetomidine, and Their Reversal with Atipamezole on the Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflex in Beagles
by Joëlle Siegenthaler, Tekla Pleyers, Mathieu Raillard, Claudia Spadavecchia and Olivier Louis Levionnois
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071240 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5303
Abstract
The objectives were: (1) to compare the antinociceptive activity of dexmedetomidine and medetomidine, and (2) to investigate its modulation by atipamezole. This prospective, randomized, blinded experimental trial was carried out on eight beagles. During the first session, dogs received either medetomidine (MED) (0.02 [...] Read more.
The objectives were: (1) to compare the antinociceptive activity of dexmedetomidine and medetomidine, and (2) to investigate its modulation by atipamezole. This prospective, randomized, blinded experimental trial was carried out on eight beagles. During the first session, dogs received either medetomidine (MED) (0.02 mg kg−1 intravenously (IV)] or dexmedetomidine (DEX) [0.01 mg kg−1 IV), followed by either atipamezole (ATI) (0.1 mg kg−1) or an equivalent volume of saline (SAL) administered intramuscularly 45 min later. The opposite treatments were administered in a second session 10–14 days later. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) threshold was determined using a continuous tracking approach. Sedation was scored (0 to 21) every 10 min. Both drugs (MED and DEX) increased the NWR thresholds significantly up to 5.0 (3.7–5.9) and 4.4 (3.9–4.8) times the baseline (p = 0.547), at seven (3–11) and six (4–9) minutes (p = 0.938), respectively. Sedation scores were not different between MED and DEX during the first 45 min (15 (12–17), p = 0.67). Atipamezole antagonized sedation within 25 (15–25) minutes (p = 0.008) and antinociception within five (3–6) minutes (p = 0.008). Following atipamezole, additional analgesics may be needed to maintain pain relief. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
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15 pages, 3099 KiB  
Article
Piceatannol Ameliorates Hepatic Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Dysfunction of Weaned Piglets Challenged with Diquat
by Peilu Jia, Shuli Ji, Hao Zhang, Yanan Chen and Tian Wang
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071239 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2606
Abstract
The liver is an organ that produces large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human infants or piglets are prone to oxidative damage due to their uncompleted development of the antioxidant system, causing liver disease. Piceatannol (PIC) has been found to have significant [...] Read more.
The liver is an organ that produces large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human infants or piglets are prone to oxidative damage due to their uncompleted development of the antioxidant system, causing liver disease. Piceatannol (PIC) has been found to have significant antioxidant effects. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of PIC on the liver in piglets experiencing oxidative stress caused by diquat (DQ). After weaning, 54 male piglets (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]) were selected and randomly divided into three treatment groups: the CON group, the DQ-CON group, and the DQ-PIC group. The two challenged groups were injected with DQ and then orally administrated either PIC or another vehicle solution, while the control group was given sterile saline injections and an orally administrated vehicle solution. Compared to the results of the CON group, DQ increased the percentage of apoptosis cells in the liver, also decreased the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, and V, and the protein expression level of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) were inhibited by DQ. Furthermore, PIC supplementation inhibited the apoptosis of hepatic cells caused by DQ. PIC also decreased MDA levels and increased the amount of GSH. Piglets given PIC supplementation exhibited increased activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, and V, the protein expression level of SIRT1, and the ATP production in the liver. In conclusion, PIC affected the liver of piglets by improving redox status, preserving mitochondrial function, and preventing excessive apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
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15 pages, 823 KiB  
Article
Evolution of the Teaching of Animal Welfare Science, Ethics and Law in European Veterinary Schools (2012–2019)
by Nancy De Briyne, Jovana Vidović, David B. Morton and Manuel Magalhães-Sant’Ana
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071238 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5332
Abstract
Nowadays, animal welfare is seen as a ‘common good’ and a societal expectation. Veterinarians are expected to promote and ensure the welfare of animals under their care by using their scientific knowledge and skills in ethical reasoning and advocacy. Veterinary education must equip [...] Read more.
Nowadays, animal welfare is seen as a ‘common good’ and a societal expectation. Veterinarians are expected to promote and ensure the welfare of animals under their care by using their scientific knowledge and skills in ethical reasoning and advocacy. Veterinary education must equip veterinary graduates with the necessary competences to fulfil these roles. In 2013, the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE) and the European Association of Establishment of Veterinary Education (EAEVE) adopted the Day-1 competences on animal welfare science, ethics and law for veterinary undergraduate education after having surveyed European veterinary schools in 2012. In 2019, the FVE carried out a follow-up survey to monitor the evolution of animal welfare teaching in Europe. A total of 82 responses were received, representing 57 faculties from 25 European countries. Overall results showed that the teaching of animal welfare science, ethics and law has increased in response to growing societal needs, and that welfare is more and more internally embedded in the profession, which is reflected in the curriculum. Nevertheless, at least one quarter of European schools still only partially meet the 2013 Day-1 competencies. This indicates the need for greater efforts, both from the EAEVE and from individual schools, to ensure that the teaching of animal welfare across Europe is standardised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
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15 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Assessing Pain Control Efficacy of Meloxicam and Ketoprofen When Compounded with Iron Dextran in Nursing Piglets Using A Navigation Chute
by Kristen Reynolds, Ron Johnson, Jennifer Brown, Robert Friendship and Terri L. O’Sullivan
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071237 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2936
Abstract
The efficacy of analgesics such as meloxicam and ketoprofen to control pain in piglets when mixed with iron dextran (ID) before injection is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare perceived pain in castrated piglets treated 1 h before castration with [...] Read more.
The efficacy of analgesics such as meloxicam and ketoprofen to control pain in piglets when mixed with iron dextran (ID) before injection is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare perceived pain in castrated piglets treated 1 h before castration with either of these drugs alone, or when mixed with ID, by observing the time it takes for piglets to navigate a chute. Piglets were divided into seven treatment groups (n = 25 piglets per treatment group) including castration with analgesia (meloxicam or ketoprofen), castration with analgesic plus ID, castration without analgesic or ID, sham handled and given ID, and sham handled alone. Piglets were placed in a short chute and their time to navigate the chute was recorded at four timepoints following castration. Piglets given meloxicam or ketoprofen, with or without ID did not differ from each other in their chute navigation times. Additionally, these piglets did not differ from treatment groups that were not castrated. Piglets castrated without analgesia had significantly longer navigation times. These results indicate that meloxicam or ketoprofen, whether mixed with ID prior to injection or not, provide similar analgesic efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain management in livestock species)
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25 pages, 923 KiB  
Review
Review of Livestock Welfare Indicators Relevant for the Australian Live Export Industry
by Patricia A. Fleming, Sarah L. Wickham, Emma J. Dunston-Clarke, Renee S. Willis, Anne L. Barnes, David W. Miller and Teresa Collins
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071236 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5285
Abstract
Animal welfare is an important issue for the live export industry (LEI), in terms of economic returns, community attitudes and international socio-political relations. Mortality has traditionally been the main welfare measure recorded within the LEI; however, high mortality incidents are usually acted upon [...] Read more.
Animal welfare is an important issue for the live export industry (LEI), in terms of economic returns, community attitudes and international socio-political relations. Mortality has traditionally been the main welfare measure recorded within the LEI; however, high mortality incidents are usually acted upon after adverse events occur, reducing the scope for proactive welfare enhancement. We reviewed 71 potential animal welfare measures, identifying those measures that would be appropriate for use throughout the LEI for feeder and slaughter livestock species, and categorised these as animal-, environment- and resource-based. We divided the live export supply chain into three sectors: (1) Australian facilities, (2) vessel and (3) destination country facilities. After reviewing the relevant regulations for each sector of the industry, we identified 38 (sector 1), 35 (sector 2) and 26 (sector 3) measures already being collected under current practice. These could be used to form a ‘welfare information dashboard’: a LEI-specific online interface for collecting data that could contribute towards standardised industry reporting. We identified another 20, 25 and 28 measures that are relevant to each LEI sector (sectors 1, 2, 3, respectively), and that could be developed and integrated into a benchmarking system in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Assessment of Animal Welfare Indicators)
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14 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Dog–Human Play, but Not Resting Post-Learning Improve Re-Training Performance up to One Year after Initial Task Acquisition in Labrador Retriever Dogs: A Follow-On Study
by Nadja Affenzeller
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071235 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7098
Abstract
Arousing and emotional situations can improve cognitive performance and the memorability of events. Recently, the enhancement of training performance in Labrador Retriever dogs through 30 min of dog–human play immediately after acquiring a novel task, when compared to a resting period, was demonstrated. [...] Read more.
Arousing and emotional situations can improve cognitive performance and the memorability of events. Recently, the enhancement of training performance in Labrador Retriever dogs through 30 min of dog–human play immediately after acquiring a novel task, when compared to a resting period, was demonstrated. This follow-on study used the same pseudo-randomized, counterbalanced, between-subject study design, and 11 Labrador Retrievers were re-trained in the identical two-choice discrimination paradigm after a period of 1 year. The playful activities group needed significantly less trials and made significantly less errors to successfully reach the re-training criterion (Mann–Whitney U test, critical value of U at p < 0.05 is 5, U = 5, Z = 1.73, p = 0.04 and U = 4.5, Z = 1.8, p = 0.03, respectively). Following model simplification of a multiple factor/covariate general linear model analysis, the type of intervention, the number of trials needed to re-learn the task after 24 h, the average heart rate during the intervention a year ago, and age were significantly correlated to the number of trials and errors needed to resolve the task. A significant difference due to intervention allocation (heart rate during the intervention, trials needed to re-learn the task after 24 h) between the groups was confirmed. Age did not significantly differ between the groups; nevertheless, the effects of ageing cannot be fully excluded, given the low sample size. No effects of the trainer and of the cortisol concentrations (of the previous year) were observed. This is the first evidence that post-training activity may influence memory up to 1 year after task acquisition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Behaviour and Physiology of Domestic Dogs)
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13 pages, 3178 KiB  
Article
Acute Heat Stress Induces the Differential Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Different Sections of the Small Intestine of Chickens Based on Exposure Duration
by Sharif Hasan Siddiqui, Darae Kang, Jinryong Park, Hyun Woo Choi and Kwanseob Shim
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071234 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5120
Abstract
In this study, we examined the protein and gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in different sections of the small intestine of chickens. In total, 300 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the control and treatment groups. The treatment [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the protein and gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in different sections of the small intestine of chickens. In total, 300 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the control and treatment groups. The treatment group was divided into four subgroups, according to the duration of acute heat exposure (3, 6, 12, and 24 h). The influence of heat stress on the protein and gene expression of HSP70, HSP60, and HSP47 in different sections of the small intestine of chickens was determined. The protein expression of HSP70 and HSP60 was significantly higher at 6 h in the duodenum and jejunum and 12 h in the ileum. The HSP47 protein expression was significantly higher at 3 h in the duodenum and ileum and at 6 h in the jejunum. The gene expression levels of HSP70, HSP60, and HSP47 were significantly higher at the 3 h treatment group than the control group in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase levels were significantly higher at 12 and 24 h in the serum of the blood. Acute heat stress affected the expression of intestinal proteins and genes in chickens, until the induction of heat tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Poultry)
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12 pages, 1444 KiB  
Article
Milk Replacer Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid from Microalgae Does Not Affect Growth and Immune Status in Goat Kids
by Isabel Moreno-Indias, Lorenzo E. Hernández-Castellano, Davinia Sánchez-Macías, Antonio Morales-delaNuez, Alexandr Torres, Anastasio Argüello and Noemí Castro
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071233 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has beneficial effects for consumers’ health. Consequently, there is an increased interest in enhancing meat fatty acid profiles (i.e., PUFA and DHA content) through diverse nutritional strategies. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has beneficial effects for consumers’ health. Consequently, there is an increased interest in enhancing meat fatty acid profiles (i.e., PUFA and DHA content) through diverse nutritional strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementing a microalgae-derived product rich in DHA on growth and immune system development in newborn goat kids. In this experiment, newborn goat kids were fed milk replacer (MR) supplemented with three levels of a microalgae-derived product rich in DHA (DHA-Gold®, Martek Biosciences, MD, USA). Groups were designed as follows: MR-NS (milk replacer without DHA-Gold® supplementation; n = 10), MR-DHA-9 (9 g of DHA-Gold®/L milk replacer; n = 10) and MR-DHA-18 (18 g of DHA-Gold®/L milk replacer; n = 10). The immune status of the kids was evaluated by the plasma IgG and IgM concentrations, as well as by the complement system and chitotriosidase activities. Dietary supplementation with DHA did not affect either growth or innate and humoral immunity (p > 0.05). This study concludes that supplementation with DHA does not cause negative effects on growth and immune status in newborn goat kids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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13 pages, 1163 KiB  
Article
Enterococcus faecium Modulates the Gut Microbiota of Broilers and Enhances Phosphorus Absorption and Utilization
by Weiwei Wang, Huiyi Cai, Anrong Zhang, Zhimin Chen, Wenhuan Chang, Guohua Liu, Xuejuan Deng, Wayne L. Bryden and Aijuan Zheng
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071232 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3819
Abstract
Modern broiler chickens have ongoing bone health problems. Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in bone development and increased understanding of P metabolism should improve the skeletal health of broilers. Enterococcus faecium has been widely used as a probiotic in broiler production and [...] Read more.
Modern broiler chickens have ongoing bone health problems. Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in bone development and increased understanding of P metabolism should improve the skeletal health of broilers. Enterococcus faecium has been widely used as a probiotic in broiler production and is shown to improve skeletal health of rats, but its effect on the bones of broilers remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of E. faecium on P absorption and utilization in broilers and the associated changes in the gut microbiota using 16S rDNA sequencing. Dietary supplementation with E. faecium improved P absorption through upregulation of the expression of intestinal NaP-IIb mRNA and increased the concentration of serum alkaline phosphatase. These actions increased P retention and bone mineralization in E. faecium-treated broilers. The positive effects of E. faecium on P metabolism were associated with changes in the populations of the intestinal microbiota. There was increased relative abundance of the following genera, Alistipes, Eubacterium, Rikenella and Ruminococcaceae and a decrease in the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Escherichia-Shigella. Dietary supplementation with E. faecium changed gut microbiota populations of broilers, increased the relative abundance of SCFA (short-chain fatty acid)-producing bacteria, improved intestinal P absorption and bone forming metabolic activities, and decreased P excretion. E. faecium facilitates increased utilisation of P in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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18 pages, 1077 KiB  
Article
Determination of Fatty Acids Profile in Original Brown Cows Dairy Products and Relationship with Alpine Pasture Farming System
by Stella Agradi, Giulio Curone, Daniele Negroni, Daniele Vigo, Gabriele Brecchia, Valerio Bronzo, Sara Panseri, Luca Maria Chiesa, Tanja Peric, Doina Danes and Laura Menchetti
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071231 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3209
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between fatty acids and the pattern that most contributes to discriminate between two farming systems, in which the main difference was the practice, or not, of alpine summer-grazing. Milk and cheese were sampled every month in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between fatty acids and the pattern that most contributes to discriminate between two farming systems, in which the main difference was the practice, or not, of alpine summer-grazing. Milk and cheese were sampled every month in two farms of Original Brown cows identical under geographical location and management during no grazing season point of view in the 2018 season. Fatty acids concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The principal component analysis extracted three components (PCs). Mammary gland de novo synthetized fatty acids (C14:0, C14:1 n9, and C16:0) and saturated and monosaturated C18 fatty acids (C18:0, C18:1 n9c) were inversely associated in the PC1; PC2 included polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids (C18:2 n6c, C18:3 n3) and C15:0 while conjugated linoleic acid (CLA n9c, n11t) and fatty acids containing 20 or more carbon atoms (C21:0, C20:5 n3) were associated in the PC3. The processes of rumen fermentation and de novo synthesis in mammary gland that are, in turn, influenced by diet, could explain the relationships between fatty acids within each PC. The discriminant analyses showed that the PC2 included the fatty acids profile that best discriminated between the two farming systems, followed by PC3 and, lastly, PC1. This model, if validated, could be an important tool to the dairy industry. Full article
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12 pages, 2732 KiB  
Article
What Is a Dingo? The Phenotypic Classification of Dingoes by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Residents in Northern Australia
by Victoria J. Brookes, Chris Degeling, Lily M. van Eeden and Michael P. Ward
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071230 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3979
Abstract
Dingo classification and management is complicated by hybridisation with domestic dogs. Northern Australia is a relatively high-risk zone for a rabies incursion, and in the event of an incursion, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples who reside in this region would prioritise the [...] Read more.
Dingo classification and management is complicated by hybridisation with domestic dogs. Northern Australia is a relatively high-risk zone for a rabies incursion, and in the event of an incursion, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples who reside in this region would prioritise the protection of dingoes. Therefore, the classification of dingoes in this context is important. Twelve pictures of canids with features associated with both dingoes and domestic dogs from camera traps in the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), northern Queensland, were shown to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rangers (n = 3), biosecurity officers (n = 2), environmental health workers (n = 2), and residents (n = 39) in the NPA. Nearly all pictures (10/12) were classified as dingo or domestic dog (none as hybrid) and two were inconclusive (no overall agreement). Dingoes were consistently identified as medium to large-framed dogs, with a long nose, pointed ears, narrow abdomen, a bushy or feathered tail, and smooth coats of a single base colour. Some hybrid features were acceptable, including sable coats, lack of white tail tip or feet, and curled tail. These findings are a preliminary guide for identifying canids in the NPA region for whom management might be controversial. Building on this approach via further consultation with residents is needed to inform rabies response policy. Our approach using locally acquired camera trap pictures could also be extended to other regions in which dingoes have value but their management is controversial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecology and Conservation)
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15 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
Addition of a Mixture of Plant Extracts to Diets for Growing-Finishing Pigs on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, Carcass Traits, Organ Weight as a Percentage of Live Weight, Quality and Sensorial Analysis of Meat
by José Luis Dávila-Ramírez, Lucas Lisandro Munguía-Acosta, Jubitza Guadalupe Morales-Coronado, Ana Delia García-Salinas, Humberto González-Ríos, Hernán Celaya-Michel, Jesús Sosa-Castañeda, Esther Sánchez-Villalba, Jesús Anaya-Islas and Miguel Angel Barrera-Silva
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071229 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3394
Abstract
The effect of plant extracts (PE; artichoke, celery, beet, onion, garlic, spinach, avocado, oats, and parsley) in the diet of growing pigs under heat stress was investigated. Parameters included growth performance, blood constituents, carcass characteristics, organ percentage, quality and sensory appraisal of the [...] Read more.
The effect of plant extracts (PE; artichoke, celery, beet, onion, garlic, spinach, avocado, oats, and parsley) in the diet of growing pigs under heat stress was investigated. Parameters included growth performance, blood constituents, carcass characteristics, organ percentage, quality and sensory appraisal of the pork. The study was performed during the Mexican summer, using 60 pigs. Treatments included the control, to which 0.1% PE, and 0.15% PE were added. The use of PE (0.1 and 0.15%) generated an increase in the average daily gain (ADG, by 10.0% for both treatments), and final live weight (LW, by 6.3% and 6.8%) (p < 0.05). The level of blood albumin at 95 kg was higher when supplementing with 0.1% PE (p < 0.05). At 120 kg LW, creatine kinase values showed a tendency to be different (p = 0.07). Carcass weight increased (p < 0.05) when adding PE. Supplementation with 0.1% PE decreased (p < 0.05) the red/green (a *) hue of the meat, whereas supplementation with 0.1% and 0.15% PE increased the yellow/blue (b *) hue (p < 0.05). The addition of PE improves pig growth performance, and carcass weight by reducing the negative effects of heat stress, without markedly modifying blood constituents, meat quality, and sensory attributes of the pork. Full article
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14 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Nociceptive Threshold of Calves and Goat Kids Undergoing Injection of Clove Oil or Isoeugenol for Disbudding
by Sandra Frahm, Pierpaolo Di Giminiani, Anna Stanitznig, Julia Schoiswohl, Reinhild Krametter-Frötscher, Thomas Wittek and Susanne Waiblinger
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071228 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
In this preliminary study, we compared changes in mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) of calves and goat kids injected with clove oil or isoeugenol under the horn bud as a potential, more welfare-friendly alternative to hot-iron disbudding. Twenty male calves and goat kids were [...] Read more.
In this preliminary study, we compared changes in mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) of calves and goat kids injected with clove oil or isoeugenol under the horn bud as a potential, more welfare-friendly alternative to hot-iron disbudding. Twenty male calves and goat kids were randomly allocated to clove oil (n = 10 per species) or isoeugenol (n = 10 per species) injection under the horn buds. MNT was measured via a pressure algometer in calves and kids at several locations around the horn buds at several time points before and up to 24 h after injection. In kids, von Frey filaments were used additionally at the same time points. In calves, linear mixed models revealed an effect on MNT of time point (p = 0.010) and side (p = 0.007), but not of injection (p = 0.298), nor of the interaction ‘injection*time point’, MNT waslowest 9 h post-injection. In goats, there was an effect of injection depending on time point (interaction injection*time point, p = 0.03) with MNT being lowest 24 h post-injection for clove oil, while MNT was similar to pre-injection in isoeugenol. In both species, variation in the individual response post-injection was very high. Our results suggest that clove oil and isoeugenol induced hypersensitivity, which was higher for clove oil, in goat kids, but they also suggest a transient anaesthetic effect in some animals and locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
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10 pages, 1604 KiB  
Article
Study on the Public Perception of “Community-Owned Dogs” in the Abruzzo Region, Central Italy
by Alessandra Paolini, Sara Romagnoli, Maria Nardoia, Annamaria Conte, Romolo Salini, Michele Podaliri Vulpiani and Paolo Dalla Villa
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071227 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5000
Abstract
The Abruzzo Regional Law Nr. 47/2013, following a circular from the Italian Ministry of Health and OIE recommendations, allows the local municipalities to release free-roaming dogs (FRDs) caught on the territory once the local veterinary services (LVSs) have rated the dogs as unowned [...] Read more.
The Abruzzo Regional Law Nr. 47/2013, following a circular from the Italian Ministry of Health and OIE recommendations, allows the local municipalities to release free-roaming dogs (FRDs) caught on the territory once the local veterinary services (LVSs) have rated the dogs as unowned and not aggressive, have neutered them, as well as identified them through a microchip and a visible collar. The responsibility of these “community-owned dogs” (CODs) falls under the mayor of the local municipality that can entrust their custody to qualified people. The present study was conducted in the Abruzzo region, located in central Italy, to investigate public perception towards CODs, and in particular whether their presence is perceived as a problem or a benefit by the local communities. The data were collected by both direct interviews and an online survey, based on a questionnaire developed by a multidisciplinary team. The questionnaire was distributed in 31 municipalities sampled on the basis of the urbanization rate, and 497 people were interviewed over a 9-month period. More than half of the respondents (54%) stated that CODs can contribute to the control of stray dogs. The majority (83%) believed that a greater commitment is needed to involve the local communities on issues regarding CODs. The findings of this study highlighted the general difficulty for people to distinguish stray dogs from CODs that are not fully known, as evidenced by the fact that 59% of the respondents did not know the aforementioned Regional Law that defines and regulates the presence of the CODs. Full article
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16 pages, 3493 KiB  
Article
Productive Results, Oxidative Stress and Contaminant Markers in European Sea Bass: Conventional vs. Organic Feeding
by Antonio Carminato, Francesco Pascoli, Angela Trocino, Lisa Locatello, Lisa Maccatrozzo, Renato Palazzi, Giuseppe Radaelli, Cristina Ballarin, Martina Bortoletti and Daniela Bertotto
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071226 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
In the present study European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) subjected to two different diets (organic vs. conventional) were evaluated in terms of growing performances, oxidative stress, and contaminant markers. Growing performances were evaluated using biometric measures and condition factor (K), whereas [...] Read more.
In the present study European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) subjected to two different diets (organic vs. conventional) were evaluated in terms of growing performances, oxidative stress, and contaminant markers. Growing performances were evaluated using biometric measures and condition factor (K), whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I and IGF-II) levels were assessed trough Real-Time PCR analysis. For oxidative stress, immunohistochemical staining for 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) was performed, whereas total glutathione (GSH) in blood serum was determined by an enzymatic method adapted. Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) were evaluated as contaminant markers trough immunohistochemical and histochemical approaches, respectively. The growing performances showed a positive trend in both groups but a greater productivity in conventional fed fish compared to the organic ones. A significant higher expression of MMCs was observed in organic vs. conventional diet fed fish. Fillet analysis showed a higher MUFA content and a lower PUFAs n-6 content in organically fed sea bass indicating that diets with a content in fatty acids closer to that of wild fish will definitely affect the fatty acid profile of the fish flesh. On the other hand, the diet composition did not seem to affect neither the oxidative stress parameters (GSH, 8-OHdG, HNE) nor the CYP1A expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunohistochemical and Physiological Research on Farm Animals)
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13 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Do Behaviour Assessments in a Shelter Predict the Behaviour of Dogs Post-Adoption?
by Liam Clay, Mandy B. A. Paterson, Pauleen Bennett, Gaille Perry and Clive C. J. Phillips
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071225 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 10099
Abstract
In shelters it is usual to conduct standardised behaviour assessments on admitted dogs. The information gathered from the assessment is used to identify dogs that are suitable for adoption and assist in matching the dog with suitable adopters. These assessments are also used [...] Read more.
In shelters it is usual to conduct standardised behaviour assessments on admitted dogs. The information gathered from the assessment is used to identify dogs that are suitable for adoption and assist in matching the dog with suitable adopters. These assessments are also used to guide behaviour modification programs for dogs that display some unwanted behaviours. For some dogs, the results may indicate that they are unsuitable either for re-training or for adoption. In these circumstances the dogs may be euthanised. We investigated the predictive value of a standardised behaviour assessment protocol currently used in an Australian shelter for dog behaviour post-adoption. A total of 123 dogs, aged 1–10 years and housed in an animal care shelter, were assessed before they were adopted. The new owners of the dogs took part in a post-adoption survey conducted 1 month after adoption, which explored the behaviour of their dog after adoption. Ordinal regression analyses identified that friendly/social, fear and anxiousness identified in the shelter assessment significantly predicted corresponding behaviours post-adoption. However, behaviour problems, such as aggression, food guarding and separation-related behaviours, were not reliably predicted by the standardised behaviour assessment. The results suggest that further research is required to improve the predictability of behaviour assessment protocols for more specific behaviour problems, including different categories of aggression and separation-related problems. We recommend that dog behaviour assessments in shelters are used only in conjunction with other monitoring tools to assess behaviour over the whole shelter stay, thus facilitating increased safety/welfare standards for dogs, shelters and the wider community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavior of Shelter Animals)
21 pages, 2807 KiB  
Article
Effect of Covering a Visitor Viewing Area Window on the Behaviour of Zoo-Housed Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor)
by Samantha J. Chiew, Kym L. Butler, Sally L. Sherwen, Grahame J. Coleman, Vicky Melfi, Alicia Burns and Paul H. Hemsworth
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071224 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7448
Abstract
Studies on the effects of visitors on zoo animals have shown mixed findings and as a result, the manner in which visitors affect zoo animals remains unclear for many species, including a rarely studied taxa such as penguins. Penguins are a common zoo-housed [...] Read more.
Studies on the effects of visitors on zoo animals have shown mixed findings and as a result, the manner in which visitors affect zoo animals remains unclear for many species, including a rarely studied taxa such as penguins. Penguins are a common zoo-housed species and have been shown to display huddling, vigilance and avoidance towards zoo visitors which can be indicative of fear. Here, we examined the effects of covering one visitor viewing area window, out of four, on little penguin (Eudyptula minor) behaviours that may be indicative of fear. Two treatments were randomly imposed on different days: (1) The main visitor viewing area window, where most visitor-penguin interactions occurred, was uncovered (‘Main window uncovered’) and (2) The main visitor viewing area window was covered (‘Main window covered’). Penguin numbers and behaviour were recorded near the main visitor viewing area window and the three other visitor viewing area windows, as well as one area not visible to visitors (‘Corner’ area). Furthermore, visitor numbers and visitor behaviour were recorded at all four visitor viewing area windows. Covering the main visitor viewing area window reduced the proportion of visitors present at this window by about 85% (p < 0.001) and reduced potentially threatening visitor behaviours at this window such as tactile contact with the window, loud vocalisations and sudden movement (p < 0.05). When the main visitor viewing area window was covered, the proportion of penguins present increased by about 25% (p < 0.05), the proportion of visible penguins preening in the water increased by about 180% (p < 0.05) and the proportion of visible penguins vigilant decreased by about 70% (p < 0.05) in the area near this main window. A preference for the Corner area was also found whereby 59% and 49% of penguins were present in this area when the main window was uncovered and covered, respectively. These results provide limited evidence that the little penguins in this exhibit showed an aversion to the area near the main visitor viewing area window when it was uncovered based on the increased avoidance and vigilance and decreased preening in the water in this area. This suggests visitors may be fear-provoking for these little penguins. However, it is unclear whether visual contact with visitors per se or other aspects of visitor contact, such as visitor-induced sounds and vibrations, were responsible for this apparent aversion when this window was uncovered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evidence-Based Practice in Zoo Animal Management)
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19 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Perch Positioning Affects both Laying Hen Locomotion and Forces Experienced at the Keel
by Christina Rufener, Ana K. Rentsch, Ariane Stratmann and Michael J. Toscano
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071223 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3302
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of perch positioning on laying hens’ locomotion and the resulting energy experienced at the keel. Twenty Nick Chick and 20 Brown Nick hens were trained to transition from a platform to a perch [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of perch positioning on laying hens’ locomotion and the resulting energy experienced at the keel. Twenty Nick Chick and 20 Brown Nick hens were trained to transition from a platform to a perch in several configurations. Three variables of perch positioning were tested in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design: direction (upward vs. downward), angle (flat vs. steep), and distance (50 cm vs. 100 cm). All hens were tested for five jumps of each treatment combination at 27–28 weeks of age. As predicted, we found steep angles and long distances to result in higher peak forces and impulse during take-off, flight, and landing; longer latency to jump; a higher likelihood to perform balancing movements; and a longer latency to peck at the provided food reward. The effect of perch positioning on locomotion and force at the keel during downwards jumps and flight was more pronounced in Brown Nick hens than in Nick Chick hens. Although we cannot state how the observed forces at the keel relate to the risk for keel bone fractures, our results indicated that optimizing perch positioning can reduce accumulated forced at the keel and consequent risk for fracture due to unsuccessful transitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
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10 pages, 1108 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Study toward a Rapid Assessment of Age-Related Behavioral Differences in Family Dogs
by Eniko Kubinyi and Ivaylo B. Iotchev
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071222 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4410
Abstract
Over the last few years, several efforts have been undertaken to characterize the aging process in dogs. In the present study, we evaluate a short protocol measuring dogs’ cognitive, social, and physical capacities. Our aim was to develop a feasible test battery, with [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, several efforts have been undertaken to characterize the aging process in dogs. In the present study, we evaluate a short protocol measuring dogs’ cognitive, social, and physical capacities. Our aim was to develop a feasible test battery, with minimal pre-training requirements, no complex devices, and which is set outdoors (i.e., a specific testing room is not needed). As ageing in dogs is usually associated with a decrease in activity, we also assessed the personality trait activity/excitability with a dog personality questionnaire. Four subtests proved sensitive to the dogs’ age. In particular, old dogs displayed less approaching and following behaviors toward an unknown but friendly human, showed both less avoidance and interest toward a novel object, looked less at the owner when faced with an unsolvable problem, and performed worse on the short-term memory task. Previous test procedures for investigating age-related changes involve expensive and/or complicated devices and extensive pre-training. The main advantage of the proposed battery is to reduce costs and efforts in veterinary assessments. Further tests in same-breed, large samples and between dogs with mild and severe cognitive impairments will be needed in order to further validate the battery. Full article
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10 pages, 1139 KiB  
Article
Administration of Glucose at Litter Equalization as a Strategy to Increase Energy in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Piglets
by Joanna Klaaborg and Charlotte Amdi
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071221 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Hyper-prolific sows give birth to large litters and up to 25% of piglets born have been subjected to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to test whether an oral administration of glucose impacts the survival rate and body weight [...] Read more.
Hyper-prolific sows give birth to large litters and up to 25% of piglets born have been subjected to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study was to test whether an oral administration of glucose impacts the survival rate and body weight gain of IUGR piglets at weaning. Different methods (injection versus oral administration of glucose 6 mL or 12 mL, respectively) were tested on IUGR piglets at litter equalization (i.e., when piglets are handled the first time at 5–20 h after birth). Injecting glucose generated the highest whole-blood glucose level + 3 h after treatment, however, after this no differences were observed. Of the 237 IUGR piglets studied, 98 piglets died or were removed from the nurse sow (41%). Rectal temperature at litter equalization (0 h) was related to the survival of the piglets with an average temperature of 37.1 ± 0.1 °C in surviving piglets and 36.6 ± 0.1 °C in piglets that died. In conclusion, providing these extra management actions at litter equalization is too late to help piglets that have a low rectal temperature and are low on energy. More research investigating different management methods to deal with IUGR piglets are needed as many of these underdeveloped piglets will not survive. Full article
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18 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Attitudes and Beliefs of Eastern European Consumers Towards Animal Welfare
by Igor Tomasevic, Ivan Bahelka, Jaroslav Čítek, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, Ilija Djekić, Andriy Getya, Luis Guerrero, Sonya Ivanova, Goran Kušec, Dimitar Nakov, Bartosz Sołowiej, Maricica Stoica, Csaba Szabó, Liliana Tudoreanu, Ulrike Weiler and Maria Font-i-Furnols
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071220 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4072
Abstract
The aim of this exploratory work, because of the existing bias on the size of the sample and some of the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, was to investigate the Eastern European consumers’ beliefs and attitudes toward animal welfare, to perform a cross-country [...] Read more.
The aim of this exploratory work, because of the existing bias on the size of the sample and some of the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, was to investigate the Eastern European consumers’ beliefs and attitudes toward animal welfare, to perform a cross-country segmentation analysis and to observe possible differences with their Western European counterparts. For this purpose, a survey was conducted with 5508 consumers from 13 Eastern European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, North Macedonia, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine) using a questionnaire with nine statements about consumers beliefs regarding animal welfare (aspects of management, ethical issues about animals, and consequences of animal welfare on meat quality and price), one statement about the willingness to pay more for meat produced under better welfare conditions, and four statements regarding attitudes toward animal welfare. Differences between countries were detected for all the statements. Moreover, three clusters of consumers were identified: one with consumers indifferent towards animal welfare; one with consumers concerned about animal welfare, but they believe it is difficult to achieve; and one with consumers concerned about animal welfare, and they believe it is possible to achieve it. Full article
20 pages, 1741 KiB  
Review
Cadaver Dogs and the Deathly Hallows—A Survey and Literature Review on Selection and Training Procedure
by Clément Martin, Claire Diederich and François Verheggen
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071219 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 12626
Abstract
Human remains detection dogs (HRDDs) are powerful police assets to locate a corpse. However, the methods used to select and train them are as diverse as the number of countries with such a canine brigade. First, a survey sent to human remains searching [...] Read more.
Human remains detection dogs (HRDDs) are powerful police assets to locate a corpse. However, the methods used to select and train them are as diverse as the number of countries with such a canine brigade. First, a survey sent to human remains searching brigades (Ncountries = 10; NBrigades = 16; NHandlers = 50; Nquestions = 9), to collect their working habits confirmed the lack of optimized selection and training procedures. Second, a literature review was performed in order to outline the strengths and shortcomings of HRDDs training. A comparison between the scientific knowledge and the common practices used by HRDDs brigade was then conducted focusing on HRDDs selection and training procedures. We highlighted that HRDD handlers select their dogs by focusing on behavioral traits while neglecting anatomical features, which have been shown to be important. Most HRDD handlers reported to use a reward-based training, which is in accordance with training literature for dogs. Training aids should be representative of the odor target to allow a dog to reach optimal performances. The survey highlighted the wide diversity of homemade training aids, and the need to optimize their composition. In the present document, key research topics to improve HRDD works are also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Animals: Welfare, Ethics and Human-Animals Relationship)
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10 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Oral Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum CAM6 Strain as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Weaned Pigs
by César Betancur, Yordan Martínez, Ruben Merino-Guzman, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Rogel Castillo, Roman Rodríguez and Guillermo Tellez-Isaias
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071218 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3024
Abstract
The objective was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum CAM6 strain as an alternative to antibiotics in weaned pigs on productive parameters, blood biochemical profile, and IgA serum levels. Thirty-six 21-day-old weaned piglets were randomly assigned to three groups [...] Read more.
The objective was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum CAM6 strain as an alternative to antibiotics in weaned pigs on productive parameters, blood biochemical profile, and IgA serum levels. Thirty-six 21-day-old weaned piglets were randomly assigned to three groups with three replicates of four piglets each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (BD; T0) without probiotics or antibiotics; BD + antibiotics and the same basal diet used in T0 plus oral administration of 5 mL × 109 CFU/mL of L. plantarum CAM-6 (T2). During the study (21 to 49 days of age) T2 obtained a similar live weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio when compared to the T1. Both treatments were better in these variables compared to T0 (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, T2 increased serum IgA levels (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, hematological parameters and acid-base balance remained similar in all groups. However, significant reductions in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelets, and metabolic hydrogen ions were observed in T1 (p ≤ 0.05). The results of this study suggest that supplementation with L. plantarum CAM6 can be an alternative to antibiotics. Studies to evaluate its efficacy under commercial conditions and water administration require further evaluation. Full article
10 pages, 673 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of the Inbreeding Coefficient and Homozygosity in Thoroughbred Horses in Russia
by Valery Kalashnikov, Lyudmila Khrabrova, Nina Blohina, Alexander Zaitcev and Tatyana Kalashnikova
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071217 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3049
Abstract
The Thoroughbred (TB) horse has hugely impacted the development of horse breeding around the world. This breed has unique genetic qualities due to having had a closed studbook for approximately 300 years. In Russia, TBs have been bred since the second half of [...] Read more.
The Thoroughbred (TB) horse has hugely impacted the development of horse breeding around the world. This breed has unique genetic qualities due to having had a closed studbook for approximately 300 years. In Russia, TBs have been bred since the second half of the 18th century. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity and the inbreeding level in TB horses (n = 9680) for the period from 1990 to 2018 using polymorphisms of 17 microsatellite loci. We found that the genetic structure of the TB breed in Russia is represented by 100 alleles of panel STR (short tandem repeat) loci and has been stable for the past three decades. The conducted monitoring revealed a slight increase in the Wright’s inbreeding coefficient in all age and sex groups of TB horses (stallions, broodmares, and foals) from 0.68% to 0.90%, which was followed by a decrease in the degree of heterozygosity, Ho, from 68.5% to 67.6%. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between the level of inbreeding and the degree of homozygosity was estimated (r = 0.022; p > 0.05). The obtained data on the DNA genotypes of horses of different breeds provide a unique base for the evaluation of genetic variability and the control of genetic variability of horses in selection programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horse Breeding and Genetics)
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13 pages, 2561 KiB  
Article
Association Analysis between SPP1, POFUT1 and PRLR Gene Variation and Milk Yield, Composition and Coagulation Traits in Sarda Sheep
by Maria Luisa Dettori, Michele Pazzola, Elena Petretto and Giuseppe Massimo Vacca
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071216 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
Many studies focus on the identification of genomic regions that undergo selective processes, where evidence of selection is revealed and positional candidate genes are identified. The aim of the research was to evaluate the association between positional candidate genes, namely secreted phosphoprotein 1 [...] Read more.
Many studies focus on the identification of genomic regions that undergo selective processes, where evidence of selection is revealed and positional candidate genes are identified. The aim of the research was to evaluate the association between positional candidate genes, namely secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, sheep chromosome Ovis aries OAR6, 36.651–36.658 Mb), protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (POFUT1, OAR13, 61.006–61.027 Mb) and prolactin receptor (PRLR, OAR16, 38.969–39.028 Mb) with milk yield, composition and coagulation traits. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to the three genes were genotyped in 380 Sarda dairy sheep. Statistical analysis revealed an association between SNP rs161844011 at SPP1 (chromosome position Oar_v3 OAR6:36651870, gene region exon 7) and somatic cell score, while POFUT1 SNP rs424501869 (OAR13:61007495, intron 1) was associated with curd firmness both 45 and 60 min after rennet addition (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively). SNP rs400874750 at PRLR gene (OAR16:39004070, intron 2) had a significant association with lactose content (p = 0.020), somatic cell score (p = 0.038), rennet coagulation time (p = 0.018) and curd firming time (p = 0.047). The outcome of this research confirmed predictions based on genomic studies, producing new information regarding the SPP1, POFUT1 and PRLR genes, which may be useful for future breeding schemes. Full article
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12 pages, 429 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Diffusion in Conventional, Organic and Antibiotic-Free Meat Chickens at Slaughter
by Laura Musa, Patrizia Casagrande Proietti, Raffaella Branciari, Laura Menchetti, Sara Bellucci, David Ranucci, Maria Luisa Marenzoni and Maria Pia Franciosini
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071215 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4184
Abstract
As a result of public health concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance in animal-based food products, conventional poultry companies have turned to ‘raised without antibiotics’ (ABF) and organic farming systems. In this work, we evaluated the influence of rearing systems on antimicrobial susceptibility in E. [...] Read more.
As a result of public health concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance in animal-based food products, conventional poultry companies have turned to ‘raised without antibiotics’ (ABF) and organic farming systems. In this work, we evaluated the influence of rearing systems on antimicrobial susceptibility in E. coli and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESLB) E. coli diffusion in conventional (C), organic (O) and antibiotic free (ABF) chicken samples collected from cloacal swabs and skin samples in slaughterhouse. The E. coli isolates from conventional (135), antibiotic-free (131) and organic (140) samples were submitted to the Kirby–Bauer method and ESBL E. coli were analyzed by the microdilution test. Conventional samples showed the highest number of strains resistant to ampicillin (89.6%; p < 0.01), cefotaxime (43.7%; p < 0.01), nalidixic acid (57.8%; p < 0.01), ciprofloxacin (44.4%; p < 0.001), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (62.2%; p < 0.01), with patterns of multi-resistance to three (35.1%) and to four antimicrobials (31.3%), whereas most of the E. coli isolated from antibiotic-free and organic chicken samples revealed a co-resistance pattern (29.2% and 39%, respectively). The highest number of ESBL E. coli was observed in conventional, in both cloacal and skin samples and the lowest in organic (p < 0.001). Our results are consistent with the effect of conventional farming practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and ESBL E. coli number, due to the use of antimicrobials and close contact with litter for most of the production cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry Production)
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9 pages, 1705 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Milking Units on the Pulsation Curve in Dairy Sheep Milking
by Maria Caria, Giuseppe Todde and Antonio Pazzona
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071213 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
Mechanical milking is a critical operation in ewe dairy farming where the operative parameters and the milking routine strongly influence milk production and animal welfare. The challenge in adapting dairy animals to the farm environmental conditions may cause illness and compromise the quality [...] Read more.
Mechanical milking is a critical operation in ewe dairy farming where the operative parameters and the milking routine strongly influence milk production and animal welfare. The challenge in adapting dairy animals to the farm environmental conditions may cause illness and compromise the quality of the products. From this perspective, it is important to evaluate the technological and operational aspects that can influence milk quality and animal welfare. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects on the pulsation curve of several teat cup characteristics (volume of the pulsation chamber) at determined operating parameters (vacuum level and pulsator rate) recorded from nine different milking units. Moreover, the touch point pressure of different liners was measured. Data analysis showed that the sheep milking unit characteristics affected the pulsation curve significantly. The length of both the increasing vacuum phase and the decreasing vacuum phase (phase “a” and “c”, respectively), which affect the milking and massage phases, was directly related to the pulsation chamber volume (R2 = 0.86) and the pulsator rate. No relationship emerged between the touch point pressure and specific characteristics of the liners such as the material, the shape, the diameter, the length, or the extension of the body. Considering the delicate role that the pulsation plays in ensuring animal welfare during milking, it is important to take into account the complete configuration and operative characteristics of the milking units. This will ensure that the complex interaction between the pulsation system and the milking units is considered when planning and assembling milking systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal System and Management)
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