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Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Diffusion in Conventional, Organic and Antibiotic-Free Meat Chickens at Slaughter

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, 06126 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071215
Received: 4 July 2020 / Revised: 11 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry Production)
Following the spread of antibiotic resistance and the high consumption of chicken meat, conventional poultry-producing companies have turned to antibiotic-free and organic lines of products. Our work investigated E. coli susceptibility to different antimicrobials and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli diffusion from samples collected in slaughterhouse from conventional (C), organic (O) and reared without antibiotics (ABF) chickens. Conventional samples showed the highest number of E. coli strains resistant to ampicillin (89.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (62.2%), nalidixic acid (57.8%), ciprofloxacin (44.4%), and cefotaxime (43.7%), with prevalent patterns of multi-resistance to three (35.1%) and to four antimicrobials (31.3%). The highest numbers of ESBL E. coli were observed in conventional and the lowest in organic. Our results are relevant with an influence of farming typology regarding the susceptibility of E. coli and the presence of ESBL E. coli. Conventional farms, in which the use of antibiotics is allowed, showed samples with the highest number of strains resistant to antimicrobials commonly used in poultry as well as the highest amounts of ESBL E. coli. Organic samples exhibited the lowest value for ESBL due to a lack of antimicrobial treatment in chickens and the possibility to have access to the outdoors, limiting contact with litter as a potential source of resistant bacteria.
As a result of public health concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance in animal-based food products, conventional poultry companies have turned to ‘raised without antibiotics’ (ABF) and organic farming systems. In this work, we evaluated the influence of rearing systems on antimicrobial susceptibility in E. coli and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESLB) E. coli diffusion in conventional (C), organic (O) and antibiotic free (ABF) chicken samples collected from cloacal swabs and skin samples in slaughterhouse. The E. coli isolates from conventional (135), antibiotic-free (131) and organic (140) samples were submitted to the Kirby–Bauer method and ESBL E. coli were analyzed by the microdilution test. Conventional samples showed the highest number of strains resistant to ampicillin (89.6%; p < 0.01), cefotaxime (43.7%; p < 0.01), nalidixic acid (57.8%; p < 0.01), ciprofloxacin (44.4%; p < 0.001), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (62.2%; p < 0.01), with patterns of multi-resistance to three (35.1%) and to four antimicrobials (31.3%), whereas most of the E. coli isolated from antibiotic-free and organic chicken samples revealed a co-resistance pattern (29.2% and 39%, respectively). The highest number of ESBL E. coli was observed in conventional, in both cloacal and skin samples and the lowest in organic (p < 0.001). Our results are consistent with the effect of conventional farming practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and ESBL E. coli number, due to the use of antimicrobials and close contact with litter for most of the production cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: E. coli; ESBL E. coli; multi-resistance; meat chickens; rearing system; slaughterhouse E. coli; ESBL E. coli; multi-resistance; meat chickens; rearing system; slaughterhouse
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MDPI and ACS Style

Musa, L.; Casagrande Proietti, P.; Branciari, R.; Menchetti, L.; Bellucci, S.; Ranucci, D.; Marenzoni, M.L.; Franciosini, M.P. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Diffusion in Conventional, Organic and Antibiotic-Free Meat Chickens at Slaughter. Animals 2020, 10, 1215. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071215

AMA Style

Musa L, Casagrande Proietti P, Branciari R, Menchetti L, Bellucci S, Ranucci D, Marenzoni ML, Franciosini MP. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Diffusion in Conventional, Organic and Antibiotic-Free Meat Chickens at Slaughter. Animals. 2020; 10(7):1215. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071215

Chicago/Turabian Style

Musa, Laura, Patrizia Casagrande Proietti, Raffaella Branciari, Laura Menchetti, Sara Bellucci, David Ranucci, Maria L. Marenzoni, and Maria P. Franciosini. 2020. "Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Diffusion in Conventional, Organic and Antibiotic-Free Meat Chickens at Slaughter" Animals 10, no. 7: 1215. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071215

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