Next Article in Journal
Effect of Medetomidine, Dexmedetomidine, and Their Reversal with Atipamezole on the Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflex in Beagles
Next Article in Special Issue
Beyond Glucocorticoids: Integrating Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into Animal Welfare Research
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing Pain Control Efficacy of Meloxicam and Ketoprofen When Compounded with Iron Dextran in Nursing Piglets Using A Navigation Chute
Previous Article in Special Issue
Preliminary Findings on a Novel Behavioural Approach for the Assessment of Pain and Analgesia in Lambs Subject to Routine Husbandry Procedures
Review

Review of Livestock Welfare Indicators Relevant for the Australian Live Export Industry

College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071236
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 4 July 2020 / Accepted: 8 July 2020 / Published: 21 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Assessment of Animal Welfare Indicators)
The live animal export industry is under increasing public scrutiny to ensure optimal animal welfare conditions are met. To date, the main animal-based welfare indicator used to review and regulate this industry has been mortality. For a proactive industry wanting to transition to reporting on animal welfare not mortality, a broader suite of measures is needed. We reviewed a total of 71 potential animal welfare measures, identifying those measures that would be appropriate for use throughout the live export chain for feeder and slaughter livestock animals, and categorised these as animal-, environment- and resource-based. After considering the industry-specific constraints for animal welfare assessments, measures were categorised according to their application to the three identified sectors of the live export industry. We identified measures already undertaken or that are relevant for specific situations as part of the industry. Further research is currently underway to validate the applicability and value of these measures.
Animal welfare is an important issue for the live export industry (LEI), in terms of economic returns, community attitudes and international socio-political relations. Mortality has traditionally been the main welfare measure recorded within the LEI; however, high mortality incidents are usually acted upon after adverse events occur, reducing the scope for proactive welfare enhancement. We reviewed 71 potential animal welfare measures, identifying those measures that would be appropriate for use throughout the LEI for feeder and slaughter livestock species, and categorised these as animal-, environment- and resource-based. We divided the live export supply chain into three sectors: (1) Australian facilities, (2) vessel and (3) destination country facilities. After reviewing the relevant regulations for each sector of the industry, we identified 38 (sector 1), 35 (sector 2) and 26 (sector 3) measures already being collected under current practice. These could be used to form a ‘welfare information dashboard’: a LEI-specific online interface for collecting data that could contribute towards standardised industry reporting. We identified another 20, 25 and 28 measures that are relevant to each LEI sector (sectors 1, 2, 3, respectively), and that could be developed and integrated into a benchmarking system in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: physiology; behaviour; quality assurance; welfare indicators; benchmarking physiology; behaviour; quality assurance; welfare indicators; benchmarking
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Fleming, P.A.; Wickham, S.L.; Dunston-Clarke, E.J.; Willis, R.S.; Barnes, A.L.; Miller, D.W.; Collins, T. Review of Livestock Welfare Indicators Relevant for the Australian Live Export Industry. Animals 2020, 10, 1236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071236

AMA Style

Fleming PA, Wickham SL, Dunston-Clarke EJ, Willis RS, Barnes AL, Miller DW, Collins T. Review of Livestock Welfare Indicators Relevant for the Australian Live Export Industry. Animals. 2020; 10(7):1236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071236

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fleming, Patricia A., Sarah L. Wickham, Emma J. Dunston-Clarke, Renee S. Willis, Anne L. Barnes, David W. Miller, and Teresa Collins. 2020. "Review of Livestock Welfare Indicators Relevant for the Australian Live Export Industry" Animals 10, no. 7: 1236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071236

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop