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Metals, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Laser welding of dissimilar high-strength steels is typically investigated by assessing their [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Recycling the GaN Waste from LED Industry by Pressurized Leaching Method
Metals 2018, 8(10), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100861
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, with the increasing research and development of the light-emitting diode (LED) industry, which contains gallium nitride (GaN), it is expected that there will be a large amount of related wastes in the future. Gallium has an extremely high economic value,
[...] Read more.
In recent years, with the increasing research and development of the light-emitting diode (LED) industry, which contains gallium nitride (GaN), it is expected that there will be a large amount of related wastes in the future. Gallium has an extremely high economic value, therefore, it is necessary to establish a recycling system for the GaN waste. However, GaN is a direct-gap semiconductor and with its high energy gap, high hardness, and high melting point, these make it difficult to recycle. Therefore, this study will analyze the physical characteristics of LED wastes containing GaN and carry out various leaching methods to leach the valuable metals from the waste optimally. Different acids are used to find out the best reagent for gallium leaching. Different experimental parameters are discussed, such as the effect of the different acid agents, concentration, pressure, liquid-solid mass ratio, temperature and time, which influence the leaching efficiency of gallium. Finally, acid leaching under high pressure is preferred to leach the GaN waste, and hydrochloric acid is used as the leaching solution because of its better leaching efficiency of gallium. Optimally, the leaching efficiency of gallium can reach 98%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Edge Crack, Texture Evolution, and Mechanical Properties of Mg-1Al-1Sn-Mn Alloy Sheets Prepared Using On-Line Heating Rolling
Metals 2018, 8(10), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100860
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
A series of Mg-1Al-1Sn-Mn magnesium alloy sheets were rolled from 3 mm to 1 mm under temperatures of 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C in four rolling passes using on-line heating rolling. The conventional rolling was also performed for comparison. Scanning electron
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A series of Mg-1Al-1Sn-Mn magnesium alloy sheets were rolled from 3 mm to 1 mm under temperatures of 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C in four rolling passes using on-line heating rolling. The conventional rolling was also performed for comparison. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technologies were utilized to characterize the edge cracks as well as the microstructure of rolled thin sheets. The result revealed that the number of edge cracks decreased dramatically with the increase of rolling temperature. No visible edge cracks were found on the surface of sheets rolled at 250 °C by on-line heating rolling, while the conventional rolling at the same temperature still resulted in severe edge cracks. The intensity of the basal texture for on-line rolled sheets increased from 4.982 to 9.596 as the rolling temperature increased from 150 °C to 250 °C, which was related to the reorientation of new grains and deformation grains remained after rolling. The direction of the basal pole slightly tilted towards the rolling direction (RD), which may be mainly attributed to the activation of a pyramidal slip, as well as the tension imposed on the samples. Moreover, mechanical properties were improved after rolling on the basis of the strong texture and grain refinement. The highest yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and the maximum elongation of the rolled sheets were 148 MPa, 298 MPa, and 14.6% along the RD, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Quantitative Comparison among Different Algorithms for Defects Detection on Aluminum with the Pulsed Thermography Technique
Metals 2018, 8(10), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100859
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Pulsed thermography is commonly used as a non-destructive technique for evaluating defects within materials and components. In the last few years, many algorithms have been developed with the aim to detect defects and different methods have been used for detecting their size and
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Pulsed thermography is commonly used as a non-destructive technique for evaluating defects within materials and components. In the last few years, many algorithms have been developed with the aim to detect defects and different methods have been used for detecting their size and depth. However, only few works in the literature reported a comparison among the different algorithms in terms of the number of detected defects, the time spent in testing and analysis, and the quantitative evaluation of size and depth. In this work, starting from a pulsed thermographic test carried out on an aluminum specimen with twenty flat bottom holes of known nominal size and depth, different algorithms have been used with the aim to obtain a comparison among them in terms of signal to background contrast (SBC) and number of detected defects by analyzing different time intervals. Moreover, the correlation between SBC and the aspect ratio of the defects has been investigated. The algorithms used have been: Pulsed Phase Thermography (PPT), Slope, Correlation Coefficient (R2), Thermal Signal Reconstruction (TSR) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT). The results showed the advantages, disadvantages, and sensitivity of the various thermographic algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Methods for Damage Evaluation of Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Static Recrystallization Nucleation Sites in Tensile Deformed Single Crystal Pure Iron through a Combination of In-Situ EBSD and CP-FEM
Metals 2018, 8(10), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100858
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Microstructure control is of vital importance in tailoring physical properties of metallic materials. Despite the enormous efforts devoted to the study of microstructure evolution during recrystallization, most previous research has been conducted under non-simple conditions, either applying complex deforming boundary conditions or employing
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Microstructure control is of vital importance in tailoring physical properties of metallic materials. Despite the enormous efforts devoted to the study of microstructure evolution during recrystallization, most previous research has been conducted under non-simple conditions, either applying complex deforming boundary conditions or employing specimens with sophisticated crystalline structure. These complexities hinder comprehensive understanding of the fundamental aspects in texture evolution and make it even harder to penetrate the already intricate recrystallization behaviors. The present study aims at a detailed evaluation of widely used phenomenological model in reproducing experimentally observed deformation characteristics under simple crystalline structure and deformation condition, as well as the prediction of nucleation sites during static recrystallization. In situ electron back-scattering diffusion (EBSD) observations were performed to record texture change during static recrystallization of single crystal pure iron specimens after tensile deformation. CP-FEM (crystal plasticity finite element method) method was employed to simulate deformed texture. Deformation heterogeneity characterized by kernel average misorientation maps derived from EBSD data and numerical calculations were compared. The former data shows deformation heterogeneity sensitive to localized microstrain while the later delivers an effective meso-scale deformation distribution. Observed approximate nucleation sites have shown a qualitative coincidence with highly distorted regions in numerical calculations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Al 6061 Alloy Compositions on Mechanical Properties of the Automotive Steering Knuckle Made by Novel Casting Process
Metals 2018, 8(10), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100857
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
This study demonstrates the feasibility of a novel casting process called tailored additive casting (TAC). The TAC process involves injecting the melt several times to fabricate a single component, with a few seconds of holding between successive injections. Using TAC, we can successfully
[...] Read more.
This study demonstrates the feasibility of a novel casting process called tailored additive casting (TAC). The TAC process involves injecting the melt several times to fabricate a single component, with a few seconds of holding between successive injections. Using TAC, we can successfully produce commercial-grade automotive steering knuckles with a tensile strength of 383 ± 3 MPa and an elongation percentage of 10.7 ± 1.1%, from Al 6061 alloys. To produce steering knuckles with sufficient mechanical strength, the composition of an Al 6061 alloy is optimized with the addition of Zr, Zn, and Cu as minor elements. These minor elements influence the thermal properties of the melt and alloy, such as their thermal stress, strain rate, shrinkage volume, and porosity. Optimal conditions for heat treatment before and after forging further improve the mechanical strength of the steering knuckles produced by TAC followed by forging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing-Structure-Property Relationships in Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Ag, Nd, and Yb on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Mg‒Zn‒Ca Metallic Glasses
Metals 2018, 8(10), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100856
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Mg‒Zn‒Ca metallic glasses are regarded as promising biodegradable materials. Previous studies on this alloy system have mostly focused on the composition regions with a large critical size (Dc) for the formation of metallic glasses, while this paper investigates the composition regions
[...] Read more.
Mg‒Zn‒Ca metallic glasses are regarded as promising biodegradable materials. Previous studies on this alloy system have mostly focused on the composition regions with a large critical size (Dc) for the formation of metallic glasses, while this paper investigates the composition regions with a small Dc, which has been overlooked by researchers for a long time. The effects of the addition of Ag, Nd, and Yb elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg‒Zn‒Ca metallic glasses were studied. It was found that the Mg‒Zn‒Ca metallic glass exhibits a single and uniform amorphous structure with a compressive strength of 590 MPa. After the addition of a small amount of Ag into the alloy, the amorphous matrix is retained and new precipitate phases that lead to the decrease of the compressive strength are formed. The addition of the rare earth elements Nd and Yb changes the microstructure from a single amorphous matrix to a large number of quasicrystal phases, which results in an increase in compressive strength. The compressive strength of the Mg‒Zn‒Ca‒Yb alloy increases to 606.2 MPa due to the formation of multi-layered swirling solidified structure and a large number of small quasicrystals with high microhardness. Moreover, this study can be considered as a useful supplement to the existing studies on the Mg‒Zn‒Ca alloy system; it also provides new ideas for designing the microstructure and spatial structure of quasicrystal containing alloys with high performances. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Synthesis and Properties of Bulk Nanostructured Metallic Materials
Metals 2018, 8(10), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100855
Received: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Bulk nanostructured materials (BNMs) are defined as polycrystalline bulk solids with nanocrystalline (NC) or ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructures. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Properties of Bulk Nanostructured Metallic Materials)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Investigation of Heat Treatment Strategies for Additively-Manufactured Tools of X37CrMoV5-1
Metals 2018, 8(10), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100854
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
For cost-intensive products like automobiles, clients often wish to personalize their product, what forces the industry to create a large diversity of combinable parts. Additionally, the life cycles of many components become shorter. For highly-stressable parts, which are commonly manufactured by forging, the
[...] Read more.
For cost-intensive products like automobiles, clients often wish to personalize their product, what forces the industry to create a large diversity of combinable parts. Additionally, the life cycles of many components become shorter. For highly-stressable parts, which are commonly manufactured by forging, the short changeover cycles result in expensive products, as the costs of tools must be offset by the sale of only a few parts. To reduce the tool cost, new, flexible processes have to be established in tool manufacturing. Laser-based additive manufacturing is noted for its high flexibility; notably, Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) is gaining increasing relevance in research, as it is already used for coating and repairing forming tools, this technology makes it possible to add material onto free-formed surfaces. Therefore, investigations are being conducted to qualify this process to produce forging tools. Due to the thermal processes which are required during additive manufacturing, the microstructure of the material differs from that of wrought material. This, in turn, affects the strategy of post heat treatment in order that the required mechanical properties for tools be attained. Within this manuscript, the influence of additive manufacturing on performance characteristics of hot work tool steel X37CrMoV5-1 (1.2343) is analyzed. To investigate the behavior of additively manufactured material during the process chain of tool manufacturing, properties for different states of a heat treatment are characterized by hardness and strength. It was shown that the strength of the additively manufactured material could be increased compared to wrought material by using a tailored heat treatment. The effects that cause this behavior are investigated by comparing the microstructure at different states of heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Ferrous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle An Explicit Creep-Fatigue Model for Engineering Design Purposes
Metals 2018, 8(10), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100853
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Background: Creep-fatigue phenomena are complex and difficult to model in ways that are useful from an engineering design perspective. Existing empirical-based models can be difficult to apply in practice, have poor accuracy, and lack economy. Need: There is a need to improve on
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Background: Creep-fatigue phenomena are complex and difficult to model in ways that are useful from an engineering design perspective. Existing empirical-based models can be difficult to apply in practice, have poor accuracy, and lack economy. Need: There is a need to improve on the ability to predict creep-fatigue life, and do so in a way that is applicable to engineering design. Method: The present work modified the unified creep-fatigue model of Liu and Pons by introducing the parameters of temperature and cyclic time into the exponent component. The relationships between them were extracted by investigating creep behavior, and then a reference condition was introduced. Outcomes: The modified formulation was successfully validated on the materials of 63Sn37Pb solder and stainless steel 316. It was also compared against several other models. The results indicate that the explicit model presents better ability to predict fatigue life for both the creep fatigue and pure fatigue situations. Originality: The explicit model has the following beneficial attributes: Integration—it provides one formulation that covers the full range of conditions from pure fatigue, to creep fatigue, then to pure creep; Unified—it accommodates multiple temperatures, multiple cyclic times, and multiple metallic materials; Natural origin—it provides some physical basis for the structure of the formulation, in its consistency with diffusion-creep behavior, the plastic zone around the crack tip, and fatigue capacity; Economy—although two more coefficients were introduced into the explicit model, the economy is not significantly impacted; Applicability—the explicit model is applicable to engineering design for both manual engineering calculations and finite element analysis. The overall contribution is that the explicit model provides improved ability to predict fatigue life for both the creep-fatigue and pure-fatigue conditions for engineering design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Plasticity and Fatigue at High Temperature)
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Influence of Intermix Conditions on Steel Cleanliness
Metals 2018, 8(10), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100852
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Modern steel plants produce today a large portfolio of various steel grades, many for end-uses demanding high quality. In order to utilize the maximum productivity of the continuous-casting machine, it is sometimes necessary to cast steel grades with different chemical compositions in one
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Modern steel plants produce today a large portfolio of various steel grades, many for end-uses demanding high quality. In order to utilize the maximum productivity of the continuous-casting machine, it is sometimes necessary to cast steel grades with different chemical compositions in one sequence. It is important, therefore, to know the possibilities of a specific continuous-casting machine to make the Intermix connections as short as possible. Any interference with established procedures may, however, have a negative impact on the cleanliness of the cast steel. Using physical and numerical simulation tools, it was found that reducing the steel level in the tundish during the exchange of ladles makes it possible to shorten the transition zone. However, when the steel level is reduced, the flow of steel is impaired, which can have a negative effect on the cleanliness of the cast steel and, in extreme cases, may even lead to entrapment of slag in the mold. The cleanliness of cast steel was evaluated using one of the most advanced tools for automatic steel cleanliness evaluation, AZtecFeature (Oxford Instruments, Abingdon, UK), which enables determination of the type, size, distribution, and shape, as well as the chemical composition, of individual types of non-metal inclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refining and Casting of Steel)
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Open AccessArticle Nano ZrO2 Synthesis by Extraction of Zr(IV) from ZrO(NO3)2 by PC88A, and Determination of Extraction Impurities by ICP-MS
Metals 2018, 8(10), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100851
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
High purity Zirconium (Zr) materials are essential in many components of nuclear reactors, especially fuel cladding tubes. Due to the matrix influence, determination of impurities in the Zr materials requires separation from the Zr matrix. Among extraction methods, solvent extraction is common and
[...] Read more.
High purity Zirconium (Zr) materials are essential in many components of nuclear reactors, especially fuel cladding tubes. Due to the matrix influence, determination of impurities in the Zr materials requires separation from the Zr matrix. Among extraction methods, solvent extraction is common and suitable for large-scale production. In this study, extraction capability of Zr(IV) by 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) was examined by FT-IR and UV of ZrO(NO3)2 salt, PC88A-toluene solvent, and Zr-PC88A-toluene complex. ZrO2 (obtained from Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements—ITRRE), after being separated from the Zr matrix, was determined for impurities using internal standard (indium, In) by 50% of PC88A dissolved in toluene. Separation of impurities from the Zr matrix underwent two stages. First, one cycle of extraction of the Zr matrix and impurities in 3 M HNO3 using 50% PC88A/toluene was conducted. Second, impurities were scrubbed by 4 M HNO3 in two cycles. Results revealed that approximately 74% of Zr(IV) was separated to the organic phase and 26% remained in the aqueous phase. Determination of impurities after separation from the Zr matrix by ICP-MS using internal standard in revealed that the recovery of impurities achieved 95–100%. With the mentioned amount of Zr, the effect of the Zr matrix on the determination of elements by ICP-MS is negligible. Levels of impurities have relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 6.9% and recovery of 88.6–98.8%. Therefore, the determination of impurities has high reliability and accuracy. The back-extraction of Zr(IV) in organic phase by 1 M H2SO4 has stripped about 99.5% of the Zr matrix back to the aqueous phase. Following this, NH3 was added to the solution containing Zr after back-extraction to form Zr(OH)4 which was then desiccated to produce ZrO2. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM) images showed that the new ZrO2 product has spherical nanostructure with diameters of less than 25 nm, which is suitable for applications for the treatment of colorants, metal ions in wastewater sources and manufacture of anti-corrosion steel. In addition, the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the new ZrO2 product showed that it has high purity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solvent Extraction of Critical Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Machining Performance of TiAlN-Coated Cemented Carbide Tools with Chip Groove in Machining Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-0.6Cr-0.4Fe-0.4Si-0.01B
Metals 2018, 8(10), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100850
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were used to machine titanium alloy Ti-6Al-0.6Cr-0.4Fe-0.4Si-0.01B under dry conditions in order to investigate the machining performance of this cutting tool. Wear mechanisms of TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were studied
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In this paper, TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were used to machine titanium alloy Ti-6Al-0.6Cr-0.4Fe-0.4Si-0.01B under dry conditions in order to investigate the machining performance of this cutting tool. Wear mechanisms of TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were studied and compared to the uncoated cemented carbide tools (K20) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The effects of the cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) on tool life and workpiece surface roughness of TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were studied with a 3D super-depth-of-field instrument and a surface profile instrument, respectively. The results showed that the TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools with chip groove were more suitable for machining TC7. The adhesive wear, diffusion wear, crater wear, and stripping occurred during machining, and the large built-up edge formed on the rake face. The optimal cutting parameters of TiAlN-coated cemented carbide tools were acquired. The surface roughness Ra decreased with the increase of the cutting speed, while it increased with the increase of the feed rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Holmium Additions on Microstructure and Properties of A356 Aluminum Alloys
Metals 2018, 8(10), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100849
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Sr-modification of A356 alloys has distinct shortages due to the volatilization and oxidation during remelting and pouring, which often reduce the modification efficiency and mechanical properties of the alloys. To avoid the adverse effects and enhance the comprehensive properties, the effects of heavy
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Sr-modification of A356 alloys has distinct shortages due to the volatilization and oxidation during remelting and pouring, which often reduce the modification efficiency and mechanical properties of the alloys. To avoid the adverse effects and enhance the comprehensive properties, the effects of heavy rare earth element holmium (Ho) modification on the microstructure and properties of the alloy were investigated. Ho addition inhibited the intrinsic orientation growth of (111)Al planes and stimulated the growth of the (200)Al planes for α-Al crystals. The addition of 0.2 wt.% Ho produced the best refinement effect for α-Al grains; 0.3 wt.% of Ho addition yielded the most distinct modification effect for eutectic Si phases, which was further improved by a T6 treatment. The extra addition of 0.4 wt.% Ho resulted in the complete loss of the refinement and modification effects and in the abnormal growth of the α-Al crystals. Ho additions produced Al3Ho phases containing Fe elements, which were distributed on the boundaries of the α-Al dendrites. The corrosion-proof performance was enhanced by Ho addition and the T6 treatment; the tensile strength and elongation achieved the highest value upon 0.2 wt.% of Ho addition and the T6 treatment. Moreover, the hardness was also enhanced by Ho additions in both states. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Martensite Transformation and Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Co-Ni-Al Alloys with Gd Doping
Metals 2018, 8(10), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100848
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
In order to improve the mechanical properties and phase transition temperature, the influence of Gd doping on the microstructure, phase transition temperature and mechanical properties of Co35Ni32Al33 alloy was investigated. The results show that the γ+β phase was
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In order to improve the mechanical properties and phase transition temperature, the influence of Gd doping on the microstructure, phase transition temperature and mechanical properties of Co35Ni32Al33 alloy was investigated. The results show that the γ+β phase was observed in the microstructure of the sample with less Gd doping and the γ phase+martensite was found with more Gd content. The phase transition temperature apparently increases with Gd doping and the phase transition temperature goes over room temperature when the Gd is 3 at.% or more. With increasing Gd doping, more γ phase appears in the sample which results in decrease in hardness. The compressive strength decreases from 2274 to 1630 MPa and the ductility increase from 4.2 to 12.9% with increasing Gd content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Strength Analysis and Fatigue Damage Evaluation of Roller Chain
Metals 2018, 8(10), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100847
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper deals with the roller chain commonly used for transmission of mechanical power on many kinds of industrial machinery, including conveyors, cars, motorcycles, bicycles, and so forth. It consists of a series of four components called a pin, a bush, a plate,
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This paper deals with the roller chain commonly used for transmission of mechanical power on many kinds of industrial machinery, including conveyors, cars, motorcycles, bicycles, and so forth. It consists of a series of four components called a pin, a bush, a plate, and a roller, which are driven by a sprocket. To clarify the fatigue damage, in this paper, the finite element method (FEM) is applied to those components under three different types of states, that is, the press-fitting state, the static tensile state, and the sprocket-engaging state. By comparing those states, the stress amplitude and the average stress of each component are calculated and plotted on the fatigue limit diagram. The effect of the plastic zone on the fatigue strength is also discussed. The results show that the fatigue crack initiation may start around the middle inner surface of the bush. As am example, the FEM results show that the fatigue crack of the inner plate may start from a certain point at the hole edge. The results agree with the actual fractured position in roller chains used in industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wear and Fracture of Steel Manufacturing Apparatus and Tools)
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Open AccessArticle Hot Deformation Behavior and Constitutive Modeling of H13-Mod Steel
Metals 2018, 8(10), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100846
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The H13-mod steel optimized by composition and heat treatment has reached the performance index of the shield machine hob. The hot deformation behavior of the H13-mod steel was investigated by compression tests in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 °C and the
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The H13-mod steel optimized by composition and heat treatment has reached the performance index of the shield machine hob. The hot deformation behavior of the H13-mod steel was investigated by compression tests in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 °C and the strain rate range from 0.01 to 10 s−1. The true stress-strain curve showed that the rising stress at the beginning of deformation was mainly caused by work hardening. After the peak stress was attained, the curve drop and the flow softening phenomenon became more obvious at low strain rates. The flow behavior of the H13-mod steel was predicted by a strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive equation. The relationship between the material constant in the Arrhenius-type constitutive equation and the true strain was established by a sixth-order polynomial. The correlation coefficient between the experimental value and the predicted value reached 0.987, which indicated that the constitutive equation can accurately estimate the flow stress during the deformation process. A good linear correlation was achieved between the peak stress (strain), critical stress (strain) and the Zener‒Hollomon parameters. The processing maps of the H13-mod steel under different strains were established. The instability region was mainly concentrated in the high-strain-rate region; however, the microstructure did not show any evidence of instability at high temperatures and high strain rates. Combined with the microstructure and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) test results under different deformations, the optimum hot working parameters were concluded to be 998–1026 °C and 0.01–0.02 s−1 and 1140–1150 °C and 0.01–0.057 s−1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Surface Wear in Hadfield Steel Castings DOPED with Nitrided Vanadium
Metals 2018, 8(10), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100845
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper examines possible industrial applications of high manganese steel and the feasibility of its inoculation with a new ferroalloy, vanadium nitride. The abrasive and impact-abrasion surface wear experienced by castings has a classical pattern: microcutting—i.e., the deformation twinning of surface layers. Ferrovanadium
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This paper examines possible industrial applications of high manganese steel and the feasibility of its inoculation with a new ferroalloy, vanadium nitride. The abrasive and impact-abrasion surface wear experienced by castings has a classical pattern: microcutting—i.e., the deformation twinning of surface layers. Ferrovanadium nitride enhances the surface resistance of castings both as a cast and as thermally treated. A fine grain structure is formed in the surface layers, specifically layers in direct contact with abrasive particles. The deformation twins that are present at the solid solution grain boundaries tend to change their orientation and characteristics. The impact-abrasion wear also leads to hardened layer formation at the working surface due to deformation twinning. The carbides (nitrides) present in the surface wear do not produce any significant impact on the process of deformation twinning. As the wear line extends deeper into the casting surface, the carbides and nitrides are ripped out and cavities occur in the wearing zone. The wear is controlled by the solidification rate. Thus, at lower rates a hardened layer is formed, which accommodates adjacent areas with differing twin characteristics, such as orientation and spacing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization of Industrial Casting Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Change of the Chemical and Mineralogical Composition of the Slag during Oxygen Blowing in the Oxygen Converter Process
Metals 2018, 8(10), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100844
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The article presents the results of the investigation of changes in the chemical and mineralogical composition of slag during steel production in a blown oxygen converter. This process was monitored using the slag samples that were collected during the period when oxygen blowing
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The article presents the results of the investigation of changes in the chemical and mineralogical composition of slag during steel production in a blown oxygen converter. This process was monitored using the slag samples that were collected during the period when oxygen blowing into an oxygen converter was interrupted. The slag samples were collected after 150 s (2.5 min), then after 5, 8, 11, and 24 min of oxygen blowing, and in minute 27 when oxygen blowing was terminated. The sampling was carried out within five consecutive melting processes. The article presents and documents the changes in the contents of CaO, CaO (free), Fe (total), FeO, SiO2, and in the basicity of the slag during oxygen blowing. It also provides the characteristics of individual structural components formed during oxygen blowing and a detailed description of the lime assimilation process, including the formation of the final structure of the slag, consisting of dicalcium silicate (2CaO·SiO2), tricalcium silicate (3CaO·SiO2), RO-phase, and calcium ferrites (2CaO·Fe2O3). The results of the investigation of the changes in the chemical composition of the slag during oxygen blowing in an oxygen converter were compared with the changes in the structural composition of the slag. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refining and Casting of Steel)
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Open AccessArticle Finishing Turning of Ni Superalloy Haynes 282
Metals 2018, 8(10), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100843
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aeronautical industry, especially in components requiring excellent corrosion resistance, enhanced thermal fatigue properties, and thermal stability. Haynes 282 is a nickel-based superalloy that was developed to improve the low weldability, formability, and creep strength of other
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Nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aeronautical industry, especially in components requiring excellent corrosion resistance, enhanced thermal fatigue properties, and thermal stability. Haynes 282 is a nickel-based superalloy that was developed to improve the low weldability, formability, and creep strength of other γ’-strengthened Ni superalloys. Despite the industrial interest in Haynes 282, there is a lack of research that is focused on this alloy. Moreover, it is difficult to find studies dealing with the machinability of Haynes 282. Although Haynes 282 is considered an alloy with improved formability when compared with other nickel alloys, its machining performance should be analyzed. High pressure and temperature localized in the cutting zone, the abrasion generated by the hard carbides included in the material, and the tendency toward adhesion during machining are phenomena that generate extreme thermomechanical loading on the tool during the cutting process. Excessive wear results in reduced tool life, leading to frequent tool change, low productivity, and a high consumption of energy; consequentially, there are increased costs. With regard to tool materials, cemented carbide tools are widely used in different applications, and carbide is a recommended cutting material for turning Haynes 282, for both finishing and roughing operations. This work focuses on the finishing turning of Haynes 282 using coated carbide tools with conventional coolant. Machining forces, surface roughness, tool wear, and tool life were quantified for different cutting speeds and feeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machining and Finishing of Nickel and Titanium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Opposite Stirring Mode in Bloom Continuous Casting Mould by Combining Swirling Flow Nozzle with EMS
Metals 2018, 8(10), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100842
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The metallurgical performances in a mold cavity were investigated using a conventional bilateral-port nozzle or a swirling flow nozzle (SFN) plus with in-mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS) for bloom continuous casting (CC) process. To this end, a coupled model of electromagnetism, flow, and heat
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The metallurgical performances in a mold cavity were investigated using a conventional bilateral-port nozzle or a swirling flow nozzle (SFN) plus with in-mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS) for bloom continuous casting (CC) process. To this end, a coupled model of electromagnetism, flow, and heat transfer was developed. Meanwhile, corresponding plant trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of a melt feeding mode on the internal quality of an as-cast bloom in Shaoguan Steel, China. Under the case of the SFN plus with M-EMS, a novel opposite stirring mode in the bloom CC mold cavity can be observed. A swirling flow in the anti-clockwise direction generated by the SFN, and the other swirling flow in the clockwise direction induced by the M-EMS were formed in regions with distances ranging from 0 m to 0.11 m and 0.218 m to 1.4 m from the meniscus, respectively. As compared to the case of the bilateral-port nozzle plus with M-EMS, the opposite stirring mode in the mold cavity can promote the melt superheat dissipation, improve the casting soundness and the componential homogeneity, inhibit the mold level fluctuation, and also be beneficial to prevent slag erosion for the nozzle external wall at the meniscus. Here, the fluctuation range of carbon segregation along the casting direction is reduced from 0.16 to 0.06, and the magnitude of mold level fluctuation is reduced from 5.6 mm to 2.3 mm under the adoption of SFN plus with M-EMS, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Evolution of Mg-6 wt % Zn Alloy during Equal-Channel Angular Pressing
Metals 2018, 8(10), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100841
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was performed on a Mg (6 wt %) Zn alloy at temperatures from 160 to 240 °C and the microstructures and mechanical properties were studied using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and an electronic
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Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was performed on a Mg (6 wt %) Zn alloy at temperatures from 160 to 240 °C and the microstructures and mechanical properties were studied using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and an electronic universal testing machine. The results showed that ECAP was effective for grain refinement and a bi-modal grain structure formed at low temperatures, which was stable during ECAP from 160 to 200 °C. MgZn2 phase and Mg4Zn7 phase were generated during the ECAP process. The mechanical properties remarkably increased after two repetitions of ECAP. However, the strengths could not be further improved by increasing the plastic deformation, but decreased when ECAP was performed between 200 and 240 °C. The mechanical properties of the ECAP Mg-6Zn alloy was determined by a combination of grain refinement strengthening, precipitation hardening, and texture softening. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Distribution and Severity of Corrosion Damage at Eight Distinct Zones of Metallic Femoral Stem Implants
Metals 2018, 8(10), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100840
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Metallic taper junctions of modular total hip replacement implants are analysed for corrosion damage using visual scoring based on different granularity levels that span from analysing the taper holistically to dividing the taper into several distinct zones. This study aims to objectively explore
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Metallic taper junctions of modular total hip replacement implants are analysed for corrosion damage using visual scoring based on different granularity levels that span from analysing the taper holistically to dividing the taper into several distinct zones. This study aims to objectively explore the spatial distribution and the severity of corrosion damage onto the surface of metallic stem tapers. An ordinal logistic regression model was developed to find the odds of receiving a higher score at eight distinct zones of 137 retrieved stem tapers. A method to find the order of damage severity across the eight zones is introduced based on an overall test of statistical significance. The findings show that corrosion at the stem tapers occurred more commonly in the distal region in comparison with the proximal region. Also, the medial distal zone was found to possess the most severe corrosion damage among all the studied eight zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis of Biometals)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Characterization of the Primary Stability of Acetabular Press-Fit Cups with Open-Porous Load-Bearing Structures on the Surface Layer
Metals 2018, 8(10), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100839
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Background: Nowadays, hip cups are being used in a wide range of design versions and in an increasing number of units. Their development is progressing steadily. In contrast to conventional methods of manufacturing acetabular cups, additive methods play an increasingly central role in
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Background: Nowadays, hip cups are being used in a wide range of design versions and in an increasing number of units. Their development is progressing steadily. In contrast to conventional methods of manufacturing acetabular cups, additive methods play an increasingly central role in the development progress. Method: A series of eight modified cups were developed on the basis of a standard press-fit cup with a pole flattening and in a reduced version. The surface structures consist of repetitive open-pore load-bearing textural elements aligned right-angled to the cup surface. We used three different types of unit cells (twisted, combined and combined open structures) for constructing of the surface structure. All cups were manufactured using selective laser melting (SLM) of titanium powder (Ti6Al4V). To evaluate the primary stability of the press fit cups in the artificial bone cavity, pull-out and lever-out tests were conducted. All tests were carried out under exact fit conditions. The closed-cell polyurethane (PU) foam, which was used as an artificial bone cavity, was characterized mechanically in order to preempt any potential impact on the test results. Results and conclusions: The pull-out forces as well as the lever moments of the examined cups differ significantly depending on the elementary cells used. The best results in pull-out forces and lever-out moments are shown by the press-fit cups with a combined structure. The results for the assessment of primary stability are related to the geometry used (unit cell), the dimensions of the unit cell, and the volume and porosity responsible for the press fit. Corresponding functional relationships could be identified. The findings show that the implementation of reduced cups in a press-fit design makes sense as part of the development work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys for Biomedical Implants and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Quasi-Static Loading Responses and Constitutive Modeling of Al–Si–Mg alloy
Metals 2018, 8(10), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100838
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
The flow behavior of the Al–Si–Mg alloy under uniaxial compression loading was investigated at different strain rates (10−3 s−1, 10−2 s−1,10−1 s−1, 100 s−1) at a wide range of temperatures (573
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The flow behavior of the Al–Si–Mg alloy under uniaxial compression loading was investigated at different strain rates (10−3 s−1, 10−2 s−1,10−1 s−1, 100 s−1) at a wide range of temperatures (573 K, 623 K, 673 K, 723 K, 773 K). The results showed that the peak stress increase with the strain rate and decrease with the increase of temperature. According to the measured flow stress curves, a modified Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive model taking strain rate effect on thermo softening into account was proposed to delineate the flow behavior. The comparisons between the measured flow curves and the predicted ones showed them to be very close and the average error is 1.65%. The added experiments were also conducted for validating the modified model, and the predicted data well agreed with the measured flow stress curves. That indicated the modified Johnson-Cook model is reliable and can accurately delineate the flow behavior of Al–Si–Mg alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ferrite-to-Austenite and Austenite-to-Martensite Phase Transformations in the Vicinity of a Cementite Particle: A Molecular Dynamics Approach
Metals 2018, 8(10), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100837
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
We used classical molecular dynamics simulation to study the ferrite–austenite phase transformation of iron in the vicinity of a phase boundary to cementite. When heating a ferrite–cementite bicrystal, we found that the austenitic transformation starts to nucleate at the phase boundary. Due to
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We used classical molecular dynamics simulation to study the ferrite–austenite phase transformation of iron in the vicinity of a phase boundary to cementite. When heating a ferrite–cementite bicrystal, we found that the austenitic transformation starts to nucleate at the phase boundary. Due to the variants nucleated, an extended poly-crystalline microstructure is established in the transformed phase. When cooling a high-temperature austenite–cementite bicrystal, the martensitic transformation is induced; the new phase again nucleates at the phase boundary obeying the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relations, resulting in a twinned microstructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Randomly Distributed Inclusions on Fretting Fatigue-Induced Stress in Metals
Metals 2018, 8(10), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100836
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
The analysis of fretting fatigue plays an important role in many engineering fields. The presence of heterogeneity may affect the performance of a machine or a structure, including its lifetime and stability. In this paper, the effect of randomly distributed micro inclusions on
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The analysis of fretting fatigue plays an important role in many engineering fields. The presence of heterogeneity may affect the performance of a machine or a structure, including its lifetime and stability. In this paper, the effect of randomly distributed micro inclusions on the fretting fatigue behaviour of heterogeneous materials is analysed using the finite element method (FEM) for different sizes, shape and properties of inclusions. The effect of micro inclusions on macroscopic material properties is also considered by representative volume element (RVE). It is shown that the influence of micro inclusions on macroscopic material properties cannot be ignored, and the shape and size of the inclusions have less effect on the macroscopic material properties as compared to the material properties of inclusion and volume ratio. In addition, various parameters of inclusions have little effect on the peak tensile stress, which remains almost the same as homogeneous material. Peak shear stress occurs at many places inside the specimen, which can result in multiple cracking points inside the specimen, as well as at the contact surface. Moreover, the stress band formed by the stress coupling between adjacent inclusions may have an important influence on the direction of crack growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Fretting Fatigue)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Pure NiTiSn by Mechanical Alloying: An Investigation of the Optimal Experimental Conditions Supported by First Principles Calculations
Metals 2018, 8(10), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100835
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Synthesis of NiTiSn by a mechanical alloying process followed by a high temperature thermal annealing was studied. Experiments were conducted varying parameters like the provided energy, the mechanical alloying reaction time, as well as the annealing temperature and duration. Based on the careful
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Synthesis of NiTiSn by a mechanical alloying process followed by a high temperature thermal annealing was studied. Experiments were conducted varying parameters like the provided energy, the mechanical alloying reaction time, as well as the annealing temperature and duration. Based on the careful investigation of the phases present in the samples by systematic X-ray diffraction (after mechanical alloying and after annealing) and selected microscopy analyses, a reaction mechanism is proposed supported by theoretical calculations at the DFT (Density Functional Theory) level. An energy window to prepare directly NiTiSn has been evidenced. Highly pure NiTiSn has also been obtained by conversion from a multicomponent precursor obtained by low energy mechanical alloying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heusler Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Scandium and Titanium Recovery from Bauxite Residue by Direct Leaching with a Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid
Metals 2018, 8(10), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100834
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
In this study, bauxite residue was directly leached using the Brønsted acidic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogensulfate. Stirring rate, retention time, temperature, and pulp density have been studied in detail as the parameters that affect the leaching process. Their optimized combination has shown high
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In this study, bauxite residue was directly leached using the Brønsted acidic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogensulfate. Stirring rate, retention time, temperature, and pulp density have been studied in detail as the parameters that affect the leaching process. Their optimized combination has shown high recovery yields of Sc, nearly 80%, and Ti (90%), almost total dissolution of Fe, while Al and Na were partially extracted in the range of 30–40%. Si and rare earth element (REEs) dissolutions were found to be negligible, whereas Ca was dissolved and reprecipitated as CaSO4. The solid residue after leaching was fully characterized, providing explanations for the destiny of REEs that remain undissolved during the leaching process. The solid residue produced after dissolution can be further treated to extract REEs, while the leachate can be subjected to metal recovery processes (i.e., liquid–liquid extraction) to extract metals and regenerate ionic liquid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Jet Flow between Electrodes on the Cathode Quality in Copper Electrorefining with High Current Density
Metals 2018, 8(10), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100833
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Increasing current density is one of the main methods for improving the productivity of copper electrorefining. However, in the conventional bottom-inlet/top-outlet mode, an increase in current density leads to a deterioration of the surface quality of the cathode copper. This paper describes an
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Increasing current density is one of the main methods for improving the productivity of copper electrorefining. However, in the conventional bottom-inlet/top-outlet mode, an increase in current density leads to a deterioration of the surface quality of the cathode copper. This paper describes an experimental study of the influence of the jet flow between electrodes on the cathode quality. The surface roughness and the standard deviation of the cathode copper were used to evaluate the cathode quality. The results showed that in the single-side jet inlet mode, the electrolyte circulation rate has great influence on the surface roughness of the cathode copper, which is inversely correlated. However, when the electrolyte circulation rate is small, the surface roughness of the cathode copper is not uniform. The farther the position at the surface of the cathode copper is to the jet region, the coarser the cathode copper surface, and vice versa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Deposition)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Morphology and Its Influence on Cyclic Deformation Behavior of High-Mn TWIP Steel
Metals 2018, 8(10), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100832
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the dependence of the cyclic deformation behavior on the surface morphology of metastable austenitic HSD® 600 TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel was investigated. This steel—with the alloying concept Mn-Al-Si—shows a fully austenitic microstructure with deformation-induced twinning at ambient temperature.
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In this study, the dependence of the cyclic deformation behavior on the surface morphology of metastable austenitic HSD® 600 TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel was investigated. This steel—with the alloying concept Mn-Al-Si—shows a fully austenitic microstructure with deformation-induced twinning at ambient temperature. Four different surface morphologies were analyzed: as-received with a so-called rolling skin, after up milling, after down milling, and a reference morphology achieved by polishing. The morphologies were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Focused Ion Beam (FIB), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) as well as confocal microscopy methods and show significant differences in initial residual stresses, phase fractions, topographies and microstructures. For specimens with all variants of the morphologies, fatigue tests were performed in the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) regime to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior and fatigue life. Moreover, this study focused on the frequency-dependent self-heating of the specimens caused by cyclic plasticity in the HCF regime. The results show that both surface morphology and specimen temperature have a significant influence on the cyclic deformation behavior of HSD® 600 TWIP steel in the HCF regime. Full article
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