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Lubricants, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2015) , Pages 80-492

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Open AccessArticle
Design of an Advanced Bearing System for Total Knee Arthroplasty
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 475-492; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020475 - 09 Jun 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop an advanced-bearing couple for TKA that optimizes the balance between wear resistance and mechanical properties. The mechanical and structural properties of virgin and highly crosslinked, re-melted UHMWPE were evaluated, and tibial inserts manufactured from these [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop an advanced-bearing couple for TKA that optimizes the balance between wear resistance and mechanical properties. The mechanical and structural properties of virgin and highly crosslinked, re-melted UHMWPE were evaluated, and tibial inserts manufactured from these UHMWPE materials were tested against either oxidized zirconium (OxZr) or CoCr femoral components on a knee simulator. This study confirmed that the wear resistance of crosslinked UHMWPE improves with increasing radiation dose but is accompanied by a concomitant reduction in mechanical properties. Compared to CoCr, the ceramic surface of OxZr allows the use of a lower irradiation dose to achieve equivalent reductions in wear rates. As a result, a given wear rate can be achieved without sacrificing the mechanical properties to the same extent that is necessary with a CoCr femoral component. The advantage of ceramic counter bearing surfaces extends to both pristine and microabrasive conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Two Total Hip Bearing Materials for Resistance to Wear Using a Hip Simulator
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 459-474; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020459 - 03 Jun 2015
Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Electron beam crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) 32 mm cups with cobalt alloy femoral heads were compared with gamma-irradiation sterilized 26 mm cups and zirconia ceramic heads in a hip wear simulator. The testing was performed for a total of ten [...] Read more.
Electron beam crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) 32 mm cups with cobalt alloy femoral heads were compared with gamma-irradiation sterilized 26 mm cups and zirconia ceramic heads in a hip wear simulator. The testing was performed for a total of ten million cycles with frequent stops for cleaning and measurement of mass losses due to wear. The results showed that the ceramic on UHMWPE bearing design exhibited higher early wear than the metal on highly crosslinked samples. Once a steady state wear rate was reached, the wear rates of the two types of hip bearing systems were similar with the ceramic on UHMPWE samples continuing to show a slightly higher rate of wear than the highly crosslinked samples. The wear rates of each of the tested systems appear to be consistent with the expectations for low rates of wear in improved hip replacement systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Experiment and Numerical Study of Wear in Cross Roller Thrust Bearings
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 447-458; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020447 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
Bearings are essential parts used in machine tools where high precision is required. It is important to understand bearing failure in order to replace a bearing before it affects the quality of precision. Bearing failure appears as a run-out in some applications, which [...] Read more.
Bearings are essential parts used in machine tools where high precision is required. It is important to understand bearing failure in order to replace a bearing before it affects the quality of precision. Bearing failure appears as a run-out in some applications, which is a critical factor for precision. However, previous studies have only focused on failure mechanisms, such as spalling. In this study, two types of wear models were used to predict the thrust bearings run-out: Linear and non-linear mechanisms. In order to validate the models, wear experiments of cross roller thrust bearings were performed. The average difference between the experiment and simulation run-out result was 16%. Then, the wear of different sized cross roller bearings was predicted by using a simulation. This was compared with the experiment result and showed up to a 6% difference. The suggested wear models are expected to be used to predict the failure/life of bearings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
An Insight to High Humidity-Caused Friction Modulation of Brake by Numerical Modeling of Dynamic Meniscus under Shearing
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 437-446; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020437 - 19 May 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
To obtain an insight to high humidity-caused friction modulation in brake pad-rotor interface, the adhesion phenomenon due to a liquid bridge is simulated using an advanced particle method by varying the shearing speed of the interface. The method, called generalized interpolation material point [...] Read more.
To obtain an insight to high humidity-caused friction modulation in brake pad-rotor interface, the adhesion phenomenon due to a liquid bridge is simulated using an advanced particle method by varying the shearing speed of the interface. The method, called generalized interpolation material point for fluid-solid interactions (GIMP-FSI), was recently developed from the material point method (MPM) for fluid-solid interactions at small scales where surface tension dominates, thus suitable for studying the partially wet brake friction due to high humidity at a scale of 10 m. Dynamic capillary effects due to surface tension and contact angles are simulated. Adhesion forces calculated by GIMP-FSI are consistent with those from the existing approximate meniscus models. Moreover, the numerical results show that capillary effects induce modulations of adhesion as slip speed changes. In particular, the adhesion modulation could be above 30% at low speed. This finding provides insights into how the high humidity-caused friction could cause modulations of brake, which are unable to be achieved by conventional models. Therefore, the numerical analysis helps to elucidate the complex friction mechanisms associated with brakes that are exposed to high humidity environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulation of Static and Dynamic Friction)
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Open AccessReview
Wear Performance of UHMWPE and Reinforced UHMWPE Composites in Arthroplasty Applications: A Review
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 413-436; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020413 - 18 May 2015
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
As the gold standard material for artificial joints, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) generates wear debris when the material is used in arthroplasty applications. Due to the adverse reactions of UHMWPE wear debris with surrounding tissues, the life time of UHMWPE joints is often limited [...] Read more.
As the gold standard material for artificial joints, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) generates wear debris when the material is used in arthroplasty applications. Due to the adverse reactions of UHMWPE wear debris with surrounding tissues, the life time of UHMWPE joints is often limited to 15–20 years. To improve the wear resistance and performance of the material, various attempts have been made in the past decades. This paper reviews existing improvements made to enhance its mechanical properties and wear resistance. They include using gamma irradiation to promote the cross-linked structure and to improve the wear resistance, blending vitamin E to protect the UHMWPE, filler incorporation to improve the mechanical and wear performance, and surface texturing to improve the lubrication condition and to reduce wear. Limitations of existing work and future studies are also identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Synovial Lining and Synovial Fluid Properties after Joint Arthroplasty
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 394-412; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020394 - 18 May 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
The lubrication of the cartilaginous structures in human joints is provided by a fluid from a specialized layer of cells at the surface of a delicate tissue called the synovial lining. Little is known about the characteristics of the fluids produced after a [...] Read more.
The lubrication of the cartilaginous structures in human joints is provided by a fluid from a specialized layer of cells at the surface of a delicate tissue called the synovial lining. Little is known about the characteristics of the fluids produced after a joint arthroplasty procedure. A literature review was carried out to identify papers that characterized the synovial lining and the synovial fluids formed after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Five papers about synovial lining histology and six papers about the lubricating properties of the fluids were identified. The cells making up the re-formed synovial lining, as well as the lining of interface membranes, were similar to the typical Type A and B synoviocytes of normal joints. The synovial fluids around joint replacement devices were typically lower in viscosity than pre-arthroplasty fluids but the protein concentration and phospholipid concentrations tended to be comparable, suggesting that the lining tissue function was preserved after arthroplasty. The widespread, long-term success of joint arthroplasty suggests that the lubricant formed from implanted joint synovium is adequate for good clinical performance in the majority of joints. The role the fluid plays in component wear or failure is a topic for future study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Wear in Crosslinked Polyethylene Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 381-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020381 - 07 May 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
Wear-related complications remain a major issue after unicompartmental arthroplasty. We used a computational model to predict knee wear generated in vitro under diverse conditions. Inverse finite element analysis of 2 different total knee arthroplasty designs was used to determine wear factors of standard [...] Read more.
Wear-related complications remain a major issue after unicompartmental arthroplasty. We used a computational model to predict knee wear generated in vitro under diverse conditions. Inverse finite element analysis of 2 different total knee arthroplasty designs was used to determine wear factors of standard and highly crosslinked polyethylene by matching predicted wear rates to measured wear rates. The computed wear factor was used to predict wear in unicompartmental components. The articular surface design and kinematic conditions of the unicompartmental and tricompartmental designs were different. Predicted wear rate (1.77 mg/million cycles) was very close to experimental wear rate (1.84 mg/million cycles) after testing in an AMTI knee wear simulator. Finite element analysis can predict experimental wear and may reduce the cost and time of preclinical testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Supplied Oil Flow Rates and Oil Film Thicknesses under Starved Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 365-380; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020365 - 28 Apr 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
Many studies have already considered starved lubrication. However, there have been no reports on the oil film thicknesses under steady starved EHL (elastohydrodynamic lubrication), where the ultra-low volume of oil supplied per unit time is uniform. The present study examined the relationship between [...] Read more.
Many studies have already considered starved lubrication. However, there have been no reports on the oil film thicknesses under steady starved EHL (elastohydrodynamic lubrication), where the ultra-low volume of oil supplied per unit time is uniform. The present study examined the relationship between the supplied oil flow rate and oil film thickness under steady starved lubrication. A ball-on-disk testing machine was used in experiments to measure the oil film thickness by means of optical interferometry. A microsyringe pump was used to accurately control the supplied oil flow rate. The supplied oil flow rate was kept constant, and the minimum oil film thickness was measured for 1 h after the start of the tests to determine the relationship between the supplied oil flow rate and oil film thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessReview
Materials and Their Failure Mechanisms in Total Disc Replacement
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 346-364; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020346 - 28 Apr 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2917
Abstract
Adults suffering from lower back pain often find the cause of pain is degenerative disc disease. While non-surgical treatment is preferred, spinal fusion and total disc replacement remain surgical options for the patient. Total disc replacement is an emerging and improving treatment for [...] Read more.
Adults suffering from lower back pain often find the cause of pain is degenerative disc disease. While non-surgical treatment is preferred, spinal fusion and total disc replacement remain surgical options for the patient. Total disc replacement is an emerging and improving treatment for degenerative discs. This paper provides a review of lumbar disc replacement for treatment of lower back pain. The mechanics and configuration of the natural disc are first discussed, followed by an introduction of treatment methods that attempt to mimic these mechanics. Total disc replacement types, materials, and failure mechanisms are discussed. Failure mechanisms primarily involve biochemical reactions to implant wear, as well as mechanical incompatibility of the device with natural spine motion. Failure mechanisms include: osteolysis, plastic deformation of polymer components, pitting, fretting, and adjacent level facet and disc degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between System Entropy and Structural Changes in Lubricating Grease
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 332-345; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020332 - 24 Apr 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Lubricating greases are colloid disperse systems consisting of a base oil and a thickener (additional additives). The lubricant is modeled as a tribological system, and the reaction of a fluid friction stress is investigated. The energetic situation of the volume element is analyzed [...] Read more.
Lubricating greases are colloid disperse systems consisting of a base oil and a thickener (additional additives). The lubricant is modeled as a tribological system, and the reaction of a fluid friction stress is investigated. The energetic situation of the volume element is analyzed and the system entropy described. The description of the structural degradation and the used entropy was realized with the help of rheometer tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lubricating Greases)
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Open AccessArticle
How Does Dissipation Affect the Transition from Static to Dynamic Macroscopic Friction?
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 311-331; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020311 - 16 Apr 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Description of the transitional process from a static to a dynamic frictional regime is a fundamental problem of modern physics. Previously, we developed a model based on the well-known Frenkel-Kontorova model to describe dry macroscopic friction. Here, this model has been modified to [...] Read more.
Description of the transitional process from a static to a dynamic frictional regime is a fundamental problem of modern physics. Previously, we developed a model based on the well-known Frenkel-Kontorova model to describe dry macroscopic friction. Here, this model has been modified to include the effect of dissipation in derived relations between the kinematic and dynamic parameters of a transition process. The main (somewhat counterintuitive) result is a demonstration that the rupture (i.e., detachment front) velocity of the slip pulse which arises during the transition does not depend on friction. The only parameter (besides the elastic and plastic properties of the medium) controlling the rupture velocity is the shear to normal stress ratio. In contrast to the rupture velocity, the slip velocity does depend on friction. The model we have developed describes these processes over a wide range of rupture and slip velocities (up to 7 orders of magnitude) allowing, in particular, the consideration of seismic events ranging from regular earthquakes, with rupture velocities on the order of a few km/s, to slow slip events, with rupture velocities of a few km/day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulation of Static and Dynamic Friction)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Unbalanced Flexible Rotor Supported by Elastic Bearings Lubricated with Piezo-Viscous Polar Fluids
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 281-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020281 - 16 Apr 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2337
Abstract
On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced Jeffcott’s flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal bearings is presented in this paper. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds’ equation [...] Read more.
On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced Jeffcott’s flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal bearings is presented in this paper. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds’ equation is derived and discretized by the finite element method to obtain the fluid-film pressure field as well as the film thickness by means of the implicit Euler method. The nonlinear orbits of the rotor center are determined by solving the nonlinear differential equations of motion with the explicit Euler’s scheme taking into account the flexibility of rotor. According to the obtained results, the combined effects of couple stresses due to the presence of polymer additives in lubricant and the pressure dependent viscosity on the nonlinear dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system are significant and cannot be ignored or overlooked. As expected, these effects are more noticeable for polymers characterized by higher length molecular chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Plain Journal Bearing on the Basis of a New Mass Conserving Cavitation Algorithm
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 256-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020256 - 13 Apr 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
Accurate prediction of cavitation is an important feature in hydrodynamic bearing modeling. Especially for thermo-hydrodynamic modeling, it is crucial to use a mass-conservative cavitation algorithm. This paper introduces a new mass-conserving Reynolds cavitation algorithm, which provides fast convergence and easy implementation in finite [...] Read more.
Accurate prediction of cavitation is an important feature in hydrodynamic bearing modeling. Especially for thermo-hydrodynamic modeling, it is crucial to use a mass-conservative cavitation algorithm. This paper introduces a new mass-conserving Reynolds cavitation algorithm, which provides fast convergence and easy implementation in finite element models. The proposed algorithm is based on a variable transformation for both the pressure and mass fraction, which is presented in the form of a complementary condition. Stabilization in the streamline and crosswind direction is provided by artificial diffusion. The model is completed by including a simple and efficient thermal model and is validated using the numerical values of a reference plain journal bearing experiment under steady-state conditions. In addition, a transient analysis is performed of a journal bearing subjected to a harmonic load. It is shown that the proposed cavitation algorithm results are in good agreement with the reference measurement results. Moreover, the algorithm proves to be stable and requires only a small number of iterations to convergence in the Reynolds-based finite element model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Wear Testing of a CoCr-UHMWPE Finger Prosthesis with Hydroxyapatite Coated CoCr Stems
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 244-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020244 - 13 Apr 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
A finger prosthesis consisting of a Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) proximal component and an Ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) medial component (both mounted on hydroxyapatite coated stems) was evaluated to 5,000,000 cycles in an in vitro finger simulator. One “test” prosthesis was cycled through flexion-extension (90°–30°) with a [...] Read more.
A finger prosthesis consisting of a Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) proximal component and an Ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) medial component (both mounted on hydroxyapatite coated stems) was evaluated to 5,000,000 cycles in an in vitro finger simulator. One “test” prosthesis was cycled through flexion-extension (90°–30°) with a dynamic load of 10 N, whilst immersed in a lubricant of dilute bovine serum. Additionally, a static load of 100 N was applied for 45 s every 3000 cycles to simulate a static gripping force. A second “control” prosthesis was immersed in the same lubricant to account for absorption. Gravimetric and Sa (3D roughness) measurements were taken at 1,000,000 cycle intervals. Micrographs and Sa values revealed negligible change to the CoCr surfaces after 5,000,000 cycles. The UHMWPE also exhibited no distinctive Sa trend, however the micrographs indicate that polishing occurred. Both the CoCr and UHMWPE test components progressively decreased in weight. The CoCr control component did not change in weight, whilst the UHMWPE component gained weight through absorption. To account for the disparity between surface and gravimetric results, the hydroxyapatite coatings were examined. Micrographs of the test stems revealed that the hydroxyapatite coating was partially removed, whilst the micrographs of the control stems exhibited a uniform coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Rolling Friction Torque in Ball-Race Contacts Operating in Mixed Lubrication Conditions
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 222-243; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020222 - 13 Apr 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
Based on a theoretical model and an experimental methodology for defining the friction torque for lubricated conditions in a modified thrust ball bearing having only three balls, the authors experimentally investigated the influence of the lubricant parameter Λ on friction torque for mixed [...] Read more.
Based on a theoretical model and an experimental methodology for defining the friction torque for lubricated conditions in a modified thrust ball bearing having only three balls, the authors experimentally investigated the influence of the lubricant parameter Λ on friction torque for mixed IVR (isoviscous rigid) and EHL (elastohydrodynamic) lubrication conditions. The experiments were conducted using ball diameters of 3 mm, 3.97 mm and 6.35 mm loaded at 0.125 N, 0.400 N and 0.633 N. Two oils of viscosity 0.08 Pa·s and 0.05 Pa·s were used and rotational speed was varied in the range 60–210 rpm to obtain a lubricant parameter Λ varying between 0.3 and 3.2. The experiments confirmed that the measured friction torque can be explained using hydrodynamic rolling force relationships respecting the transition from an IVR to an EHL lubrication regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
Grease Aging Effects on Film Formation under Fully-Flooded and Starved Lubrication
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 197-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020197 - 09 Apr 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
Several film thickness measurements were performed with three fresh and aged lubricating greases, their base and bled oils under a wide range of operating conditions using a ball-on-disc test rig with optical interferometry. The analysis of the film thickness measurements is in agreement [...] Read more.
Several film thickness measurements were performed with three fresh and aged lubricating greases, their base and bled oils under a wide range of operating conditions using a ball-on-disc test rig with optical interferometry. The analysis of the film thickness measurements is in agreement with the observations of several authors and adds some important aspects regarding separate film properties in EHL contacts. At full film lubrication and moderate to high speeds, the bled oil showed a similar behavior of its lubricating greases. At fully-flooded condition, low speeds and thin films, it was observed that the thickener lumps play a major role on film formation, overcoming the bled oil effects. A relationship between thickener type and film formation was evidenced. The same trends were observed under starved lubrication, where the thickener type that contributes the most to locally increase the film thickness follows the order of PP > Ca > Li. The aging process of the greases was shown to change their rheological response in different manners—softening or hardening—depending on the grease formulation. Grease aging increased the film thickness under fully-flooded and starved lubrication, regardless of the level of degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lubricating Greases)
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Open AccessArticle
Running Torque of Slow Speed Two-Point and Four-Point Contact Bearings
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 181-196; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020181 - 09 Apr 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2677
Abstract
A decoupled slow speed friction torque model has been developed to predict the running torque of a double-arched angular contact bearing when operating as a four-point, as well as a two-point contact bearing. The load distribution model from Amasorrain et al. (2003) and [...] Read more.
A decoupled slow speed friction torque model has been developed to predict the running torque of a double-arched angular contact bearing when operating as a four-point, as well as a two-point contact bearing. The load distribution model from Amasorrain et al. (2003) and the kinematics model developed by Leblanc and Nelias (2007) have been combined after ignoring centrifugal and gyroscopic effects, a valid assumption for slow speed operation. Results from the model are compared with previous literature data, as well as with tests done on a specially-developed friction torque rig. The comparison with the literature results was done for two specific cases: (i) when only one out of the two contact lines in the four-point contact bearing is active (effectively creating a two-point contact bearing); and (ii) where both contact lines in the four-point contact bearing are active. Further, the comparison was done with a custom-built friction torque rig with FAG QJ309 bearings, again for two cases: (i) bearings mounted with a specific clearance (two-point contact); and (ii) bearings mounted with larger size balls to obtain interference (four-point contact). All tests were performed at low speeds. The sliding friction, which is an important input to the friction torque model, is carefully measured on ball-on-plate test using the same interface roughness, speed and contact pressure conditions as seen in the QJ309 friction test. The model comparison with experimental results is covered. The comparison is found to be encouraging, with the RMS difference being less than 7% between the model and experimental data for a four point contact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessReview
Friction and Lubrication of Large Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 164-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020164 - 03 Apr 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3428
Abstract
Fluid film bearings have been extensively used in the industry because of their unbeatable durability and extremely low friction coefficient, despite a very low coefficient of friction dissipation of energy being noticeable, especially in large bearings. Lubricating systems of large tilting pad thrust [...] Read more.
Fluid film bearings have been extensively used in the industry because of their unbeatable durability and extremely low friction coefficient, despite a very low coefficient of friction dissipation of energy being noticeable, especially in large bearings. Lubricating systems of large tilting pad thrust bearings utilized in large, vertical shaft hydrogenerators are presented in this paper. A large amount of heat is generated due to viscous shearing of the lubricant large tilting pad thrust bearings, and this requires systems for forced cooling of the lubricant. In the dominant bath lubrication systems, cooling is realized by internal coolers or external cooling systems, with the latter showing some important advantages at the cost of complexity and also, potentially, lower reliability. Substantial losses in the bearings, reaching 1 MW in extreme cases, are a good motivation for the research and development aimed at reducing them. Some possible methods and their potential efficiency, along with some effects already documented, are also described in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Measurements of Journal Bearing Friction Using Mineral, Synthetic, and Bio-Based Lubricants
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 155-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020155 - 03 Apr 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
The environmental impact of many industrial and naval applications is becoming increasingly important. Journal bearings are crucial components related with the reliable, safe and environmentally friendly operation of rotating machinery in many applications, e.g., in hydroplants, ships, power generation stations. The maintenance activities [...] Read more.
The environmental impact of many industrial and naval applications is becoming increasingly important. Journal bearings are crucial components related with the reliable, safe and environmentally friendly operation of rotating machinery in many applications, e.g., in hydroplants, ships, power generation stations. The maintenance activities in certain cases also have considerable environmental impact. Fortunately, it is relatively easy to reduce the impact by changing the way lubricants are being used. Selecting the proper lubricant is important to sharply reduce long-term costs. The best-fit product selection can mean longer lubricant life, reduced machine wear, reduced incipient power losses and improved safety. Suitable basestocks and additives reduce environmental impact. In this paper, three types of lubricants are used in order to examine their effects on the tribological behavior of journal bearings. A mineral oil, a synthetic oil and a bio-based lubricant are experimentally and analytically examined for several configurations of load and journal rotational velocity. The friction forces and the hydrodynamic friction coefficients are calculated and compared. This investigation can assist the correct choice of lubricant in journal bearings with minimized environmental footprint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Journal Bearing Friction Losses in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 142-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020142 - 02 Apr 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3247
Abstract
Internal combustion engines (ICE) for the use in heavy-duty trucks and buses have to fulfil demanding requirements for both vehicle efficiency as well as for emission of greenhouse gases. Beside the piston assembly the journal bearings are among the largest contributors to friction [...] Read more.
Internal combustion engines (ICE) for the use in heavy-duty trucks and buses have to fulfil demanding requirements for both vehicle efficiency as well as for emission of greenhouse gases. Beside the piston assembly the journal bearings are among the largest contributors to friction in the ICE. Through a combination of measurements and validated simulation methods the journal bearing friction losses of a state-of-the-art heavy-duty Diesel engine are investigated for a large range of real world operating conditions. To this task recently developed and extensively validated simulation methods are used together with realistic lubricant models that consider the Non-Newtonian behaviour as well as the piezoviscous effect. In addition, the potential for further friction reduction with the use of ultra-low viscosity lubricants is explored. The results reveal a potential of about 8% friction reduction in the journal bearings using a 0W20 ultra-low viscosity oil with an HTHS-viscosity (The HTHS-viscosity is defined as the dynamic viscosity of the lubricant measured at 150 °C and at a shear rate of 106 s Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
Frictional Characteristics of a Small Aerostatic Linear Bearing
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 132-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020132 - 02 Apr 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Frictional characteristics of a small aerostatic linear bearing are accurately evaluated by means of a method, in which the force acting on the moving part of the bearing is measured as the inertial force. An optical interferometer is newly developed to measure the [...] Read more.
Frictional characteristics of a small aerostatic linear bearing are accurately evaluated by means of a method, in which the force acting on the moving part of the bearing is measured as the inertial force. An optical interferometer is newly developed to measure the Doppler shift frequency of the laser light reflected on the small moving part. From the measured time-varying Doppler shift frequency, the velocity, the position, the acceleration and the inertial force of the moving part are numerically calculated. It is confirmed that the dynamic frictional force acting inside the bearing is almost proportional to the velocity of the moving part and is similar to the theoretical value calculated under the assumption that the flow inside the bearing is the Couette flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Treatments of Slipping/No-Slip Zones in Cold Rolling of Thin Sheets with Heavy Roll Deformation
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 113-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020113 - 02 Apr 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
In the thin sheet cold rolling manufacturing process, a major issue is roll elastic deformation and its impact on roll load, torque and contact stresses. As in many systems implying mechanical contact under high loading, a central part is under “sticking friction” (no [...] Read more.
In the thin sheet cold rolling manufacturing process, a major issue is roll elastic deformation and its impact on roll load, torque and contact stresses. As in many systems implying mechanical contact under high loading, a central part is under “sticking friction” (no slip) while both extremities do slip to accommodate the material acceleration of the rolled metal sheet. This is a crucial point for modeling of such rolling processes and the numerical treatment of contact and friction (“regularized” or not), of the transition between these zones, does have an impact on the results. Two ways to deal with it are compared (regularization of the stick/slip transition, direct imposition of a no-slip condition) and recommendations are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulation of Static and Dynamic Friction)
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Open AccessArticle
Survey of Damage Investigation of Babbitted Industrial Bearings
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 91-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020091 - 01 Apr 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2392
Abstract
This survey collects the efforts to understand the sources and consequences of damage to babbitted industrial bearings, which operate by means of a hydrodynamic, or hydrostatic, film. Major individual damage types are discussed in the context of major damage categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle
Wear Tests of a Potential Biolubricant for Orthopedic Biopolymers
Lubricants 2015, 3(2), 80-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3020080 - 25 Mar 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
Most wear testing of orthopedic implant materials is undertaken with dilute bovine serum used as the lubricant. However, dilute bovine serum is different to the synovial fluid in which natural and artificial joints must operate. As part of a search for a lubricant [...] Read more.
Most wear testing of orthopedic implant materials is undertaken with dilute bovine serum used as the lubricant. However, dilute bovine serum is different to the synovial fluid in which natural and artificial joints must operate. As part of a search for a lubricant which more closely resembles synovial fluid, a lubricant based on a mixture of sodium alginate and gellan gum, and which aimed to match the rheology of synovial fluid, was produced. It was employed in a wear test of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene pins rubbing against a metallic counterface. The test rig applied multidirectional motion to the test pins and had previously been shown to reproduce clinically relevant wear factors for ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. After 2.4 million cycles (125 km) of sliding in the presence of the new lubricant, a mean wear factor of 0.099 × 10−6 mm3/Nm was measured for the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene pins. This was over an order of magnitude less than when bovine serum was used as a lubricant. In addition, there was evidence of a transfer film on the test plates. Such transfer films are not seen clinically. The search for a lubricant more closely matching synovial fluid continues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints) Printed Edition available
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