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Water, Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has the capability to image subsurface features down to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Tank Cascade Systems as a Sustainable Measure of Watershed Management in South Asia
Water 2017, 9(3), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030231
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2837 | PDF Full-text (4810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the dry zone of Sri Lanka, human-made reservoirs have served for the collection, storage and distribution of rainfall and runoff and provide irrigation water for the cultivation of paddy for 2000 years. This paper introduces the layout and function of four traditional [...] Read more.
In the dry zone of Sri Lanka, human-made reservoirs have served for the collection, storage and distribution of rainfall and runoff and provide irrigation water for the cultivation of paddy for 2000 years. This paper introduces the layout and function of four traditional village tank cascade systems in the hinterland of Anuradhapura, located in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka. In contrast to large-scale tanks, these systems are managed and maintained by local villagers. Sedimentological data from two tanks provide information about processes leading to the formation of these deposits and their post-sedimentary, partly human-induced alterations. The presented data support the hypothesis, that the decentral managed tanks were not affected by severe erosion after the abandonment of the ancient capital Anuradhapura in the 11th century CE, a period that was characterized by socio-economic instability and increased climatic fluctuations. Presented results underline the significance of small-scale tank cascades systems to buffer the effects of climatic fluctuations and point to their potential as a cornerstone in coping with future climate change in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Pilot Scale Testing of Adsorbent Amended Filters under High Hydraulic Loads for Highway Runoff in Cold Climates
Water 2017, 9(3), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030230
Received: 2 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 19 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1771 | PDF Full-text (1089 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an estimation of the service life of three filters composed of sand and three alternative adsorbents for stormwater treatment according to Norwegian water quality standards for receiving surface waters. The study conducted pilot scale column tests on three adsorbent amended [...] Read more.
This paper presents an estimation of the service life of three filters composed of sand and three alternative adsorbents for stormwater treatment according to Norwegian water quality standards for receiving surface waters. The study conducted pilot scale column tests on three adsorbent amended filters for treatment of highway runoff in cold climates under high hydraulic loads. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of high hydraulic loads and the application of deicing salts on the performance of these filters. From previous theoretical and laboratory analysis granulated activated charcoal, pine bark, and granulated olivine were chosen as alternative adsorbent materials for the present test. Adsorption performance of the filters was evaluated vis-à-vis four commonly found hazardous metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in stormwater. The results showed that the filters were able to pass water at high inflow rates while achieving high removal. Among the filters, the filters amended with olivine or pine bark provided the best performance both in short and long-term tests. The addition of NaCl (1 g/L) did not show any adverse impact on the desorption of already adsorbed metals, except for Ni removal by the charcoal amended filter, which was negatively impacted by the salt addition. The service life of the filters was found to be limited by zinc and copper, due to high concentrations observed in local urban runoff, combined with moderate affinity with the adsorbents. It was concluded that both the olivine and the pine bark amended filter should be tested in full-scale conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives in Stormwater Filters for Enhanced Pollutant Removal)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Three Long-Term Gridded Climate Products for Hydro-Climatic Simulations in Tropical River Basins
Water 2017, 9(3), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030229
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1875 | PDF Full-text (4029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gridded climate products (GCPs) provide a potential source for representing weather in remote, poor quality or short-term observation regions. The accuracy of three long-term GCPs (Asian Precipitation—Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources: APHRODITE, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using [...] Read more.
Gridded climate products (GCPs) provide a potential source for representing weather in remote, poor quality or short-term observation regions. The accuracy of three long-term GCPs (Asian Precipitation—Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources: APHRODITE, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network-Climate Data Record: PERSIANN-CDR and National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis: NCEP-CFSR) was analyzed for the Kelantan River Basin (KRB) and Johor River Basin (JRB) in Malaysia from 1983 to 2007. Then, these GCPs were used as inputs into calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models, to assess their capability in simulating streamflow. The results show that the APHRODITE data performed the best in precipitation estimation, followed by the PERSIANN-CDR and NCEP-CFSR datasets. The NCEP-CFSR daily maximum temperature data exhibited a better correlation than the minimum temperature data. For streamflow simulations, the APHRODITE data resulted in strong results for both basins, while the NCEP-CFSR data showed unsatisfactory performance. In contrast, the PERSIANN-CDR data showed acceptable representation of observed streamflow in the KRB, but failed to track the JRB observed streamflow. The combination of the APHRODITE precipitation and NCEP-CFSR temperature data resulted in accurate streamflow simulations. The APHRODITE and PERSIANN-CDR data often underestimated the extreme precipitation and streamflow, while the NCEP-CFSR data produced dramatic overestimations. Therefore, a direct application of NCEP-CFSR data should be avoided in this region. We recommend the use of APHRODITE precipitation and NCEP-CFSR temperature data in modeling of Malaysian water resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Size Distribution, Surface Coverage, Water, Carbon, and Metal Storage of Thermokarst Lakes in the Permafrost Zone of the Western Siberia Lowland
Water 2017, 9(3), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030228
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2143 | PDF Full-text (3672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the importance of thermokarst (thaw) lakes of the subarctic zone in regulating greenhouse gas exchange with the atmosphere and the flux of metal pollutants and micro-nutrients to the ocean, the inventory of lake distribution and stock of solutes for the permafrost-affected zone [...] Read more.
Despite the importance of thermokarst (thaw) lakes of the subarctic zone in regulating greenhouse gas exchange with the atmosphere and the flux of metal pollutants and micro-nutrients to the ocean, the inventory of lake distribution and stock of solutes for the permafrost-affected zone are not available. We quantified the abundance of thermokarst lakes in the continuous, discontinuous, and sporadic permafrost zones of the western Siberian Lowland (WSL) using Landsat-8 scenes collected over the summers of 2013 and 2014. In a territory of 105 million ha, the total number of lakes >0.5 ha is 727,700, with a total surface area of 5.97 million ha, yielding an average lake coverage of 5.69% of the territory. Small lakes (0.5–1.0 ha) constitute about one third of the total number of lakes in the permafrost-bearing zone of WSL, yet their surface area does not exceed 2.9% of the total area of lakes in WSL. The latitudinal pattern of lake number and surface coverage follows the local topography and dominant landscape zones. The role of thermokarst lakes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and most trace element storage in the territory of WSL is non-negligible compared to that of rivers. The annual lake storage across the WSL of DOC, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Al constitutes 16%, 34%, 37%, 57%, and 73%, respectively, of their annual delivery by WSL rivers to the Arctic Ocean from the same territory. However, given that the concentrations of DOC and metals in the smallest lakes (<0.5 ha) are much higher than those in the medium and large lakes, the contribution of small lakes to the overall carbon and metal budget may be comparable to, or greater than, their contribution to the water storage. As such, observations at high spatial resolution (<0.5 ha) are needed to constrain the reservoirs and the mobility of carbon and metals in aquatic systems. To upscale the DOC and metal storage in lakes of the whole subarctic, the remote sensing should be coupled with hydrochemical measurements in aquatic systems of boreal plains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Quantitative Spatio-Temporal Characterization of Scour at the Base of a Cylinder
Water 2017, 9(3), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030227
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1741 | PDF Full-text (6325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The measurement of the morphologic characteristics of evolving sediment beds around hydraulic structures is crucial for the understanding of the physical processes that drive scour. Although there has been significant progress towards the experimental characterization of the flow field in setups with complex [...] Read more.
The measurement of the morphologic characteristics of evolving sediment beds around hydraulic structures is crucial for the understanding of the physical processes that drive scour. Although there has been significant progress towards the experimental characterization of the flow field in setups with complex geometries, little has been done with respect to the quantitative investigation of dynamic sediment bed geometry, mainly due to the limited capabilities of conventional instrumentation. Here, a recently developed computer vision technique is applied to obtain high-resolution topographic measurements of the evolving bed at the base of a cylinder during clear water scour, without interrupting the experiment. The topographic data is processed to derive the morphologic characteristics of the bed such as the excavated volume and the slopes of the bed. Subsequently, the rates of scour and the bathymetry at multiple locations are statistically investigated. The results of this investigation are compared with existing flow measurements from previous studies to describe the physical processes that take place inside a developing scour hole. Two distinct temporal phases (initial and development) as well as three spatial regions (front, side and wake) are defined and expressions for the statistical modelling of the bed features are derived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stream Channel Stability, Assessment, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Streamflow Using Projections of the 5th Assessment Report for the Bernam River Basin, Malaysia
Water 2017, 9(3), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030226
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2288 | PDF Full-text (6830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Potential impacts of climate change on the streamflow of the Bernam River Basin in Malaysia are assessed using ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). A graphical user interface was developed that integrates all of the [...] Read more.
Potential impacts of climate change on the streamflow of the Bernam River Basin in Malaysia are assessed using ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). A graphical user interface was developed that integrates all of the common procedures of assessing climate change impacts, to generate high resolution climate variables (e.g., rainfall, temperature, etc.) at the local scale from large-scale climate models. These are linked in one executable module to generate future climate sequences that can be used as inputs to various models, including hydrological and crop models. The generated outputs were used as inputs to the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the hydrological processes. The evaluation results indicated that the model performed well for the watershed with a monthly R2, Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Percent Bias (PBIAS) values of 0.67, 0.62 and −9.4 and 0.62, 0.61 and −4.2 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The multi-model projections show an increase in future temperature (tmax and tmin) in all respective scenarios, up to an average of 2.5 °C for under the worst-case scenario (RC8.5). Rainfall is also predicted to change with clear variations between the dry and wet season. Streamflow projections also followed rainfall pattern to a great extent with a distinct change between the dry and wet season possibly due to the increase in evapotranspiration in the watershed. In principle, the interface can be customized for the application to other watersheds by incorporating GCMs’ baseline data and their corresponding future data for those particular stations in the new watershed. Methodological limitations of the study are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater and Their Interaction with Shallow Aquifers: A Case Study of Horní Beřkovice, Czech Republic
Water 2017, 9(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030218
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2048 | PDF Full-text (2194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of innovative technologies in water management, such as wastewater reuse, requires a deeper understanding of emerging pollutants, including pharmaceuticals. This study presents a unique pilot site at Horní Beřkovice in Central Bohemia, where wastewater parameters are significantly influenced by the effluent [...] Read more.
The application of innovative technologies in water management, such as wastewater reuse, requires a deeper understanding of emerging pollutants, including pharmaceuticals. This study presents a unique pilot site at Horní Beřkovice in Central Bohemia, where wastewater parameters are significantly influenced by the effluent from a local psychiatric hospital, and where the treated wastewater infiltrates into a shallow aquifer over a long period. The survey compared the quality parameters of local wastewater with those of the wastewater in four other catchments with no sources of concentrated pharmaceutical contamination. A total of 10 pharmaceuticals were detected while monitoring a common sewage system, but their number increased 3-fold at Horní Beřkovice. The water quality data revealed the effectiveness of the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater at the local sewage treatment plant and tracked the fate of substances that move from the treatment plant into the recharge ponds and then gradually into groundwater. The findings showed a significant decrease in all the monitored micropollutants that remained bound in sediments and in the unsaturated zone. Their passage into groundwater was highly reduced, and they virtually disappear after a few hundred meters in the saturated zone. The only exception is carbamazepine. This substance passes through the treatment technology and unsaturated zone. It systematically appears in the groundwater samples collected about 1 km from the infiltration site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Short Duration Intense Rainfall Events on Sanitary Sewer Network Performance
Water 2017, 9(3), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030225
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2064 | PDF Full-text (3390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Short duration intense rainfall causes an increase in rainfall derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into aging sewer networks, which leads to Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs). This study presents a generalised framework for assessing and mitigating the impacts of intense rainfall on sanitary sewer [...] Read more.
Short duration intense rainfall causes an increase in rainfall derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into aging sewer networks, which leads to Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs). This study presents a generalised framework for assessing and mitigating the impacts of intense rainfall on sanitary sewer networks. The first part of the proposed framework involves a detailed hydraulic modelling to evaluate the performance of the sewer network. The second part deals with the development of SSO mitigation strategies based on Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) approaches. This paper also demonstrates the application of the first part of the proposed framework for a case study catchment in Melbourne, Australia. The hydraulic performance of the case study sewer network during a wet and a dry year is presented. The analysis found that for the wet year, 11 manholes had sewer overflows, whereas 53 of 57 manholes in the network of 3.2 km had surcharges. Such a study will benefit the water authorities to develop mitigation strategies for controlling SSOs in their sewer systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Drainage and Urban Stormwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Clustering and Support Vector Regression for Water Demand Forecasting and Anomaly Detection
Water 2017, 9(3), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030224
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2343 | PDF Full-text (3521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a completely data-driven and machine-learning-based approach, in two stages, to first characterize and then forecast hourly water demand in the short term with applications of two different data sources: urban water demand (SCADA data) and individual customer water consumption (AMR [...] Read more.
This paper presents a completely data-driven and machine-learning-based approach, in two stages, to first characterize and then forecast hourly water demand in the short term with applications of two different data sources: urban water demand (SCADA data) and individual customer water consumption (AMR data). In the first case, reliable forecasting can be used to optimize operations, particularly the pumping schedule, in order to reduce energy-related costs, while in the second case, the comparison between forecast and actual values may support the online detection of anomalies, such as smart meter faults, fraud or possible cyber-physical attacks. Results are presented for a real case: the water distribution network in Milan. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Achieving Resilience through Water Recycling in Peri-Urban Agriculture
Water 2017, 9(3), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030223
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1596 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pressures on urban, peri-urban and rural water and agricultural systems are increasingly complex with multiple interacting stresses and impacts. As a way of addressing these issues there has been increasing consideration as to how to build and manage resilience in these complex social-ecological [...] Read more.
Pressures on urban, peri-urban and rural water and agricultural systems are increasingly complex with multiple interacting stresses and impacts. As a way of addressing these issues there has been increasing consideration as to how to build and manage resilience in these complex social-ecological systems. This paper presents a case study of the role of water recycling for agricultural use within the context of the peri-urban water cycle in Western Sydney, Australia. Building upon a description of the water cycle associated with water reclaimed from urban wastewater and stormwater harvesting; aspects which enhance resilience are identified and discussed. These include water resource security, avoidance of wastewater discharges to receiving waters, enhanced processes of landscape ecology, provision of ecosystem services, environmental risk management, local agricultural products and services, social values, livelihood opportunity, and the industrial ecology of recycled organics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake
Water 2017, 9(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030222
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2932 | PDF Full-text (2466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Information regarding domestic water consumption is vital, as the Kathmandu Valley will soon be implementing the Melamchi Water Supply Project; however, updated information on the current situation after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (GEQ) is still lacking. We investigated the dynamics of domestic water [...] Read more.
Information regarding domestic water consumption is vital, as the Kathmandu Valley will soon be implementing the Melamchi Water Supply Project; however, updated information on the current situation after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (GEQ) is still lacking. We investigated the dynamics of domestic water consumption pre- and post-GEQ. The piped water supply was short, and consumption varied widely across the Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) branches and altitude. The reduction in piped, ground, and jar water consumption and the increase in tanker water consumption post-GEQ appeared to be due to the impact of the GEQ. However, the impact did not appear to be prominent on per capita water consumption, although it was reduced from 117 to 99 L post-GEQ. Piped, ground, and tanker water use were associated with an increase and jar water use was associated with a decrease in water consumption. Despite improvements in quantity, inequality in water consumption and inequity in affordability across wealth status was well established. This study suggests to KUKL the areas of priority where improvements to supply are required, and recommends an emphasis on resuming performance. Policy planners should consider the existing inequity in affordability, which is a major issue in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advancing Sequential Managed Aquifer Recharge Technology (SMART) Using Different Intermediate Oxidation Processes
Water 2017, 9(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030221
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2208 | PDF Full-text (1953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems are an efficient barrier for many contaminants. The biotransformation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) strongly depends on the redox conditions as well as on the dissolved organic carbon availability. Oxic and oligotrophic conditions are favored for enhanced TOrCs [...] Read more.
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems are an efficient barrier for many contaminants. The biotransformation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) strongly depends on the redox conditions as well as on the dissolved organic carbon availability. Oxic and oligotrophic conditions are favored for enhanced TOrCs removal which is obtained by combining two filtration systems with an intermediate aeration step. In this study, four parallel laboratory-scale soil column experiments using different intermittent aeration techniques were selected to further optimize TOrCs transformation during MAR: no aeration, aeration with air, pure oxygen and ozone. Rapid oxygen consumption, nitrate reduction and dissolution of manganese confirmed anoxic conditions within the first filtration step, mimicking traditional bank filtration. Aeration with air led to suboxic conditions, whereas oxidation by pure oxygen and ozone led to fully oxic conditions throughout the second system. The sequential system resulted in an equal or better transformation of most TOrCs compared to the single step bank filtration system. Despite the fast oxygen consumption, acesulfame, iopromide, iomeprol and valsartan were degraded within the first infiltration step. The compounds benzotriazole, diclofenac, 4-Formylaminoantipyrine, gabapentin, metoprolol, valsartan acid and venlafaxine revealed a significantly enhanced removal in the systems with intermittent oxidation compared to the conventional treatment without aeration. Further improvement of benzotriazole and gabapentin removal by using pure oxygen confirmed potential oxygen limitation in the second column after aeration with air. Ozonation resulted in an enhanced removal of persistent compounds (i.e., carbamazepine, candesartan, olmesartan) and further increased the attenuation of gabapentin, methylbenzotriazole, benzotriazole, and venlafaxine. Diatrizoic acid revealed little degradation in an ozone–MAR hybrid system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Internet of Things-Based Arduino Intelligent Monitoring and Cluster Analysis of Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical Parameters of Jungnangcheon, an Urban Stream
Water 2017, 9(3), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030220
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2441 | PDF Full-text (22503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present case study, the use of an advanced, efficient and low-cost technique for monitoring an urban stream was reported. Physicochemical parameters (PcPs) of Jungnangcheon stream (Seoul, South Korea) were assessed using an Internet of Things (IoT) platform. Temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), [...] Read more.
In the present case study, the use of an advanced, efficient and low-cost technique for monitoring an urban stream was reported. Physicochemical parameters (PcPs) of Jungnangcheon stream (Seoul, South Korea) were assessed using an Internet of Things (IoT) platform. Temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH parameters were monitored for the three summer months and the first fall month at a fixed location. Analysis was performed using clustering techniques (CTs), such as K-means clustering, agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). An IoT-based Arduino sensor module (ASM) network with a 99.99% efficient communication platform was developed to allow collection of stream data with user-friendly software and hardware and facilitated data analysis by interested individuals using their smartphones. Clustering was used to formulate relationships among physicochemical parameters. K-means clustering was used to identify natural clusters using the silhouette coefficient based on cluster compactness and looseness. AHC grouped all data into two clusters as well as temperature, DO and pH into four, eight, and four clusters, respectively. DBSCAN analysis was also performed to evaluate yearly variations in physicochemical parameters. Noise points (NOISE) of temperature in 2016 were border points (ƥ), whereas in 2014 and 2015 they remained core points (ɋ), indicating a trend toward increasing stream temperature. We found the stream parameters were within the permissible limits set by the Water Quality Standards for River Water, South Korea. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China
Water 2017, 9(3), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030219
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2064 | PDF Full-text (13780 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, [...] Read more.
Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030217
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1759 | PDF Full-text (1965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both [...] Read more.
In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Hydrology and Sediment Transport in a Semi-Arid and Anthropized Catchment Using the SWAT Model: The Case of the Tafna River (Northwest Algeria)
Water 2017, 9(3), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030216
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
Sediment deposits in North African catchments contribute to around 2%–5% of the yearly loss in the water storage capacity of dams. Despite its semi-arid climate, the Tafna River plays an important role in Algeria’s water self-sufficiency. There is continuous pressure on the Tafna’s [...] Read more.
Sediment deposits in North African catchments contribute to around 2%–5% of the yearly loss in the water storage capacity of dams. Despite its semi-arid climate, the Tafna River plays an important role in Algeria’s water self-sufficiency. There is continuous pressure on the Tafna’s dams to respond to the demand for water. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the contribution of different compartments in the basin to surface water and the dams’ impact on water and sediment storage and its flux to the sea in order to develop reservoir management. The hydrological modelling fitted well with the observed data (Nash varying between 0.42 and 0.75 and R2 varying between 0.25 and 0.84). A large proportion of the surface water came from surface runoff (59%) and lateral flow (40%), while the contribution of groundwater was insignificant (1%). SWAT was used to predict sediments in all the gauging stations. Tafna River carries an average annual quantity of 2942 t·yr−1 to the Mediterranean Sea. A large amount of water was stored in reservoirs (49%), which affected the irrigated agricultural zone downstream of the basin. As the dams contain a large amount of sediment, in excess of 27,000 t·yr−1 (90% of the sediment transported by Tafna), storage of sediment reduces the lifetime of reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Growth Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients (Kc) of Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) under Salt Stress
Water 2017, 9(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030215
Received: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Crop coefficients (Kc) are important for the development of irrigation schedules, but few studies on Kc focus on saline soils. To propose the growth-stage-specific Kc values for sunflowers in saline soils, a two-year micro-plot experiment was conducted in Yichang Experimental Station, Hetao Irrigation [...] Read more.
Crop coefficients (Kc) are important for the development of irrigation schedules, but few studies on Kc focus on saline soils. To propose the growth-stage-specific Kc values for sunflowers in saline soils, a two-year micro-plot experiment was conducted in Yichang Experimental Station, Hetao Irrigation District. Four salinity levels including non-salinized (ECe = 3.4–4.1 dS·m–1), low (ECe = 5.5–8.2 dS·m–1), moderate (ECe = 12.1–14.5 dS·m–1), and high (ECe = 18.3–18.5 dS·m–1) levels were arranged in 12 micro-plots. Based on the soil moisture observations, Vensim software was used to establish and develop a physically-based water flow in the soil-plant system (WFSP) model. Observations in 2012 were used to calibrate the WFSP model and acceptable accuracy was obtained, especially for soil moisture simulation below 5 cm (R2 > 0.6). The locally-based Kc values (LKc) of sunflowers in saline soils were presented according to the WFSP calibration results. To be specific, LKc for initial stages (Kc1) could be expressed as a function of soil salinity (R2 = 0.86), while R2 of LKc for rapid growth (Kc2), middle (Kc3), and mature (Kc4) stages were 0.659, 1.156, and 0.324, respectively. The proposed LKc values were also evaluated by observations in 2013 and the R2 for initial, rapid growth, middle, and mature stages were 0.66, 0.68, 0.56 and 0.58, respectively. It is expected that the LKc would be of great value in irrigation management and provide precise water application values for salt-affected regions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Economic Insight from Utah’s Water Efficiency Supply Curve
Water 2017, 9(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030214
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1903 | PDF Full-text (4937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Across the western US, growing populations and urbanization along with environmental demands and a changing climate have strained water allocation mechanisms originally designed to provide water to agriculture. This paper provides a methodology, using Utah as an example, for examining the options for [...] Read more.
Across the western US, growing populations and urbanization along with environmental demands and a changing climate have strained water allocation mechanisms originally designed to provide water to agriculture. This paper provides a methodology, using Utah as an example, for examining the options for new water supply via conservation, interpretable by policymakers, water agencies, and water users. Findings indicate that the largest potential water savings, at the lowest cost, are in agriculture and outdoor residential water use, where more efficient applications can maintain the acreage of crops and lawns at current levels while dramatically reducing use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Assessment of Sustainability Indexes and Climate Change Impacts on Integrated Water Resource Management
Water 2017, 9(3), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030213
Received: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2522 | PDF Full-text (1434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrated water resource management (IWRM) is facing great challenges due to growing uncertainties caused by climate change (CC), rapid socio-economic and technological changes, and population growth. In the present study, we have developed different indices to assess the availability of water using an [...] Read more.
Integrated water resource management (IWRM) is facing great challenges due to growing uncertainties caused by climate change (CC), rapid socio-economic and technological changes, and population growth. In the present study, we have developed different indices to assess the availability of water using an IWRM approach. These indices evaluate supply to demands, surface availability, groundwater availability, reservoirs, and environmental flow. Moreover, reliability, resilience, and vulnerability were determined. Sustainability index (SI) and sustainability index by groups (SG) were determined based on the five indices (all indices vary from 0 to 1). The impacts of climate change affect surface and groundwater availability, as do the agricultural, urban, and industrial requirements on the different supplies. We used the generalized AQUATOOL Decision Support System Shell (DSSS) to evaluate the IWRM in the Rio Grande Basin (Morelia, México). Various emission scenarios from representative concentration pathways (RCPs) were applied to the basin for the years 2015–2039 and 2075–2099. The results indicate increases in agricultural and urban demand, and decreases in surface runoff, as well as groundwater recharge. The proposed indices are useful for different approaches (decision-makers, water policy, and drought risks, among others). CC significantly affects the different proposed indices and indicates a decrease of the SI, SG1, and SG2 (i.e., less availability). For example, we found that SG2 decreased from 0.812 to 0.195 under the RCP 8.5 2075–2099 scenario, and SG2 equal to 0.252 and 0.326 for the RCP 6.0 2075–2099 and RCP 4.5 2070–2099 scenarios, respectively (values close to 0 indicate worst drought conditions). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Monitoring, Restoration, and Source Water Protection: Canadian Community-Based Environmental Organizations’ Efforts towards Improving Aquatic Ecosystem Health
Water 2017, 9(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030212
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 4 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2418 | PDF Full-text (3659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Canada, environmental monitoring has been the responsibility of government for decades; however, funding cutbacks have left many agencies unable to provide comprehensive coverage. This has stimulated a rise in community-based water monitoring (CBWM) organizations. These organizations, operating at multiple scales, have tasked [...] Read more.
In Canada, environmental monitoring has been the responsibility of government for decades; however, funding cutbacks have left many agencies unable to provide comprehensive coverage. This has stimulated a rise in community-based water monitoring (CBWM) organizations. These organizations, operating at multiple scales, have tasked themselves with monitoring aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, they often engage in restoration projects stemming from their monitoring work. Despite the growing abundance of CBWM organizations, there is uncertainty as to whether their activities lead to aquatic ecosystem benefits. A thematic analysis of photographic and qualitative interview data was employed to examine restoration projects conducted by five CBWM organizations, and the projects’ potential impact on source waters. Findings show that while they are conducting activities that show physical change, which is indicative of ecosystem improvement, examples of measurable responses within aquatic ecosystems remain rare. Monitoring, restoration, and source water protection processes are challenged by a lack of funding, capacity, and monitoring procedures. Funding, particularly, restricted the extent to which monitoring could be conducted and influenced project scope and scale. This leads to a lack of capacity to conduct large-scale restoration and rigorous scientific monitoring. Consequently, our findings highlight the issues with detecting effects of small-scale projects at the watershed scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Source Water Protection: State of the Art and Science)
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Open AccessReview
CryoSat-2 Altimetry Applications over Rivers and Lakes
Water 2017, 9(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030211
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2283 | PDF Full-text (6084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monitoring the variation of rivers and lakes is of great importance. Satellite radar altimetry is a promising technology to do this on a regional to global scale. Satellite radar altimetry data has been used successfully to observe water levels in lakes and (large) [...] Read more.
Monitoring the variation of rivers and lakes is of great importance. Satellite radar altimetry is a promising technology to do this on a regional to global scale. Satellite radar altimetry data has been used successfully to observe water levels in lakes and (large) rivers, and has also been combined with hydrologic/hydrodynamic models. Except CryoSat-2, all radar altimetry missions have been operated in conventional low resolution mode with a short repeat orbit (35 days or less). CryoSat-2, carrying a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimeter, has a 369-day repeat and a drifting ground track pattern and provides new opportunities for hydrologic research. The narrow inter-track distance (7.5 km at the equator) makes it possible to monitor many lakes and rivers and SAR mode provides a finer along-track resolution, higher return power and speckle reduction through multi-looks. However, CryoSat-2 challenges conventional ways of dealing with satellite inland water altimetry data because virtual station time series cannot be directly derived for rivers. We review the CryoSat-2 mission characteristics, data products, and its use and perspectives for inland water applications. We discuss all the important steps in the workflow for hydrologic analysis with CryoSat-2, and conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Farmers’ Climate Risk Perceptions in Agriculture—A Rural Ghana Perspective
Water 2017, 9(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030210
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1534 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluates the socio-economic predictors of farmers’ perceptions about climate risk in agriculture. The levels of risk perception among different farmers’ wealth groups are also investigated. A total of 100 farmers in the Lawra district of Ghana are randomly selected and interviewed. [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the socio-economic predictors of farmers’ perceptions about climate risk in agriculture. The levels of risk perception among different farmers’ wealth groups are also investigated. A total of 100 farmers in the Lawra district of Ghana are randomly selected and interviewed. Data is obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. A climate risk perception index (CRPI) is derived and applied to assess the degree of perceived risk among different wealth groups of farmers. The linear regression model is also used to analyze the data. The results showed that 93% of farmers have perceived climate risk while 7% are not sure if they have perceived it. Results of the CRPI showed that resource-poor farmers are concerned about climate risk on agricultural production, while resource-moderate and resource-rich farmers are concerned about risk impacts on climatic variables, and health and socio-economy, respectively. Results of the regression model showed that education, age, a perceived increase in human disease and mortality, and a decrease in food security and incomes are predictors of risk perception. The policy implication of this study is that predictors of farmers’ climate risk perception should be factored into climate change risk communication in order to boost awareness and adaptation to climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Variability Structures Plant Community Dynamics in Mediterranean Restored and Reference Tidal Wetlands
Water 2017, 9(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030209
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1648 | PDF Full-text (2908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Mediterranean regions and other areas with variable climates, interannual weather variability may impact ecosystem dynamics, and by extension ecological restoration projects. Conditions at reference sites, which are often used to evaluate restoration projects, may also be influenced by weather variability, confounding interpretations [...] Read more.
In Mediterranean regions and other areas with variable climates, interannual weather variability may impact ecosystem dynamics, and by extension ecological restoration projects. Conditions at reference sites, which are often used to evaluate restoration projects, may also be influenced by weather variability, confounding interpretations of restoration outcomes. To better understand the influence of weather variability on plant community dynamics, we explore change in a vegetation dataset collected between 1990 and 2005 at a historic tidal wetland reference site and a nearby tidal wetland restoration project initiated in 1976 in California’s San Francisco (SF) Bay. To determine the factors influencing reference and restoration trajectories, we examine changes in plant community identity in relation to annual salinity levels in the SF Bay, annual rainfall, and tidal channel structure. Over the entire study period, both sites experienced significant directional change away from the 1990 community. Community change was accelerated following low salinity conditions that resulted from strong El Niño events in 1994–1995 and 1997–1998. Overall rates of change were greater at the restoration site and driven by a combination of dominant and sub-dominant species, whereas change at the reference site was driven by sub-dominant species. Sub-dominant species first appeared at the restoration site in 1996 and incrementally increased during each subsequent year, whereas sub-dominant species cover at the reference site peaked in 1999 and subsequently declined. Our results show that frequent, long-term monitoring is needed to adequately capture plant community dynamics in variable Mediterranean ecosystems and demonstrate the need for expanding restoration monitoring and timing restoration actions to match weather conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Perspectives’ Comparisons and Mitigating Implications for the COD and NH3-N Discharges into the Wastewater from the Industrial Sector of China
Water 2017, 9(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030201
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1570 | PDF Full-text (1691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Taking China as a case study, we analyzed the underlying driving forces of two discharges—chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N)—from both periodic and structural perspectives by the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Changes in the two discharges were [...] Read more.
Taking China as a case study, we analyzed the underlying driving forces of two discharges—chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N)—from both periodic and structural perspectives by the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Changes in the two discharges were decomposed into three effects: the economic output effect, the industrial structure effect and the discharge intensity effect. The discharge intensity effect could be further decomposed into the cleaner production (technologies’) effect and the pollution abatement (technologies’) effect. Results showed that the economic output effect was mainly responsible for the growth of the two discharges; the average annual contribution rates were 10.77% and 10.39%, respectively. Inversely, the pollution abatement (technologies’) effect presented the most obvious mitigating effects (−9.71% and −9.52%, respectively). Furthermore, the clean production (technologies’) effect followed it (−4.36% and −5.22%). So, we found that the discharge intensity effect played a crucial role in the reduction of the two discharges. Then, the mitigation effect of industrial structure adjustment was the weakest (−0.19% and 0.47%). However, we could still not ignore the potential impact of industrial structure optimization for reducing the absolute amount of discharges in the long run. In addition, to simultaneously reduce the COD and NH3-N discharges, the sub-sectors of “Processing of Food from Agricultural Products (I7)”, “Manufacture of Foods (I8)”, “Manufacture of Raw Chemical Materials and Chemical Products (I20)”, “Manufacture of Non-metallic Mineral Products (I24)” and “Smelting and Pressing of Non-ferrous Metals (I26)” were suggested to be given prior consideration for the design of related mitigation policies. Finally, some particular policy implications were also recommended for reducing the two discharges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Manipulation of Precipitation Affects Soil Nitrogen Availability in Semiarid Mongolian Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Plantation
Water 2017, 9(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030208
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
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Abstract
Expected changes in precipitation over large regions of the world under global climate change will have profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems in arid and semiarid regions. To explore how changes in the amount of precipitation in the growing season would affect soil nitrogen [...] Read more.
Expected changes in precipitation over large regions of the world under global climate change will have profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems in arid and semiarid regions. To explore how changes in the amount of precipitation in the growing season would affect soil nitrogen (N) availability in a semiarid ecosystem, we established rainout shelters and irrigation systems by simulating 30% reduced (DRY) and 30% increased precipitation (WET) relative to natural precipitation (Control) to measure some key soil process properties for two growing seasons in a nutrient-poor Mongolian pine (P. sylvestris var. mongolica) plantation. Both WET and DRY treatments significantly affected monthly soil inorganic nitrogen concentrations, which showed a higher inorganic N under DRY than Control in each month and lower in WET than Control. Monthly soil microbial biomass N content was reduced by DRY and raised by WET treatments. The results indicated the asynchrony of the availability of soil moisture and soil nutrients in Mongolian pine plantations at the Horqin Sandy Lands in Northeast China. Water limited plant growth in Mongolian pine plantations when precipitation decreased, and nitrogen limitation became increasingly important when precipitation increased. Accumulation of N in microbial biomass is an important mechanism for N cycling in this ecosystem. To effectively manage Mongolian pine plantations, it is advised that evapotranspiration is minimized when precipitation decreases and that there is an increase in soil N availability by protecting litterfall when precipitation increases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Consumption of Agriculture and Natural Ecosystems along the Ili River in China and Kazakhstan
Water 2017, 9(3), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030207
Received: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2343 | PDF Full-text (5627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Ili River is a transboundary river shared by China, upstream, and Kazakhstan, downstream. The Ili is the main water supplier to Lake Balkhash, the largest lake in Central Asia after desiccation of the Aral Sea. Agreements over water allocation have not been [...] Read more.
The Ili River is a transboundary river shared by China, upstream, and Kazakhstan, downstream. The Ili is the main water supplier to Lake Balkhash, the largest lake in Central Asia after desiccation of the Aral Sea. Agreements over water allocation have not been concluded between China and Kazakhstan. This paper investigated water consumption of agriculture and riparian ecosystems in the Ili river basin, to provide information for further debate on water allocation, through the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) approach using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. The overall water consumption in the Ili river basin was 14.3 km3/a in 2000, 17.2 km3/a in 2005, and 15 km3/a in 2014. In 2000, China and Kazakhstan consumed 38% and 62% of the water, respectively. By 2014, the relative share of China’s water consumption increased to 43%. In China, 80% of the water consumption is due to agriculture. High runoff during the past 10 years enabled increasing water consumption in China and sufficient water supply to agriculture and riparian ecosystems in Kazakhstan. When runoff of the Ili River decreases, as expected for most rivers in Central Asia, then irrigation efficiency has to be further increased in China, and irrigation systems in Kazakhstan have to be restored and modernized in order to reduce water consumption and protect Lake Balkhash and the riparian ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Societal Drivers of European Water Governance: A Comparison of Urban River Restoration Practices in France and Germany
Water 2017, 9(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030206
Received: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
The European water governance took a decisive turn with the formulation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which demands the restoration of all water bodies that did not achieve sufficient ecological status. Urban rivers are particularly impaired by human activities and their restorations [...] Read more.
The European water governance took a decisive turn with the formulation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which demands the restoration of all water bodies that did not achieve sufficient ecological status. Urban rivers are particularly impaired by human activities and their restorations are motivated by multiple ecological and societal drivers, such as requirements of laws and legislation, and citizen needs for a better quality of life. In this study we investigated the relative influence of socio-political and socio-cultural drivers on urban river restorations by comparing projects of different policy contexts and cultural norms to cross-fertilize knowledge. A database of 75 projects in French and German major cities was compiled to apply (a) a comparative statistical analysis of main project features, i.e., motivation, goals, measures, morphological status, and project date; and (b) a qualitative textual analysis on project descriptions and titles. The results showed that despite a powerful European directive, urban river restoration projects still keep national specificities. The WFD drives with more intensity German, rather than French, urban river restoration. This study showed the limits of macro-level governance and the influence of microlevel governance driven by societal aspects such as nature perception and relationships between humans and rivers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Approach to Predict Debris Flow Average Velocity
Water 2017, 9(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030205
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1622 | PDF Full-text (13196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Debris flow is one of the major threats for the sustainability of environmental and social development. The velocity directly determines the impact on the vulnerability. This study focuses on an approach using radial basis function (RBF) neural network and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) [...] Read more.
Debris flow is one of the major threats for the sustainability of environmental and social development. The velocity directly determines the impact on the vulnerability. This study focuses on an approach using radial basis function (RBF) neural network and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) for predicting debris flow velocity. A total of 50 debris flow events were investigated in the Jiangjia gully. These data were used for building the GSA-based RBF approach (GSA-RBF). Eighty percent (40 groups) of the measured data were selected randomly as the training database. The other 20% (10 groups) of data were used as testing data. Finally, the approach was applied to predict six debris flow gullies velocities in the Wudongde Dam site area, where environmental conditions were similar to the Jiangjia gully. The modified Dongchuan empirical equation and the pulled particle analysis of debris flow (PPA) approach were used for comparison and validation. The results showed that: (i) the GSA-RBF predicted debris flow velocity values are very close to the measured values, which performs better than those using RBF neural network alone; (ii) the GSA-RBF results and the MDEE results are similar in the Jiangjia gully debris flow velocities prediction, and GSA-RBF performs better; (iii) in the study area, the GSA-RBF results are validated reliable; and (iv) we could consider more variables in predicting the debris flow velocity by using GSA-RBF on the basis of measured data in other areas, which is more applicable. Because the GSA-RBF approach was more accurate, both the numerical simulation and the empirical equation can be taken into consideration for constructing debris flow mitigation works. They could be complementary and verified for each other. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Three Representative Ukrainian Catchments Using Eco-Hydrological Modelling
Water 2017, 9(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030204
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2154 | PDF Full-text (2797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The information about climate change impact on river discharge is vitally important for planning adaptation measures. The future changes can affect different water-related sectors. The main goal of this study was to investigate the potential water resource changes in Ukraine, focusing on three [...] Read more.
The information about climate change impact on river discharge is vitally important for planning adaptation measures. The future changes can affect different water-related sectors. The main goal of this study was to investigate the potential water resource changes in Ukraine, focusing on three mesoscale river catchments (Teteriv, Upper Western Bug, and Samara) characteristic for different geographical zones. The catchment scale watershed model—Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM)—was setup, calibrated, and validated for the three catchments under consideration. A set of seven GCM-RCM (General Circulation Model-Regional Climate Model) coupled climate scenarios corresponding to RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) 4.5 and 8.5 were used to drive the hydrological catchment model. The climate projections, used in the study, were considered as three combinations of low, intermediate, and high end scenarios. Our results indicate the shifts in the seasonal distribution of runoff in all three catchments. The spring high flow occurs earlier as a result of temperature increases and earlier snowmelt. The fairly robust trend is an increase in river discharge in the winter season, and most of the scenarios show a potential decrease in river discharge in the spring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Influence of River Cross-Section Data on a River Stage Using a Two-Dimensional/Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model
Water 2017, 9(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030203
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2395 | PDF Full-text (11791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A large amount of accurate river cross-section data is indispensable for predicting river stages. However, the measured river cross-section data are usually sparse in the transverse direction at each cross-section as well as in the longitudinal direction along the river channel. This study [...] Read more.
A large amount of accurate river cross-section data is indispensable for predicting river stages. However, the measured river cross-section data are usually sparse in the transverse direction at each cross-section as well as in the longitudinal direction along the river channel. This study presents three algorithms to resample the river cross-section data points in both the transverse and longitudinal directions from the original data. A two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution unstructured-grid hydrodynamic model was used to assess the performance of the original and resampled cross-section data on a simulated river stage under low flow and high flow conditions. The simulated river stages are significantly improved using the resampled cross-section data based on the linear interpolation in the tidal river and non-tidal river segments. The resampled cross-section data based on the linear interpolation satisfactorily maintains the topographic and morphological features of the river channel, especially in the meandering river segment. Furthermore, the performance of the 2D and three-dimensional (3D) models on the simulated river stage was also evaluated using the resampled cross-section data. The results indicate that the 2D and 3D models reproduce similar river stages in both tidal and non-tidal river segments under the low flow condition. However, the 2D model overestimates the river stages in both the tidal and non-tidal river segments compared to the 3D model under the high flow condition. The model sensitivity was implemented to investigate the influence of bottom drag coefficient and vertical eddy viscosity on river stage using 2D and 3D models based on the linear interpolation method to resample river bed cross-section. The results reveal that the change of bottom drag coefficient has a minor impact on river stage, but the change of vertical eddy viscosity is insensitive to river stage. Full article
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