Special Issue "Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Katarzyna Glińska-Lewczuk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Water Resources, Climatology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Tel. +48 609510838
Interests: water management; water quality; ecohydrology, freshwater ecosystems; river restoration; hydrology; multivariate statistics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Krystian Obolewski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Hydrobiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Kazimierz Wielki in Bydgoszcz, Poland
Tel. +48 605182938
Interests: ecology; aquatic biodiversity macroinverebrates; freshwater ecosystems; floodplain lakes; coastal lakes; water quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is still growing demand for more knowledge-based actions on freshwater quality change in water ecosystems as habitats for a diversity of aquatic organisms. The last few decades have brought a number of reports on the mechanistic understanding of the hydro-biogeochemical processes governing mobilization, transport, fate, and effects of pollutants in order to assess and implement the best abatement practices. On the other hand, a variety of restoration actions have been undertaken to recover degraded freshwater ecosystems to healthy conditions, simultaneously promoting the biodiversity development and ecosystem services.

In this Special Issue, anthropogenically-induced changes in water quantity and quality are expected to be assessed in the context of altered patterns of land use, water withdrawal, and species invasions. The manuscripts exploring potential effects of water quality change on freshwater ecosystems in changing climate, including   models of instream flow, bioenergy, nutrient spiraling, and models relating food webs to hydrologic regime are particularly welcome. Various organic and non-organic pollutants delivered to freshwater ecosystems should be discussed in relation to the impact and toxicity level on biotic and abiotic elements. The research results referring to potential ecological risks, benefits, and costs of water quality improvement are required to enhance ability to predict and identify impacts and to evaluate management options.

In light of the above, we would like to call for papers where you share your recent discoveries within the field of the biotic and abiotic response to water quality change in freshwater ecosystems. Perspectives on the use of biological indicators for monitoring and protecting aquatic environments are of our interest, as well. We expect contributions containing advanced methodological procedures for in situ hydroecological research and monitoring, analytical tools, including improved methodology for water quality assessment and toxic levels, as well as multivariate chemometric analyses on comprehensive environmental data sets.  

Dr. Katarzyna Glińska-Lewczuk
Dr. Krystian Obolewski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Water Quality
  • Pollution
  • Eutrophication
  • Freshwater Ecosystems
  • Biodiversity
  • Nutrients
  • Biodindicator
  • Water Flow
  • Lake
  • River
  • Ecohydrology
  • Hydrobiology

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Distribution of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila Bacteria in a Recirculating Aquaculture System during Farming of European Grayling (Thymallus thymallus L.) Broodstock
Water 2019, 11(2), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020376 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria are opportunistic pathogens that occur naturally in the aquatic environment and in the gut flora of healthy fish. Both species can pose a serious threat for fish that are highly sensitive to water pollution. The aim of [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria are opportunistic pathogens that occur naturally in the aquatic environment and in the gut flora of healthy fish. Both species can pose a serious threat for fish that are highly sensitive to water pollution. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the amount of administered fish feed and fish biomass affect the distribution and abundance of Ps. fluorescens and A. hydrophila bacteria in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) during farming of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus L.) broodstock. A total of 68 water samples from the inflow, two rearing tanks and the outflow as well as 17 feed samples were collected and analyzed separately. Bacterial populations were analyzed by the culture-dependent method and a molecular method (fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH) to detect culturable strains and viable but non-culturable strains, respectively. Fish biomass, feed and 16 water quality parameters (temperature, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total phosphorus, total organic phosphorus and nitrogen, orthophosphates, total nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, total suspended solids, and total organic carbon) were the explanatory factors. Statistically significant differences (RM-ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05) were stated in bacterial abundance in samples from the inflow, rearing tanks and the outflow. Water samples from the RAS were abundantly colonized by non-culturable Ps. fluorescens and A. hydrophila bacteria. Feed was not a source of bacteria, but a redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the amount of feed, fish biomass, BOD5, and total suspended solids and total organic carbon were positively correlated in both Ps. fluorescens and A. hydrophila. These parameters also influenced the distribution of both potentially pathogenic bacterial populations and contributed to the bacterial contamination of water in the RAS. Our results are particularly valuable for aquacultures that help to replenish wild stocks and rebuild populations of threatened species in natural aquatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Taste and Odor Compounds in a Shallow Reservoir Using a Three–Dimensional Hydrodynamic Ecological Model
Water 2018, 10(10), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101396 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The objective of this study was to establish a technique to predict the occurrence of algal bloom and the algal-derived taste and odor compounds 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) and geosmin using a three-dimensional (3D) model that could reflect the complex physical properties of a shallow [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to establish a technique to predict the occurrence of algal bloom and the algal-derived taste and odor compounds 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) and geosmin using a three-dimensional (3D) model that could reflect the complex physical properties of a shallow reservoir. Water quality, phytoplankton, and taste and odor compounds monitoring was conducted at the Jinyang Reservoir in 2016. In June, there was a potential for a high concentration of 2-MIB (maximum 80 ng/L) to occur owing to the appearance of Pseudanabaena sp.; additionally, from July to August, there was potential for a high concentration of geosmin (maximum 108 ng/L) to occur, because of the presence of Anabaena sp. A 3D hydrodynamic model was coupled with an ecological model to predict cyanobacteria bloom and the presence of taste and odor compounds. Cyanobacteria producing either 2-MIB or geosmin were distinguished to enhance the accuracy of the modeled predictions. The results showed that the simulations of taste and odor compounds spatial distribution and occurrence time were realistic; however, the concentration of geosmin was overestimated when Microcystis sp. was blooming. The model can be used as a management tool to predict the occurrence of algal taste and odor compounds in reservoir systems and to inform decision-making processes concerning dam operation and water treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Water Management Technology Used in Trout Culture on Water Quality in Fish Ponds
Water 2018, 10(9), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091264 - 17 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Pond management requires that a specific fish culture is conducted while taking into account both production possibilities and profitability, as well as the impact it may have on the natural environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three water management systems [...] Read more.
Pond management requires that a specific fish culture is conducted while taking into account both production possibilities and profitability, as well as the impact it may have on the natural environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three water management systems used in rainbow trout culture on water quality in fish ponds. It was conducted at six trout farms and differing in water management strategy. After water had flown through the fishing ponds, its quality was significantly less impaired at farms operating in the flow and cascade systems. In turn, waters discharged from farms using the recirculation system were characterized by the poorest quality and lowest values on the Water Quality Index (WQI). It was found that the flow and cascade systems can be used to maintain the water quality and give less fish mortality for trout. It has been shown that the use of a water recirculation system in rainbow trout cultures significantly affects the quality of water in fishponds and can potentially lead to suppression of fish resistance and in extreme cases, to fish death. This study will help fish farmers in choosing the optimal variant of water management, taking into account both the best fish health with the least negative impact of fish farms on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Quality as an Indicator of Stream Restoration Effects—A Case Study of the Kwacza River Restoration Project
Water 2018, 10(9), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091249 - 14 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
River restoration projects rely on environmental engineering solutions to improve the health of riparian ecosystems and restore their natural characteristics. The Kwacza River, the left tributary of the Słupia River in northern Poland, and the recipient of nutrients from an agriculturally used catchment [...] Read more.
River restoration projects rely on environmental engineering solutions to improve the health of riparian ecosystems and restore their natural characteristics. The Kwacza River, the left tributary of the Słupia River in northern Poland, and the recipient of nutrients from an agriculturally used catchment area, was restored in 2007. The ecological status of the river’s biotope was improved with the use of various hydraulic structures, including palisades, groynes and stone islands, by protecting the banks with trunks, exposing a fragment of the river channel, and building a by-pass near a defunct culvert. The effects of restoration treatments were evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of river water along the 2.5 km restored section between the source and the mouth to the Słupia, before restoration and 6 years after hydrotechnical treatments. A total of 18 physicochemical parameters were analyzed at 10 cross-sections along the river. The greatest changes were observed in the concentrations of NO3-N and NH4+-N, which decreased by 70% and 50%, respectively. Dissolved oxygen concentration increased by 65%. Chloride values increased by 44%, and chlorophyll-a concentration increased by 30% after the project. The cut-off channel (by-pass), semi-palisades, and single groynes were the treatments that contributed most to water quality improvement. The results of this study indicate that river restoration projects can substantially reduce nitrogen pollution, which is particularly important in agricultural areas. Such measures can effectively reinstate natural conditions in river ecosystems. Hydrochemical monitoring is required to control the parameters of restored rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrological Performance and Runoff Water Quality of Experimental Green Roofs
Water 2018, 10(9), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091185 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Within the scope of the conducted experiment the authors analysed the efficiency of runoff reduction by the system of extensive type green roofs. The observations were based on storm events in the area of Lower Silesia at the Agro and Hydrometeorology Station Wrocław-Swojec. [...] Read more.
Within the scope of the conducted experiment the authors analysed the efficiency of runoff reduction by the system of extensive type green roofs. The observations were based on storm events in the area of Lower Silesia at the Agro and Hydrometeorology Station Wrocław-Swojec. The authors analysed the thickness of plant substrate, and also estimated the quality of runoff waters under the conditions of periodic atmospheric deposition. Also considered were such indicators as electrolytic conductivity, N, NO3, NO2, NH4+, P, PO43−. The experiment included roof substrates designed in two variants, with known hydraulic and physical properties of the soil material. The analysis was performed for models with vegetation layer based on pumice and zelolite, covered with five plant species from the sedum family. The modelling of the hydraulic properties was conducted with variably saturated medium, using the Hydrus 1D software. The performance of systems with primary layer thickness of 11 cm and 9, 8, 7, 6 and 5 cm was estimated. The designed models reduced the average peak flows to 89%, and in addition they caused a delay in the initiation of the runoff which was dependent on the intensity and distribution of rainfalls in time, and on the initial moisture of the profiles. Simulations, performed for variable substrate thickness, permit the conclusion that in the case of thin-layer profiles (5 cm), the relative retention index was decidedly lower and amounted to 35.9% for the substrate with zeolite (originally 60.6%) and 41% for the substrate with pumice (originally 65.7%). In the case of total nitrogen and phosphates, statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) in relation to specific concentrations in the rainwater and in the control surface. The total nitrogen in the runoff from the green roof was nearly twice as high as that in the rainwater and amounted to, on average, 8.3 mg L−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Functioning of a Water Body Within a Fluvio-Lacustrine System as an Effect of Excessive Nitrogen Loading—The Case of Lake Symsar and its Drainage Area (Northeastern Poland)
Water 2018, 10(9), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091163 - 30 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Generally, in water ecosystems, it is assumed that rivers play a transport role. In turn, lakes have accumulation properties. However, in fluvio-lacustrine systems, each water body located on a river track can disrupt naturally occurring processes. One such process is the nitrogen cycle. [...] Read more.
Generally, in water ecosystems, it is assumed that rivers play a transport role. In turn, lakes have accumulation properties. However, in fluvio-lacustrine systems, each water body located on a river track can disrupt naturally occurring processes. One such process is the nitrogen cycle. An analysis of the nitrogen cycle, at both the global and local levels, is of extreme significance in view of the progressive degradation of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we attempted to show that the specific properties of reservoirs located in river–lake systems contribute to an adequate reaction of these reservoirs to situations involving an excessive pollution load. Despite the intensive exchange of water in lakes, they were mainly shown to have an accumulation function. In particular, in those located in the lower part of the system, the total nitrogen load transported outside the example reservoir decreased by 4.3%. The role of these reservoirs depends on the morphometric, hydrologic, and meteorological conditions. The actual loading of the water body was shown to be more than double the permitted critical loading. The creation of conditions similar to those occurring in river–lake systems by, for example, delaying the outflow of water, may favor the protection of surface water from the last element of the system, because this limits the transport of pollutants. This study of the functioning and evolution of lakes’ fluvio-lacustrine systems, including the balance of the nutrient load, enables the prediction of the aquatic ecosystem’s responses in the future and their changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantity and Quality of Surface and Subsurface Runoff from an Eroded Loess Slope Used for Agricultural Purposes
Water 2018, 10(9), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091132 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The purpose of the work was to determine the surface and subsurface water runoff and selected constituents of the matter contained and carried out from the eroded loess slope used as arable land. The research was carried out in 2008–2011 on the Lublin [...] Read more.
The purpose of the work was to determine the surface and subsurface water runoff and selected constituents of the matter contained and carried out from the eroded loess slope used as arable land. The research was carried out in 2008–2011 on the Lublin Upland. The quantity of water flowing out of the slope was measured and samples were collected in order to determine the concentration of the soil suspension of nitrogen and its forms as well as phosphorus and potassium. Soil tests were also carried out and the rainfall amount and intensity was monitored. The research results show that the amount of precipitation was significantly statistically correlated with the quantity of surface and subsurface water runoff and with the precipitation and surface runoff erosion indicator EI30 (correlations at the level of r = 0.75–0.78). In addition, the mass of eroded soil was strongly correlated with the erosion indicator of rain and surface runoff EI30 (r = 0.86). The annual soil losses were from 21.1 to 173.1 Mg ha−1. The concentration of chemical components dissolved in the surface and subsurface runoff water in most cases proved to be negatively statistically correlated with the amount of precipitation and indicator EI30. The correlation coefficients (r) were at levels from −0.32 to −0.52. The annual loss of nutrients caused by chemical erosion was: nitrogen 7.210–29.949 kg ha−1, phosphorus 0.846–5.279 kg ha−1 and potassium 7.065–21.660 kg ha−1. The highest intensity of water erosion was recorded in 2010, when root crops were grown in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
To What Degree Can the Specifics of Occurrence of Glacial Relic Betula humilis Schrank Be an Indicator of Habitat Conditions of Moderate Climate Peatlands?
Water 2018, 10(8), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081062 - 10 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Anthropogenic transformations of habitat conditions in moderate climate peatlands frequently cause a decrease in the number of sites of occurrence and the size of the population of many valuable plant species, including the boreal relic Betula humilis. The objective of this paper [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic transformations of habitat conditions in moderate climate peatlands frequently cause a decrease in the number of sites of occurrence and the size of the population of many valuable plant species, including the boreal relic Betula humilis. The objective of this paper was an attempt to relate the specifics of the occurrence of the glacial relic Betula humilis in the peatlands of Central-Eastern Poland, which developed under moderate climate conditions, to the conditions of the natural environment identified through research into the physical and chemical parameters of the groundwater, as well as botanical research into its habitat. The study results confirm that shrub birch has a broad range of ecological tolerance to the majority of the studied factors and can therefore be an indicator of habitat transformation. Important environmental factors affecting its abundance are water relations and the contribution of calcium hydroxide and phosphorus fractions. A condition favouring the proper functioning of individuals of the studied species is TP values lower than other obtained values, in the following range: 0.08–0.32; P-PO4: 0.1; TN: 2.2–21.2; N-NH4: 0.1–0.46; DOC: 24.6–55.9 (mg·dm−3), as well as higher than average pH values, in the following range: 5.34–5.95; Ca: 5.67–28.1; Mg: 0.56–2.41 (mg·dm−3) and EC: 72.1–142.3 (µS·cm−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Seasonal Waste Draining for the Urban Agglomeration Using Statistical Methods
Water 2018, 10(8), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080976 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of the work was to analyze the seasonality of the sewage outflow from the urban agglomeration of Radom, using statistical methods in the aspect of environmental protection. The research was carried out on the basis of the observational series covering the [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to analyze the seasonality of the sewage outflow from the urban agglomeration of Radom, using statistical methods in the aspect of environmental protection. The research was carried out on the basis of the observational series covering the daily volume of the sewage outflow in the years 2013–2015. The assessment was carried out according to the following stages: identification of the distribution of the average daily sewage outflow in particular months using nuclear estimators, seasonal evaluation using the Colwell indicators and Fourier spectral analysis, and identification of homogeneous seasons with regard to the sewage outflow using the cluster analysis. On the basis of the calculations that were carried out, no significant seasonality of the sewage outflow was noted, which results from the separated character of the sewage system in the urban agglomeration of Radom. The analyses showed that the applied statistical techniques are a practical solution for identifying the seasonality of sewage inflow to the treatment plant, thanks to which it will be possible to take appropriate actions related to minimizing the harmful impact of hydraulic overload on the biotic environment of the natural receiver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in the Littoral Zones of Eutrophic Lakes Taihu and Hongze during the Algal Bloom Season
Water 2018, 10(7), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070861 - 28 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a key component with a critical role in the littoral zones of eutrophic shallow lakes; yet the characteristics of CDOM in these zones remain seldom systematically reported. In this study, the differences in sources, biogeochemical characteristics, and [...] Read more.
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a key component with a critical role in the littoral zones of eutrophic shallow lakes; yet the characteristics of CDOM in these zones remain seldom systematically reported. In this study, the differences in sources, biogeochemical characteristics, and fates of CDOM between the littoral zones of eutrophic lakes Taihu (LLT; frequently occurring algal blooms and longer lake residence time) and Hongze (LLH; no obvious algal blooms and shorter residence time) were compared during the algal bloom season using ultraviolet-visible spectra and excitation and emission matrix spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis. Three humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) components (C1, C3, and C4) and one protein-like component (C2) were identified. Results showed that FDOM components were dominated by protein-like fluorescent substances in LLT, and humic-like materials in LLH, respectively. The CDOM in LLT had a lower relative aromaticity and molecular weight, humification degree and a higher autotrophic productivity because of algal blooms. Furthermore, CDOM depletion rates in LLT were higher than those in LLH due to a longer lake residence time in LLT. In addition, CDOM shifted from high molecular weight to low molecular weight as the humification degree decreased during the CDOM depletion process. This comparative study showed that algal blooms and lake residence time were the significant factors for distinguishing characteristics of CDOM between littoral zones of shallow lakes on a similar trophic level. This study provides field-based knowledge for remote sensing CDOM measurement and serves as a reference for lakeshore aquatic environmental management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Assessment of the Hydromorphological Status of the Rivers Odra, Bystrzyca, and Ślęza Using the RHS, LAWA, QBR, and HEM Methods above and below the Hydropower Plants
Water 2018, 10(7), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070855 - 27 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to assess the hydromorphological status of watercourses above and below the hydropower plants. To this end, four methods were selected which represent various groups of methods used in various member states of the EU. Particular focus was [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the hydromorphological status of watercourses above and below the hydropower plants. To this end, four methods were selected which represent various groups of methods used in various member states of the EU. Particular focus was on the RHS method (assessment of the physical habitats—the method used in Poland). The following methods were also used: LAWA (assessment of physical habitats, Germany), QBR (assessment of bank habitats, Spain), and HEM (comprehensive morphological assessment, the Czech Republic). For each of these methods, appropriate hydromorphological status indicators were calculated (assessment on a five grade scale). The analysis revealed that despite the different assumptions, the methods lead to similar results and can be used in various countries, especially in Europe. Because of the broad spectrum of space and time data used in the analysis, the results of HEM are the most reliable; however, this method is also the most difficult to use. All the methods meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive, which calls for rational water management. Based on the hydromorphological assessment, the results obtained helped us to evaluate the environmental changes on the river sections above and below the hydropower plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Degradation of Phenol and Resorcinol Molecules through the Dissolution of Sacrificial Anodes of Macro-Corrosion Galvanic Cells
Water 2018, 10(6), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060770 - 12 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper reports on the processes of phenol and resorcinol electrodegradation carried-out through continuous anodic dissolution of aluminum alloy and carbon steel sacrificial anodes for artificially aerated Cu-Al alloy and Cu-Fe-based galvanic (macro-corrosion) cells and synthetically prepared wastewater solutions. Electrochemical experiments were carried-out [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the processes of phenol and resorcinol electrodegradation carried-out through continuous anodic dissolution of aluminum alloy and carbon steel sacrificial anodes for artificially aerated Cu-Al alloy and Cu-Fe-based galvanic (macro-corrosion) cells and synthetically prepared wastewater solutions. Electrochemical experiments were carried-out by means of a laboratory size, PMMA (Poly-methyl methacrylate)-made electrolyser unit, where significant degrees of phenol (10–89%) and resorcinol (13–37%) decomposition were obtained and visualized through the respective chemical/spectroscopy analyses. In addition, quantitative determination of phenol, as well as resorcinol (and possible electrodegradation products) for the selected experimental conditions was performed by means of instrumental high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Location Intelligence System for the Assessment of Pluvial Flooding Risk and the Identification of Storm Water Pollutant Sources from Roads in Suburbanised Areas
Water 2018, 10(6), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060746 - 07 Jun 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
The interplay of an ever-growing number of inhabitants, sprawl development, soil sealing, changes in urban traffic characteristics, as well as observed climate trends gives rise to more frequent pluvial flooding in cities, a higher run-off of water, and an increasing pollution of surface [...] Read more.
The interplay of an ever-growing number of inhabitants, sprawl development, soil sealing, changes in urban traffic characteristics, as well as observed climate trends gives rise to more frequent pluvial flooding in cities, a higher run-off of water, and an increasing pollution of surface water. The aim of this research is to develop a location intelligence system for the assessment of pluvial flooding risks and the identification of storm water pollutant sources from roads in newly-developed areas. The system combines geographic information systems and business intelligence software, and it is based on the original Pluvial Flood Risk Assessment tool. The location intelligence system effectively identifies the spatial and temporal distribution of pluvial flood risks, allows to preliminarily evaluate the total run-off from roads, and helps localise potential places for new water management infrastructure. Further improvements concern the modelling of a flow accumulation and drainage system, the application of weather radar precipitation data, and traffic monitoring and modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of the Coenobial Green Algae Pseudopediastrum boryanum (Chlorophyceae) to Remove Hexavalent Chromium from Contaminated Aquatic Ecosystems and Industrial Wastewaters
Water 2018, 10(6), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060712 - 31 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The idea of using microorganisms, especially microalgae, as biosorbents of heavy metals deserves particular attention due to their natural biosorbent properties and the relatively simple and inexpensive methods of obtaining their biomass. The cosmopolitan microscopic green alga of the genus Pseudopediastrum is an [...] Read more.
The idea of using microorganisms, especially microalgae, as biosorbents of heavy metals deserves particular attention due to their natural biosorbent properties and the relatively simple and inexpensive methods of obtaining their biomass. The cosmopolitan microscopic green alga of the genus Pseudopediastrum is an example of an organism with the desired biosorption properties. The aim of the study was to assess the potential use the dry biomass of Ps. boryanum var. longicorne in the process of biosorption of chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) ions from aqueous solutions. Biomass of microalgae was cultivated in the photobioreactor conditions (L-S2T2 medium, light intensity of 4000 lx, photoperiod 12L:12D). The biomass obtained was used for the biosorption of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The effect of pH (2–6), biosorbent concentration (0.5–2 g/L) and initial chromium concentration (10–100 mg/L) was examined. The highest removal of Cr(VI) ions (70%) was observed at pH 2, initial chromium concentration of 10 mg/L and a biomass concentration of 2 g/L. At this chromium concentration, the sorption capacity of the microalga was the lowest. The results indicated that the biomass of the Ps. boryanum is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Occurrences and Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Awash River Basin, Ethiopia
Water 2018, 10(5), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050535 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Like many areas in developing nations, rapid population growth, a high urbanization rate, and poor waste management practices have been observed in the Awash River Basin. Moreover, no comprehensive study has been conducted in this basin to evaluate sediment contamination with heavy metals. [...] Read more.
Like many areas in developing nations, rapid population growth, a high urbanization rate, and poor waste management practices have been observed in the Awash River Basin. Moreover, no comprehensive study has been conducted in this basin to evaluate sediment contamination with heavy metals. About 46 sampling locations were considered to study heavy metal concentrations, distributions, pollution levels, and potential ecological risks associated with these contaminants. The results indicate that average concentrations of all metals have exceeded their respective background values except Pb and Hg. A comparison with similar studies also revealed that sediments from the Awash River Basin had a high average value for Cd. The mean enrichment values of heavy metals increased in the order of Hg < As < Pb < Ni < Cu < Cr < Zn < Cd. Multivariate analysis revealed that Ni and Cu had common sources. The average potential ecological risk index (ERI = 355.54) indicates high potential toxicity response in the study area. In general, surficial sediment contamination with heavy metals is causing high ecological hazards in Awash River Basin. This study sheds lights on the current level of contamination of heavy metals which are widely distributed across the sediments of rivers and streams of Awash River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prokaryotic Community Composition Affected by Seasonal Changes in Physicochemical Properties of Water in Peat Bog Lakes
Water 2018, 10(4), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040485 - 16 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Based on a three-year study on the prokaryotic community composition in peat bog lakes surrounded by a floating mat of Sphagnum sp. moss in the conditions of Northeast Poland (Central Europe), we verified the relationship between 20 water parameters and main Eubacteria and [...] Read more.
Based on a three-year study on the prokaryotic community composition in peat bog lakes surrounded by a floating mat of Sphagnum sp. moss in the conditions of Northeast Poland (Central Europe), we verified the relationship between 20 water parameters and main Eubacteria and Archaea phyla for specific sites: the subsurface (pelagic zone), near-bottom (benthic zone), and the Sphagnum mat (ecotone zone). Abundance and composition of the main aquatic bacteria phyla (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacteria) and Archaea were associated with different combinations of physico-chemical parameters of water, and followed temporal variations of temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), aromaticity, and water color. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that water acidity is a less significant predictor of bacterial activity; however, we have found Betaproteobacteria negatively correlated (r = −0.49, p = 0.01), while Actinobacteria positively correlated (r = 0.21, p = 0.05) to pH. This relation was the most significant in the ecotone zone. In the overall bacteria community structure Betaproteobacteria dominated (18.3%) regardless of site or season, except for winter when, at low temperatures and DOC concentrations, Actinobacteria increased to 22.9%. The Archaea fraction was uniform (11%) in seasons and sites and showed no specific preferences to physico-chemical predictors. Although the water parameters from the Sphagnum mat did not differ significantly from pelagic water, its role as a source of allochthonous organic matter is crucial for bacteria activity. The relations between peat bog lake attributes and seasonal changes in bacterial diversity demonstrated a distinct divergent pattern for each prokaryote. Obtaining results will provide support for any future evaluation of the effects of environmental variables on prokaryotic community structures in peat bog lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Atoyac River Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Puebla, México
Water 2018, 10(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030267 - 04 Mar 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The Atoyac River crosses the metropolitan area of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico and presents a state of pollution that has been scarcely studied. In 2016, the water quality of the river was evaluated based on physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, under the guidelines established for [...] Read more.
The Atoyac River crosses the metropolitan area of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico and presents a state of pollution that has been scarcely studied. In 2016, the water quality of the river was evaluated based on physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, under the guidelines established for the Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL) for Aquatic Life Protection (ALP) and Agricultural Irrigation (AI). The sampling sites were the Covadonga Dam, the Echeverría Dam, and an irrigation canal. Water from wells and a spring in the Emilio Portes Gil (EPG) population that uses Atoyac water for agricultural irrigation was also analyzed. The data obtained from the river were compared with the 2011 data published in the declaration of classification of Atoyac and Xochiac or Hueyapan and its tributaries. There was a notable increase in hemical oxygen demand (COD) (49%) and in heavy metals with varying percentages. The anoxic condition of the river (mean 1.47 mg of O2/L) with large populations of coliform bacteria was demonstrated, 11 pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae were found, and high organic pollution concentrations were shown, particularly during droughts. Irrigation and well water was contaminated with fecal bacteria (104–549 NMP/100 mL), which included pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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