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Special Issue "Coastal Vulnerability and Mitigation Strategies: From Monitoring to Applied Research"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Diego Vicinanza

Department of Engineering, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Aversa, Italy.
Website | E-Mail
Interests: coastal engineering; maritime structures; coastal morphodynamic; coastal defences; wave energy converters
Guest Editor
Dr. Pasquale Contestabile

University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Department of Civil Engineering, Design, Building and Environment, Aversa, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: coastal morphodynamics; wave energy assessment; swash zone

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The main focus of this Special Issue is the state-of-the-art and recent research on continental shelf vulnerability and relative management strategies for protecting coastal areas from a sustainable perspective.

The outlook of mitigation strategies against flooding and erosion and in the perspective of possible climate change are of interest. Protection against sea level rise will be especially important, as changes in sea level damage beaches and coastal systems. Contributions dealing with ecological coastal defense and innovative monitoring technique are strongly encouraged. Further, innovation in management tools for coastal managers and applied research in the topic of coastal zone management are also welcome.

Conservation of coastal systems and ecosystems requires the insights of a number of monodisciplinary, multidisciplinary, as well as integral studies and approaches. Under this vision, in this Special Issue, an ensemble of interdisciplinary articles will be then collected, emphasizing the importance of tackles technical and scientific problems at different scales and from different point of view.

Prof. Diego Vicinanza

Dr. Pasquale Contestabile

Guest Editors


Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coastal vulnerability
  • coastal defence
  • coastal monitoring
  • wave climate
  • coastal morphodynamic
  • coastal management

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Morphodynamic Response to Low-Crested Detached Breakwaters on a Sea Breeze-Dominated Coast
Water 2019, 11(4), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040635
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
Low-crested detached breakwaters (LCDBs) have been widely employed as a mitigation measure against beach erosion. However, only a few studies have assessed their performance in sea-breeze-dominated environments. This work investigates the beach morphodynamics behind LCDBs deployed on a micro-tidal sea-breeze-dominated beach. The study [...] Read more.
Low-crested detached breakwaters (LCDBs) have been widely employed as a mitigation measure against beach erosion. However, only a few studies have assessed their performance in sea-breeze-dominated environments. This work investigates the beach morphodynamics behind LCDBs deployed on a micro-tidal sea-breeze-dominated beach. The study area, located in the northern Yucatán peninsula, is characterized by low-energy, high-angle waves, which drive a persistent (westward) alongshore sediment transport (O(104) m3/year). High-resolution real-time kinematics global positioning system (GPS) beach surveys were conducted over a one-year period (2017–2018) to investigate the performance of LCDBs at three sites. Moreover, unmanned aerial vehicle flights were employed to evaluate far-field shoreline stability. Field observations revealed a distinct behavior in the three study sites, dependent on the breakwaters’ transmission characteristics, geometry, stability, and shoreline orientation. Impermeable LCDBs, made of sand-filled geosystems, induced significant beach accretion (erosion) in up-(down-)drift areas. On the other hand, permeable LCDBs, made of Reef Ball™ modules, induced moderate beach changes and small erosion in down-drift areas owing to higher transmission coefficients. Measurements of LCDBs’ freeboard height show that sand-filled geosystems’ breakwaters presented a significant loss of sand during the study period, which explains the unexpected beach morphodynamic response on the lee side of the structure. Observations suggest that the study area is highly sensitive to the presence of LCDBs with low transmissivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Storm Energy Flux Characterization along the Mediterranean Coast of Andalusia (Spain)
Water 2019, 11(3), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030509
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper investigates wave climate and storm characteristics along the Mediterranean coast of Andalusia, for the period 1979–2014, by means of the analysis of wave data on four prediction points obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Normally, to characterize [...] Read more.
This paper investigates wave climate and storm characteristics along the Mediterranean coast of Andalusia, for the period 1979–2014, by means of the analysis of wave data on four prediction points obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Normally, to characterize storms, researchers use the so-called “power index”. In this paper, a different approach was adopted based on the assessment of the wave energy flux of each storm, using a robust definition of sea storm. During the investigated period, a total of 2961 storm events were recorded. They were classified by means of their associated energy flux into five classes, from low- (Class I) to high-energetic (Class V). Each point showed a different behavior in terms of energy, number, and duration of storms. Nine stormy years, i.e., years with a high cumulative energy, were recorded in 1980, 1983, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2001, 2008, 2010, and 2013. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Systematic Review of Coastal Vulnerability Assessment Studies along Andhra Pradesh, India: A Critical Evaluation of Data Gathering, Risk Levels and Mitigation Strategies
Water 2019, 11(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020393
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
The establishment and alteration of any coastal feature is largely dependent upon complex hydrological and geomorphologic processes. Therefore, understanding hazard factors and threat risk level is crucial for mitigating risk in coastal zones. This study examines coastal vulnerability factors and their influence along [...] Read more.
The establishment and alteration of any coastal feature is largely dependent upon complex hydrological and geomorphologic processes. Therefore, understanding hazard factors and threat risk level is crucial for mitigating risk in coastal zones. This study examines coastal vulnerability factors and their influence along the Coastal Andhra Pradesh (CAP) region in India. CAP has been exposed to frequent hydrological and meteorological hazards due to variations in the geographical, geological, and bathymetric characteristics. Despite substantial vulnerabilities, the risk to the coastline of Andhra Pradesh has not been rigorously evaluated. The current research systematically reviews the drivers and effects of hazards and vulnerabilities in CAP. Findings indicate that urban cities have a considerably higher risk of cyclones and floods due to their locations on the Bay of Bengal tectonic plate, the topology of this coastal region, and higher population density. The study revealed that the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) data along CAP is mostly gathered using low-resolution satellite data and/or field observation surveys. The study further revealed that there are very few existing mitigation strategies developed or discussed within the obtained results. However, more accurate data gathering techniques for coastal vulnerability factors are available such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): Air-borne and LiDAR sensors, which provide very high resolution data and low-cost accessibility to physically inaccessible places, making them suitable for vulnerability data collection in coastal locations. These findings are useful for stakeholders seeking to reduce or ameliorate the impact of coastal disasters and their impacts on the CAP economy, environment, and population. The study further helps to reduce the existing shortcomings in the assessment techniques used previously. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coastal Flooding Hazard Due to Overflow Using a Level II Method: Application to the Venetian Littoral
Water 2019, 11(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010134
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, marine flooding and its impacts have become a question of growing interest, since coastal areas are the most heavily populated and developed land zones in the world. This paper presents a rapid tool for mapping at regional scale the hazard [...] Read more.
In recent years, marine flooding and its impacts have become a question of growing interest, since coastal areas are the most heavily populated and developed land zones in the world. This paper presents a rapid tool for mapping at regional scale the hazard associated with coastal flooding due to overflow. The tool merges a recently developed numerical model that solves a simplified form of the Shallow-Water Equations and is suited for Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) acceleration, with a Level II reliability method that allows producing hazard maps of inland flooding propagation. The procedure was applied to two stretches of the Venetian littoral, i.e., Valle Vecchia and Caorle, located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The application includes the site descriptions and the resulting hazard maps that show the probability of failure in each point of the coast for a given inland inundation level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Mimic Vegetation with Different Stiffness on Regular Wave Propagation and Turbulence
Water 2019, 11(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010109
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Flume experiments were performed to test four plant mimics with different stiffness to reveal the effect of plant stiffness on the wave dissipation and turbulence process. The mimics were built of silica gel rod groups, and their bending elastic modulus was measured as [...] Read more.
Flume experiments were performed to test four plant mimics with different stiffness to reveal the effect of plant stiffness on the wave dissipation and turbulence process. The mimics were built of silica gel rod groups, and their bending elastic modulus was measured as a proxy for stiffness. The regular wave velocity distribution, turbulence characteristics, and wave dissipation effect of different groups were studied in a flume experiment. Results show that, when a wave ran through the flexible rod groups, the velocity period changed gradually from unimodal to bimodal, and the secondary wave peak was more apparent in the more flexible mimics. The change in the turbulence intensity in the different rod groups showed that the higher the rod stiffness, the greater the turbulence intensity. With an increase in the bending elastic modulus of a rod group, the wave dissipation coefficient increased. The increase in the wave dissipation coefficient was not linearly correlated with the bending elastic modulus, but it was sensitive within a certain range of the elastic modulus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Regional Application of Bayesian Modeling for Coastal Erosion and Sand Nourishment Management
Water 2019, 11(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010061
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents an application of the Bayesian belief network for coastal erosion management at the regional scale. A “Bayesian ERosion Management Network” (BERM-N) is developed and trained based on yearly cross-shore profile data available along the Holland coast. Profiles collected for over [...] Read more.
This paper presents an application of the Bayesian belief network for coastal erosion management at the regional scale. A “Bayesian ERosion Management Network” (BERM-N) is developed and trained based on yearly cross-shore profile data available along the Holland coast. Profiles collected for over 50 years and at 604 locations were combined with information on different sand nourishment types (i.e., beach, dune, and shoreface) and volumes implemented during the analyzed time period. The network was used to assess the effectiveness of nourishments in mitigating coastal erosion. The effectiveness of nourishments was verified using two coastal state indicators, namely the momentary coastline position and the dune foot position. The network shows how the current nourishment policy is effective in mitigating the past erosive trends. While the effect of beach nourishment was immediately visible after implementation, the effect of shoreface nourishment reached its maximum only 5–10 years after implementation of the nourishments. The network can also be used as a predictive tool to estimate the required nourishment volume in order to achieve a predefined coastal erosion management objective. The network is interactive and flexible and can be trained with any data type derived from measurements as well as numerical models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Field and Numerical Study of Resistance and Resilience on a Sea Breeze Dominated Beach in Yucatan (Mexico)
Water 2018, 10(12), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121806
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The understanding of the beach capability to resist and recover from a disturbance is of paramount importance in coastal engineering. However, few efforts have been devoted to quantifying beach resilience. The present work aims to investigate the shoreline resistance and resilience, associated to [...] Read more.
The understanding of the beach capability to resist and recover from a disturbance is of paramount importance in coastal engineering. However, few efforts have been devoted to quantifying beach resilience. The present work aims to investigate the shoreline resistance and resilience, associated to a transient disturbance, on a sandy beach. A temporary groin was deployed for 24 h on a micro-tidal sea-breeze dominated beach to induce a shoreline perturbation. Morphological changes were measured by means of beach surveys to estimate the beach perturbation and the further beach recovery after structure removal. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the shoreline position suggests that the first EOF mode describes the spatial-temporal evolution of the shoreline owing to the groin deployment/removal. A new one-line numerical model of beach evolution is calibrated with the field surveys, reproducing both the sediment impoundment and subsequent beach recovery after the structure removal. Thus, a parametric numerical study is conducted to quantify resistance and resilience. Numerical results suggest that beach resistance associated to the presence of a structure decreases with increasing alongshore sediment transport potential, whereas resilience after structure removal is positively correlated with the alongshore diffusivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrometeorological Conditions for the Occurrence of Aeolian Processes on the Southern Baltic Coast in Poland
Water 2018, 10(12), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121745
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
This article presents the temporal and spatial variability of hydrometeorological conditions conducive aeolian processes on the Southern Baltic coastal zone in Poland. The analysis made use of daily meteorological (wind, temperature, and rainfall) and hydrological (sea level) data from 1961 to 2010. Data [...] Read more.
This article presents the temporal and spatial variability of hydrometeorological conditions conducive aeolian processes on the Southern Baltic coastal zone in Poland. The analysis made use of daily meteorological (wind, temperature, and rainfall) and hydrological (sea level) data from 1961 to 2010. Data for four stations (Świnoujście, Kołobrzeg, Ustka, Hel) were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management in Warsaw. A time decomposition of hydrometeorological conditions conducive to the initiation and intensification of aeolian processes in the coastal zone was also performed. In addition to their scientific significance, the temporal and spatial conditions for aeolian processes on the Baltic coast of Poland have an essential utilitarian significance. Modern aeolian processes on the Baltic coast limit the development potential of the coastal zone. Aeolian processes have a positive and negative impact on geomorphological transformation of the sea coast. They take part in the reconstruction of the beach and foredunes after storms. In periods between storms, coastal wind is seen to decrease the balance of beach sediments and lowers the beach area. On the other hand, onshore wind favors, among other things, filling of tourist infrastructure and development located at the hinterland of the beach and dunes. Hydrometeorological conditions especially favorable to the intensification of aeolian processes are the main determinants of geomorphological changes in the coastal zone (some of which can be extreme). Temporal and spatial analysis of hydrometeorological conditions conducive to aeolian processes is important for many areas of human activity, especially those concerning protection, management, and development of the coast. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Shore Protection Structures Increase and Evolution on the Northern Tuscany Coast (Italy): Influence of Tourism Industry
Water 2018, 10(11), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111647
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Analysis of a large shoreline database (from 1878 to 2017) and recompilation of information on type/age of shore protection structures along the Northern Tuscany, allowed a deep insight of the progressive armouring of this coastal sector. The area experienced beach erosion since the [...] Read more.
Analysis of a large shoreline database (from 1878 to 2017) and recompilation of information on type/age of shore protection structures along the Northern Tuscany, allowed a deep insight of the progressive armouring of this coastal sector. The area experienced beach erosion since the end of the 19th century due to reduced sediment inputs from rivers and harbour constructions. Shore protection structures started to develop at the beginning of the 20th century, first to protect settlements and coastal roads, later to maintain a beach for tourist activity. The changing of the goal and the increasing awareness of the negative impact of some structures resulted in an evolution of coastal defence projects: initially, seawalls and revetments, later detached breakwaters and, more recently, groins. Today, a reduction in hard structures is perceived by removing or lowering detached breakwaters and groins below mean sea level. The forcing function of the growing tourism industry is producing a demand for projects and their design is detailed in this paper: results will be of use in the correct design of a long-term, general, erosion management plan to restore the natural sediment circulation patterns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term GIS Analysis of Seaside Impacts Associated to Infrastructures and Urbanization and Spatial Correlation with Coastal Vulnerability in a Mediterranean Area
Water 2018, 10(11), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111642
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
The relationship between the impacts of coastal perimeter transformations derived from human activity and coastal vulnerability is not easy to assess. The impacts associated with coastal dynamics are phenomena that usually develop very extensively over a considerable time. These are transformations that cause [...] Read more.
The relationship between the impacts of coastal perimeter transformations derived from human activity and coastal vulnerability is not easy to assess. The impacts associated with coastal dynamics are phenomena that usually develop very extensively over a considerable time. These are transformations that cause significant environmental damage in vulnerable coastal areas, but whose results are very often not really visible until 10, 20, or even 40 years have elapsed. In addition, the analysis and quantification of the current context in complex territories is particularly difficult, since the spatial feedback of various issues and its consequences can generate an uncertain scenario with many interrelated variables. In this field, the use of GIS tools can be of great help to objectively analyze the relationship between coastal anthropization and its impact on its vulnerability in order to correct wrong inertias in vulnerable coastal areas. To this end, a long-term GIS analysis has been carried out of the impacts from urbanization and seaside infrastructures suffered by a complex Mediterranean coastal area in Spain. This territory, with singular elements such as dune ridges, beaches located in protected areas, and a coastal lagoon, will be evaluated using GIS spatio-temporal indicators over the last 90 years and geostatistical correlation methods. This approach will allow us to better understand the relationship between territorial transformations on the coast and the current coastal vulnerability of this area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coupled Wave-2D Hydrodynamics Modeling at the Reno River Mouth (Italy) under Climate Change Scenarios
Water 2018, 10(10), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101380
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
This work presents the results of the numerical study implemented for the natural area of Lido di Spina, a touristic site along the Italian coast of the North Adriatic Sea, close to the mouth of River Reno. High-resolution simulations of nearshore dynamics are [...] Read more.
This work presents the results of the numerical study implemented for the natural area of Lido di Spina, a touristic site along the Italian coast of the North Adriatic Sea, close to the mouth of River Reno. High-resolution simulations of nearshore dynamics are carried out under climate change conditions estimated for the site. The adopted modeling chain is based on the implementation of multiple-nested, open-source numerical models. More specifically, the coupled wave-2D hydrodynamics runs, using the open-source TELEMAC suite, are forced at the offshore boundary by waves resulting from the wave model (SWAN) simulations for the Adriatic Sea, and sea levels computed following a joint probability analysis approach. The system simulates present-day scenarios, as well as conditions reflecting the high IPCC greenhouse concentration trajectory named RCP8.5 under predicted climate changes. Selection of sea storms directed from SE (Sirocco events) and E–NE (Bora events) is performed together with Gumbel analysis, in order to define ordinary and extreme sea conditions. The numerical results are here presented in terms of local parameters such as wave breaking position, alongshore currents intensity and direction and flooded area, aiming to provide insights on how climate changes may impact hydrodynamics at a site scale. Although the wave energy intensity predicted for Sirocco events is expected to increase only slightly, modifications of the wave dynamics, current patterns, and inland flooding induced by climate changes are expected to be significant for extreme conditions, especially during Sirocco winds, with an increase in the maximum alongshore currents and in the inundated area compared to past conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Threshold Values of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events on the Polish Baltic Coast
Water 2018, 10(10), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101337
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
The main aim of this study is to determine the threshold values for extreme sea and weather events on the Polish Baltic coast. The study is based on daily hydrometeorological data on the sea level; air temperature and atmospheric precipitation collected between 1965–2014 [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to determine the threshold values for extreme sea and weather events on the Polish Baltic coast. The study is based on daily hydrometeorological data on the sea level; air temperature and atmospheric precipitation collected between 1965–2014 from six coastal sites (Świnoujście; Kołobrzeg, Ustka, Łeba, Hel, and Gdynia/Gdańsk). Threshold values for the occurrence of extreme events (with a probability of 10% and 95%, and a return rate of once every 10 years) and exceptionally extreme events (with a probability of 1% and 99%, and a return rate of once every 100 years) were determined using probability distribution and quantile analysis. Hydrometeorological absolute extremes were also determined. The methodology used to determine these extreme events and the time-space analysis of hydrometeorological extremes reveal significant geohazards for the functioning of the Baltic coastal zone, including the erosion of coastal dunes and cliffs and the destruction of technical infrastructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of a Coastal Vulnerability Index. A Case Study along the Apulian Coastline, Italy
Water 2018, 10(9), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091218
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
The coastal vulnerability index (CVI) is a popular index in literature to assess the coastal vulnerability of climate change. The present paper proposes a CVI formulation to make it suitable for the Mediterranean coasts; the formulation considers ten variables divided into three typological [...] Read more.
The coastal vulnerability index (CVI) is a popular index in literature to assess the coastal vulnerability of climate change. The present paper proposes a CVI formulation to make it suitable for the Mediterranean coasts; the formulation considers ten variables divided into three typological groups: geological; physical process and vegetation. In particular, the geological variables are: geomorphology; shoreline erosion/accretion rates; coastal slope; emerged beach width and dune width. The physical process variables are relative sea-level change; mean significant wave height and mean tide range. The vegetation variables are width of vegetation behind the beach and posidonia oceanica. The first application of the proposed index was carried out for a stretch of the Apulia region coast, in the south of Italy; this application allowed to (i) identify the transects most vulnerable to sea level rise, storm surges and waves action and (ii) consider the usefulness of the index as a tool for orientation in planning strategies. For the case study presented in this work, the most influential variables in determining CVI are dune width and geomorphology. The transects that present a very high vulnerability are characterized by sandy and narrow beaches (without dunes and vegetation) and by the absence of Posidonia oceanica. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Laboratory Investigation on the Evolution of a Sandy Beach Nourishment Protected by a Mixed Soft–Hard System
Water 2018, 10(9), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091171
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
A new experimental campaign on a 2D movable-bed physical model, reproducing a typical nourishment sandy beach profile, is being carried out in the wave flume of the Laboratory of Coastal Engineering at Politecnico di Bari (Bari, Italy). The main aim is to assess [...] Read more.
A new experimental campaign on a 2D movable-bed physical model, reproducing a typical nourishment sandy beach profile, is being carried out in the wave flume of the Laboratory of Coastal Engineering at Politecnico di Bari (Bari, Italy). The main aim is to assess the short-term evolution of a sandy beach nourishment, relying on a mixed solution built on the deployment of a Beach Drainage System (BDS) and a rubble-mound detached submerged breakwater. This paper aims at illustrating the experimental findings. Tests presented herein deal with both unprotected and protected configurations, focusing on the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes under erosive conditions. Results show that, with respect to the unprotected conditions, BDS reduces the shoreline retreat and the beach steepen within swash and surf zone as well. Moreover, a reduction of net sediment transport rate is observed. When BDS is coupled with the submerged sill, a reversal of the prevalent direction of the net sediment transport seaward occurs offshore the sheltered region. Less considerable positive effects on shoreline retreat are induced by the submerged structure, whereas the mean beach slope remains quite stable. Secondary effects of drain on the submerged sill performance are also highlighted. BDS reduces wave-induced setup on beach, by mitigating the mean water level raising, typically experienced by such structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Attenuation of Tides and Surges by Mangroves: Contrasting Case Studies from New Zealand
Water 2018, 10(9), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091119
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Mangroves have been suggested as an eco-defense strategy to dissipate tsunamis, storm surges, and king tides. As such, efforts have increased to replant forests along coasts that are vulnerable to flooding. The leafy canopies, stems, and aboveground root structures of mangroves limit water [...] Read more.
Mangroves have been suggested as an eco-defense strategy to dissipate tsunamis, storm surges, and king tides. As such, efforts have increased to replant forests along coasts that are vulnerable to flooding. The leafy canopies, stems, and aboveground root structures of mangroves limit water exchange across a forest, reducing flood amplitudes. The attenuation of long waves in mangroves was measured using cross-shore transects of pressure sensors in two contrasting environments in New Zealand, both characterized by mono-specific cultures of grey mangroves (Avicennia marina) and approximate cross-shore widths of 1 km. The first site, in the Firth of Thames, was characterized by mangrove trees with heights between 0.5 and 3 m, and pneumatophore roots with an average height of 0.2 m, and no substantial tidal drainage channels. Attenuation was measured during storm surge conditions. In this environment, the tidal and surge currents had no alternative pathway than to be forced into the high-drag mangrove vegetation. Observations showed that much of the dissipation occurred at the seaward fringe of the forest, with an average attenuation rate of 0.24 m/km across the forest width. The second site, in Tauranga harbor, was characterized by shorter mangroves between 0.3 and 1.2 m in height and deeply incised drainage channels. No attenuation of the flood tidal wave across the mangrove forest was measurable. Instead, flow preferentially propagated along the unvegetated low-drag channels, reaching the back of the forest much more efficiently than in the Firth of Thames. Our observations from sites with the same vegetation type suggest that mangrove properties are important to long wave dissipation only if water transport through the vegetation is a dominant mechanism of fluid transport. Therefore, realistic predictions of potential coastal protection should be made prior to extensive replanting efforts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Study of the Coastal Management Criteria Based on Risk Assessmeant: A Case Study on Yunlin Coast, Taiwan
Water 2018, 10(8), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080988
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we used the natural and anthropogenic characteristics of a coastal region to generate risk maps showing vulnerability and potential hazards, and proposed design criteria for coastal defense and land use for the various kinds of risks faced. The Yunlin coast, [...] Read more.
In this study, we used the natural and anthropogenic characteristics of a coastal region to generate risk maps showing vulnerability and potential hazards, and proposed design criteria for coastal defense and land use for the various kinds of risks faced. The Yunlin coast, a first-level protection area in mid-west Taiwan, was then used as an example to illustrate the proposed design criteria. The safety of the present coastal defenses and land use of the Yunlin coastal area was assessed, and coastal protection measures for hazard prevention were proposed based on the generated risk map. The results can be informative for future coastal management and the promotion of sustainable development of coastal zones. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Vulnerability Analysis of the Venetian Littoral and Adopted Mitigation Strategy
Water 2018, 10(8), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080984
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper discusses the key aspects of the recent Coastal Plan of the Veneto Region (IT). Its aim is to propose a single mitigation strategy for coastal erosion that is valid for the whole Veneto Region, and possibly elsewhere, as well as a [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the key aspects of the recent Coastal Plan of the Veneto Region (IT). Its aim is to propose a single mitigation strategy for coastal erosion that is valid for the whole Veneto Region, and possibly elsewhere, as well as a method to assign a priority level to any action. The suggested mitigation action against erosion depends on urbanization level, beach width, as well as cross-shore and long-shore sediment transport. The criterion used to give a priority level to mitigation actions is based on a vulnerability index that takes into account erosive tendency, existing coastal flooding hazards, coast value, environmental relevance, tourist pressure, urbanization level, the presence of production activities, and cultural heritage. A sample case featuring the littoral of Rosolina is also provided and includes a site description, the sediment budget, critical issues and possible mitigation measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating Future Flows and Salinity Intrusion Using Combined One- and Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling—The Case of Hau River, Vietnamese Mekong Delta
Water 2018, 10(7), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070897
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Salinity intrusion in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) has been exacerbated significantly in recent years by the changing upstream inflows, sea level rise resulting from climate change, and socioeconomic development activities. Despite significant damage to agricultural production and freshwater supplies, quantitative assessments of [...] Read more.
Salinity intrusion in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) has been exacerbated significantly in recent years by the changing upstream inflows, sea level rise resulting from climate change, and socioeconomic development activities. Despite significant damage to agricultural production and freshwater supplies, quantitative assessments of future flows and salinization remain limited due to lack of observation data and modelling tools to represent a highly complex hydraulic network. In this study, we combine 1D-MIKE 11 and 2D-MIKE 21 hydrodynamic models to simulate future flows, water level and salinity intrusion in the Hau River—one main river branch in the Mekong Delta. Future hydrological changes are simulated under multiple scenarios of upstream inflow changes, climate change and sea level rise for the 2036–2065 period. We first use the 1D-MIKE 11 to simulate the flow regime throughout the whole VMD using upstream discharges, outlet water levels and rainfall data as boundary conditions. Output from this step is then used to force the 2D-MIKE 21 model to estimate flow velocity, water level and salinity concentration in the Hau River, focusing on the salinization-prone section between Can Tho, Dinh An, and Tran De estuaries. Simulation results show that salinization will increase substantially, characterized by (1) higher salinity intrusion length under spring tide from 6.78% to 7.97%, and 8.62% to 10.89% under neap tide; and (2) progression of the salinity isohalines towards the upper Mekong Delta, from 3.29 km to 3.92 km for 1 practical salinity unit (PSU) under spring tide, and 4.36 km to 4.65 km for 1 PSU concentration under neap tide. Additionally, we found that salinity intrusion will make it more difficult to re-establish the freshwater condition in the estuary in the future. In particular, the flushing time required to replace saltwater with freshwater at the estuaries tends to increase to between 7.27 h for maximum discharge of 4500 m3/s and 58.95 h for discharge of 400 m3/s under the most extreme scenario. Increasing salinization along the Hau River will have important consequences for crop production, freshwater supplies and freshwater ecosystems, therefore requiring timely adaptation responses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficiency Assessment of Existing Pumping/Hydraulic Network Systems to Mitigate Flooding in Low-Lying Coastal Regions under Different Scenarios of Sea Level Rise: The Mazzocchio Area Study Case
Water 2018, 10(7), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070820
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
Rising of the sea level and/or heavy rainfall intensification significantly enhance the risk of flooding in low-lying coastal reclamation areas. Therefore, there is a necessity to assess whether channel hydraulic networks and pumping systems are still efficient and reliable in managing risks of [...] Read more.
Rising of the sea level and/or heavy rainfall intensification significantly enhance the risk of flooding in low-lying coastal reclamation areas. Therefore, there is a necessity to assess whether channel hydraulic networks and pumping systems are still efficient and reliable in managing risks of flooding in such areas in the future. This study addresses these issues for the pumping system of the Mazzocchio area, which is the most depressed area within the Pontina plain, a large reclamation region in the south of Lazio (Italy). For this area, in order to assess climate change impact, a novel methodological approach is proposed, based on the development of a simulation–optimization model, which combines a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm and a hydraulic model. For assigned extreme rainfall events and sea levels, the model calculates sets of Pareto optimal solutions which are obtained by defining two optimality criteria: (a) to minimize the flooding surface in the considered area; (b) to minimize the pumping power necessary to mitigate the flooding. The application shows that the carrying capacity of the hydraulic network downstream of the pumping system is insufficient to cope with future sea level rise and intensification of rainfall. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On-Bottom Stability Analysis of Cylinders under Tsunami-Like Solitary Waves
Water 2018, 10(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040487
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
A two-dimensional (2D) laboratory investigation on the horizontal and vertical hydrodynamic forces induced by tsunami-like solitary waves on horizontal circular cylinders placed on a rigid sea bed is presented. A series of 30 physical model tests was conducted in the wave channel of [...] Read more.
A two-dimensional (2D) laboratory investigation on the horizontal and vertical hydrodynamic forces induced by tsunami-like solitary waves on horizontal circular cylinders placed on a rigid sea bed is presented. A series of 30 physical model tests was conducted in the wave channel of the University of Calabria in which a rigid circular cylinder was equipped with 12 pressure transducers placed along its external surface to determine the wave loads, with three wave gauges to record the surface elevation. The observed experimental range was characterized by the prevalence of the inertia component for the horizontal forces and of the lift component for the vertical ones. On the basis of the performance of several time-domain methods, the wave loads and the undisturbed velocity and acceleration derived from the surface elevation of the cylinder section were used to calculate the drag, lift, and horizontal and vertical inertia coefficients in the practical Morison and transverse semi-empirical equations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extreme Wave Analysis by Integrating Model and Wave Buoy Data
Water 2018, 10(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040373
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Estimating the extreme values of significant wave height (HS), generally described by the HS return period TR function HS(TR) and by its confidence intervals, is a necessity in many branches of coastal science and engineering. [...] Read more.
Estimating the extreme values of significant wave height (HS), generally described by the HS return period TR function HS(TR) and by its confidence intervals, is a necessity in many branches of coastal science and engineering. The availability of indirect wave data generated by global and regional wind and wave model chains have brought radical changes to the estimation procedures of such probability distribution—weather and wave modeling systems are routinely run all over the world, and HS time series for each grid point are produced and published after assimilation (analysis) of the ground truth. However, while the sources of such indirect data are numerous, and generally of good quality, many aspects of their procedures are hidden to the users, who cannot evaluate the reliability and the limits of the HS(TR) deriving from such data. In order to provide a simple engineering tool to evaluate the probability of extreme sea-states as well as the quality of such estimates, we propose here a procedure based on integrating HS time series generated by model chains with those recorded by wave buoys in the same area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Frequency Waves Detected in a Large Wave Flume under Irregular Waves with Different Grouping Factor and Combination of Regular Waves
Water 2018, 10(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020228
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes a set of experiments undertaken at Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in the large wave flume of the Maritime Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of this study is to highlight the effects of wave grouping and long-wave short-wave combinations regimes on low [...] Read more.
This paper describes a set of experiments undertaken at Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in the large wave flume of the Maritime Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of this study is to highlight the effects of wave grouping and long-wave short-wave combinations regimes on low frequency generations. An eigen-value decomposition has been performed to discriminate low frequencies. In particular, measured eigen modes, determined through the spectral analysis, have been compared with calculated modes by means of eigen analysis. The low frequencies detection appears to confirm the dependence on groupiness of the modal amplitudes generated in the wave flume. Some evidence of the influence of low frequency waves on runup and transport patterns are shown. In particular, the generation and evolution of secondary bedforms are consistent with energy transferred between the standing wave modes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Variability and Macrophyte Assemblages in Coastal Lagoon Types of Western Greece (Mediterranean Sea)
Water 2018, 10(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020151
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
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Abstract
Coastal lagoon types of Western Greece were allocated to a spectrum of meso to polyhaline chocked lagoons; poly to euhaline restricted lagoons; and euhaline restricted lagoons along the Ionian Sea coast. This diversity comprises wide ranges of physical, chemical and environmental parameters in [...] Read more.
Coastal lagoon types of Western Greece were allocated to a spectrum of meso to polyhaline chocked lagoons; poly to euhaline restricted lagoons; and euhaline restricted lagoons along the Ionian Sea coast. This diversity comprises wide ranges of physical, chemical and environmental parameters in a seasonal and annual scale, which explains the variability in the distribution of benthic macrophytes. Four different macrophyte assemblages were distinguished, characterized by annual or perennial species. Extensive statistical analysis showed that salinity and nitrate concentrations had a great impact on the composition and distribution of macrophyte assemblages into lagoon types that also changed their abundance on a seasonal and annual scale. During the monitoring period, an important salinity shift in a chocked lagoon might cause the gradual loss of Zostera noltii and its replacement by Ruppia cirrhosa. Restricted lagoons were characterized by higher species diversity, while the other three identified macrophyte assemblages were dominated by the angiosperms Ruppia cirrhosa and Cymodocea nodosa. This integrated study of coastal lagoons is likely to be broadly applicable, since it was based on important parameters affecting such ecosystems, and the provided links between macrophyte assemblages and abiotic factors are of critical importance to improve management and environmental policies. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Coastal Erosion Management at Callao (Peru) in the 17th and 18th Centuries: The First Groin Field in South America?
Water 2018, 10(7), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070891
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
Analysis of written documents, projects and historical cartography of the 17th and 18th centuries allows reconstruction of the shore protection works performed at Callao (Peru) to defend the settlements and its boundary wall from storm waves and tsunamis. Groins appeared for the first [...] Read more.
Analysis of written documents, projects and historical cartography of the 17th and 18th centuries allows reconstruction of the shore protection works performed at Callao (Peru) to defend the settlements and its boundary wall from storm waves and tsunamis. Groins appeared for the first time in early 18th century maps, together with gently sloping revetments in an unrealized project of the same period. Comparisons between Callao projects and those performed in Europe in the same centuries show a uniformity in design and construction materials that overpasses the environmental differences of the sites. Successes and failures followed each other and, although an understanding of coastal dynamics and the positive and negative effects of the various works were known, it was not possible to guarantee the stability of the walls and consequently the safety of the city from sea attack. A strategic retreat was even considered. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessTechnical Note
Wave Climate at Shallow Waters along the Abu Dhabi Coast
Water 2018, 10(8), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080985
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
High-resolution, reliable global atmospheric and oceanic numerical models can represent a key factor in designing a coastal intervention. At the present, two main centers have the capabilities to produce them: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the U.S.A. and the European [...] Read more.
High-resolution, reliable global atmospheric and oceanic numerical models can represent a key factor in designing a coastal intervention. At the present, two main centers have the capabilities to produce them: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the U.S.A. and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The NOAA and ECMWF wave models are developed, in particular, for different water regions: deep, intermediate, and shallow water regions using different types of spatial and temporal grids. Recently, in the Arabian Gulf (also named Persian Gulf), the Abu Dhabi Municipality (ADM) installed an ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) to observe the atmospheric and oceanographic conditions (water level, significant wave height, peak wave period, water temperature, and wind speed and direction) at 6 m water depth, in the vicinity of the shoreline of the Saadiyat beach. Courtesy of Abu Dhabi Municipality, this observations dataset is available; the recorded data span the period from June 2015 to January 2018 (included), with a time resolution of 10 min and 30 min for the atmospheric and oceanographic variables, respectively. At the ADCP deployment location (ADMins), the wave climate has been determined using wave propagation of the NOAA offshore wave dataset by means of the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) numerical model, the NOAA and ECMWF wave datasets at the closest grid point in shallow water conditions, and the SPM ’84 hindcasting method with the NOAA wind dataset used as input. It is shown that the best agreement with the observed wave climate is obtained using the SPM ’84 hindcasting method for the shallow water conditions. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Applying a New Force–Velocity Synchronizing Algorithm to Derive Drag Coefficients of Rigid Vegetation in Oscillatory Flows
Water 2018, 10(7), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070906
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
Coastal vegetation is effective in dissipating incident wave energy during storm conditions, which offers valuable protection to coastal communities. Determining vegetation drag coefficient (CD) is of great importance to the quantification of vegetation-induced wave dissipation. Recently, a direct measuring approach [...] Read more.
Coastal vegetation is effective in dissipating incident wave energy during storm conditions, which offers valuable protection to coastal communities. Determining vegetation drag coefficient (CD) is of great importance to the quantification of vegetation-induced wave dissipation. Recently, a direct measuring approach has been developed to derive vegetation drag coefficient more accurately compared to the conventional calibration approach. However, as this approach requires perfectly in-phase force and velocity signals, there are two difficulties associated with it. The first difficulty is the availability of a suitable force sensor to compose synchronized force–velocity measuring systems. The second difficulty is related to realigning the obtained timeseries of force and velocity data. This technical note develops a new synchronized force–velocity measuring system by using standard force sensors and an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV). This system is applied together with an automatic realignment algorithm to ensure in-phase data for CD deviation. The algorithm reduces the phase shift between force–velocity signals from ca. 0.26 s to 0.003 s. Both time-varying and period-averaged CD can be obtained using this method. The derived CD can be used to accurately reproduce the measured maximum total acting force on vegetation (R2 = 0.759), which shows the reliability of the automatic alignment algorithm. The newly-developed synchronized force–velocity measuring system and alignment algorithm are expected to be useful in future experiments on vegetation–wave interactions with various hydrodynamic and vegetation settings. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Projected changes in extreme sea states and wave climate into the NW Gulf of Napoli (Italy)

Tentative Authors: Contestabile, P., Conversano, F., Musco, L., Danovaro, R., Vicinanza, D.

 

Coastal hazard assessment. State of the art and new general procedure

Giandomenico Foti, Giuseppina Chiara Barillà, Giuseppe Barbaro, Pierfabrizio Puntorieri , Francesca Minniti and Caterina Canale 

Short abstract:

Coastal areas represent the transition zone between sea and land and are of particular importance for the presence of buildings, infrastructure and economic activities. Currently, over 30% of the world’s population lives near the coast but a very high percentages of the coasts is subject to erosion. These are very topical issues above all in a territory like Italy, with about 7500 km of coasts, of which the 30% are in erosion.

Coastal areas are very vulnerable under the action of both natural and human-induced factors which influence the shoreline position and coastal dynamics in general, and can cause erosion and coastal flooding. From this point of view, knowledge of these factors is important for a correct assessment of the coastal hazard and, consequently, for effective management of coastal areas. Indeed, often coastal defense works have been used to mitigate erosive processes. However, in most cases the design of these works did not analyze the dynamics of the entire physiographic unit and therefore they triggered further erosive processes.

Amongst the human-induced factors, the demographic increases and the considerable anthropization that characterized the second half of the last century has increased the vulnerability of the coastal areas. The construction of buildings, infrastructures, ports and coastal defence works are of particular importance. Other important factors are the construction of hydraulic works that interfering with fluvial dynamics such as: levees, dams, sediment withdrawals and soil erosion by water (WSE).

Amongst the natural factors, the sea level rise, the wave action and the balance between longshore and river transport are of particular importance.

Coastal hazard assessment methodology varies greatly from one country to another and, also, varies within the same country. For example, in Italy almost all regions have developed their own methodology. The same variability is observed with respect to the natural and human-induced factors examined by each methodology. Therefore, a generalized methodology is absent, which incorporates all the factors that influence the coastal hazard.

The paper describes a procedure for assessing the coastal hazard. This procedure is of general validity, and takes into account all the factors that influence the coastal areas balance, for example geomorphology, coastal and river hydrodynamics, shoreline changes, the presence of ports and coastal and river defense works. The paper is divided into three sections: the first section analyzes the different methodologies for assessing the coastal hazard applied in various Italian regions and internationally. The second section describes the new procedure while the last section shows the application of this procedure in Italy, in the Calabria region.

 

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