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Special Issue "Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Yiannis Panagopoulos

Hellenic Center of Marine Research, Institute of Inland Waters
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +302291076396
Interests: hydrology; hydrologic modelling; water resources; water quality; river basin planning and management
Guest Editor
Dr. Rafael Pimentel

University of Cordoba, Hydraulic Engineering, Campus de Rabanales, Cordoba, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34 957 212662
Interests: snow dynamics and water resources in semiarid areas; hydrological modelling and uncertainty analysis; remote sensing observations; data assimilation
Guest Editor
Assoc.Prof. Mehmet Cüneyd Demirel

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey
2. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +90 (212) 2857426
Interests: hydrologic modeling, climate change, low flows, uncertainty analysis, spatial calibration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water scarcity, hydrometeorologic extremes and water pollution are major environmental threats affecting the biotic/abiotic status of surface and groundwater resources in river basins and the societies within them, through the disturbance of the ecosystem services that people rely on. Future climate uncertainty adds complexity to the river basin managers’ work in planning sustainable management schemes to tackle the above water issues.Hydrologic river basin models are valuable tools in finding ways to combat environmental problems and mitigate the impact of future climate and socio-economic changes on water resources. Especially in the past decade remote sensing data that have become increasingly available to the hydrologic community promise to improve models in representing actual weather/climate processes, and land and water management practices, towards an overall improvement of future planning and management of river basins. This Special Issue of Water is envisioned to showcase the state-of-the-art in the adaptation and use of remotely sensed data for hydrologic models at different scales and climatic regions and their application. We hope that new data/methods/models will help us to remark some progress in tackling real river basin problems and possible issues that need more focused research.

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Conservation/Mitigation Practices/Measures
  • Climate Change
  • River Basin Planning and Management
  • Hydrologic Modeling, Calibration/Uncertainty
  • Remote Sensing Observations/Data Assimilation

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Water Resources Management in Small Greek Islands under Changing Climate
Water 2019, 11(8), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081694
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Five different water resource management scenarios are examined on eight dry islands of the Aegean Sea in Greece, pitting the current practice of water hauling via ship against alternative water supply schemes in delivering a sustainable solution for meeting water demand. The first [...] Read more.
Five different water resource management scenarios are examined on eight dry islands of the Aegean Sea in Greece, pitting the current practice of water hauling via ship against alternative water supply schemes in delivering a sustainable solution for meeting water demand. The first scenario employs current water supply practices along with the operation of domestic rainwater harvesting systems. Desalinated water, provided through the operation of wind-powered desalination plants, is considered the main source of potable water in the rest of scenarios. Wind-powered desalination may be combined with rainwater harvesting as a supplementary source of water and/or seawater pumping and an additional source of energy that is supplied to the system. All different alternatives are evaluated for a 30-year lifespan, and an optimal solution is proposed for each island, based on a life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The performance of this solution is then assessed under six climate change (CC) scenarios in terms of the rate of on-grid versus off-grid renewable energy that is required in order to achieve a certain reliability level. Overall, the examined scenarios show a decreasing performance in terms of reliability under CC for the eight islands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
OpenForecast: The First Open-Source Operational Runoff Forecasting System in Russia
Water 2019, 11(8), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081546
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
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Abstract
The development and deployment of new operational runoff forecasting systems are a strong focus of the scientific community due to the crucial importance of reliable and timely runoff predictions for early warnings of floods and flashfloods for local businesses and communities. OpenForecast, the [...] Read more.
The development and deployment of new operational runoff forecasting systems are a strong focus of the scientific community due to the crucial importance of reliable and timely runoff predictions for early warnings of floods and flashfloods for local businesses and communities. OpenForecast, the first operational runoff forecasting system in Russia, open for public use, is presented in this study. We developed OpenForecast based only on open-source software and data—GR4J hydrological model, ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis, and ICON deterministic short-range meteorological forecasts. Daily forecasts were generated for two basins in the European part of Russia. Simulation results showed a limited efficiency in reproducing the spring flood of 2019. Although the simulations managed to capture the timing of flood peaks, they failed in estimating flood volume. However, further implementation of the parsimonious data assimilation technique significantly alleviates simulation errors. The revealed limitations of the proposed operational runoff forecasting system provided a foundation to outline its further development and improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying a Suitable Model for Low-Flow Simulation in Watersheds of South-Central Chile: A Study Based on a Sensitivity Analysis
Water 2019, 11(7), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071506
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Choosing a model that suitably represents the characteristics of a watershed to simulate low flows is crucial, especially in watersheds whose main source of baseflow generation depends on groundwater storage and release. The goal of this investigation is to study the performance and [...] Read more.
Choosing a model that suitably represents the characteristics of a watershed to simulate low flows is crucial, especially in watersheds whose main source of baseflow generation depends on groundwater storage and release. The goal of this investigation is to study the performance and representativeness of storage-release process modeling, considering aspects such as the topography and geology of the modeled watershed through regional sensitivity analysis, in order to improve low-flow prediction. To this end, four groundwater storage-release structures in various watersheds with different geological (fractured and sedimentary rock) and topographic domains (steep and gentle slopes) were analyzed. The results suggest that the two-reservoir structure with three runoff responses is suitable (better) for simulating low flows in watersheds with fractured geological characteristics and rugged or steep topography. The results also indicate that a one-reservoir model can be adequate for predicting low flows in watersheds with a sedimentary influence or flat topography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
A Quantity–Quality Model to Assess the Effects of Source Control Stormwater Management on Hydrology and Water Quality at the Catchment Scale
Water 2019, 11(7), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071415
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
The vast development of urban areas has resulted in the increase of stormwater peak runoff and volume. Water quality has also been adversely affected. The best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) techniques could be applied to urban areas to mitigate [...] Read more.
The vast development of urban areas has resulted in the increase of stormwater peak runoff and volume. Water quality has also been adversely affected. The best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) techniques could be applied to urban areas to mitigate these effects. A quantity–quality model was developed to simulate LID practices at the catchment scale using the US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (US EPA SWMM). The purpose of the study was to investigate the impacts of LID techniques on hydrology and water quality. The study was performed in BUNUS catchment in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study applied vegetated swale and rain garden to assess the model performance at a catchment scale using real field data. The selected LIDs occupied 7% of each subcatchment (of which 40% was swale and 30% was rain garden). The LID removal efficiency was up to 40% and 62% for TN and TSS, respectively. The peak runoff reduction was up to 27% for the rainfall of up to 70 mm, and up to 19% for the rainfall of between 70 and 90 mm, respectively. For the longer storm events of higher than 90 mm the results were not as satisfactory as expected. The model was more effective in peak runoff reduction during the shorter rainfall events. As for the water quality, it was satisfactory in all selected rainfall scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Land Cover/Use Changes on Hydrological Processes in a Rapidly Urbanizing Mid-latitude Water Supply Catchment
Water 2019, 11(5), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051075
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
This research aimed to evaluate the impact of land cover/use changes on watershed responses and hydrological processes by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) distributed hydrologic model to the Buyukcekmece Water Basin of Istanbul Metropolitan city. SWAT model was run for [...] Read more.
This research aimed to evaluate the impact of land cover/use changes on watershed responses and hydrological processes by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) distributed hydrologic model to the Buyukcekmece Water Basin of Istanbul Metropolitan city. SWAT model was run for two different scenarios for the 40-year period between 1973 and 2012, after completing calibration procedures under gauge-data scarce conditions. For the first scenario, 1990 dated Land cover/land use (LCLU) map and meteorological data obtained between 1973 and 2012 were used. For the second scenario, 2006 dated LCLU map and same meteorological data were used to analyze the impact of changing landscape characteristics on hydrological processes. In the selected watershed, LCLU changes started towards the end of the 1980s and reached a significant status in 2006; therefore, 1990 and 2006 dated LCLU maps are important to model human impact period in the watershed. Afterwards, LCLU changes within sub-basin level were investigated to quantify the effects of different types of land changes on the major hydrological components such as actual evapotranspiration, percolation, soil water, base flow, surface runoff and runoff. Our analysis indicated that, under the same climatic conditions, changes in land cover/use, specifically urbanization, played a considerable role in hydrological dynamics with changes on actual transpiration, base flow, surface runoff, runoff, percolation and soil water mainly due to urban and agricultural area changes. Among the different hydrological components analyzed at watershed level, percolation, ET and base flow were found to be highly sensitive to LCLU changes, whereas soil water was found as the least sensitive to same LCLU changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrological Modelling and Water Resources Assessment of Chongwe River Catchment using WEAP Model
Water 2019, 11(4), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040839
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 21 April 2019
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Abstract
The Chongwe River Catchment (CRC) is located in Zambia. It receives a mean annual precipitation of 889 mm. The catchment is facing growing anthropogenic and socio-economic activities leading to severe water shortages in recent years, particularly from July to October. The objective of [...] Read more.
The Chongwe River Catchment (CRC) is located in Zambia. It receives a mean annual precipitation of 889 mm. The catchment is facing growing anthropogenic and socio-economic activities leading to severe water shortages in recent years, particularly from July to October. The objective of this study was to assess the available water resources by investigating the important hydrological components and estimating the catchment water balance using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model. The average precipitation over a 52 year period and a 34 year period of streamflow measurement data for four stations were used in the hydrological balance model. The results revealed that the catchment received an estimated mean annual precipitation of 4603.12 Mm3. It also released an estimated mean annual runoff and evapotranspiration of 321.94 Mm3 and 4063.69 Mm3, respectively. The estimated mean annual total abstractions in the catchment was 119.87 Mm3. The average annual change in the catchment storage was 120.18 Mm3. The study also determined an external inflow of 22.55 Mm3 from the Kafue River catchment. The simulated mean monthly streamflow at the outlet of the CRC was 10.32 m3/s. The estimated minimum and maximum streamflow volume of the Chongwe River was about 1.01 Mm3 in September and 79.7 Mm3 in February, respectively. The performance of the WEAP model simulation was assessed statistically using the coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.97) and the Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE = 0.64). The R2 and NSE values indicated a satisfactory model fit and result. Meeting the water demand of the growing population and associated socio-economic development activities in the CRC is possible but requires appropriate water resource management options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Effect of Channel Geometry on Streamflow and Water Quality Modeling and Modification of Channel Geometry Module in SWAT: A Case Study of the Andong Dam Watershed
Water 2019, 11(4), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040718
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
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Abstract
The impact of the channel geometry on water quantity and quality simulation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was evaluated for the Andong Dam watershed. The new equations to determine the bankfull width of the channels and the bottom width of [...] Read more.
The impact of the channel geometry on water quantity and quality simulation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was evaluated for the Andong Dam watershed. The new equations to determine the bankfull width of the channels and the bottom width of the floodplains were developed using aerial photographs, and its performance was compared with the current equations of SWAT. The new equations were more exact than the current equations since the current equations tended to overestimate the widths of the channel and floodplain. When compared with the observed data, the streamflow of the scenario 2 (S2, applying the new equations) showed lower deviation and higher accuracy than scenario 1 (S1, applying the current equations) because the peak flow of S2 captured the observed data better due to the impact of the change geometry. Moreover, the water quality results of S2 outperformed S1 regarding suspended solid, total nitrogen, and dissolved oxygen. This is attributed to the variables, such as flow travel time, which is directly related to the channel geometry. Additionally, SWAT was modified to consider the various channel cross-sectional shapes. The results of this study suggest that the channel geometry information for the water quantity and quality estimation should be carefully applied, which could improve the model performance regarding streamflow and water quality simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
An Ensemble Decomposition-Based Artificial Intelligence Approach for Daily Streamflow Prediction
Water 2019, 11(4), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040709
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
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Abstract
Accurate prediction of daily streamflow plays an essential role in various applications of water resources engineering, such as flood mitigation and urban and agricultural planning. This study investigated a hybrid ensemble decomposition technique based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variational mode [...] Read more.
Accurate prediction of daily streamflow plays an essential role in various applications of water resources engineering, such as flood mitigation and urban and agricultural planning. This study investigated a hybrid ensemble decomposition technique based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variational mode decomposition (VMD) with gene expression programming (GEP) and random forest regression (RFR) algorithms for daily streamflow simulation across three mountainous stations, Siira, Bilghan, and Gachsar, in Karaj, Iran. To determine the appropriate corresponding input variables with optimal lag time the partial auto-correlation function (PACF) and auto-correlation function (ACF) were used for streamflow prediction purpose. Calibration and validation datasets were separately decomposed by EEMD that eventually improved standalone predictive models. Further, the component of highest pass (IMF1) was decomposed by the VMD approach to breakdown the distinctive characteristic of the variables. Results suggested that the EEMD-VMD algorithm significantly enhanced model calibration. Moreover, the EEMD-VMD-RFR algorithm as a hybrid ensemble model outperformed better than other techniques (EEMD-VMD-GEP, RFR and GEP) for daily streamflow prediction of the selected gauging stations. Overall, the proposed methodology indicated the superiority of hybrid ensemble models compare to standalone in predicting streamflow time series particularly in case of high fluctuations and different patterns in datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Pan-European Calculation of Hydrologic Stress Metrics in Rivers: A First Assessment with Potential Connections to Ecological Status
Water 2019, 11(4), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040703
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract
The hydrologic regime of a river is one of the factors determining its ecological status. This paper tries to indicate the present hydrologic stress occurring across European rivers on the basis of model integration. This results in a pan-European assessment at the resolution [...] Read more.
The hydrologic regime of a river is one of the factors determining its ecological status. This paper tries to indicate the present hydrologic stress occurring across European rivers on the basis of model integration. This results in a pan-European assessment at the resolution of the functional elementary catchment (FEC), based on simulated daily time-series of river flows from the model PCR-GLOBWB. To estimate proxies of the present hydrologic stress, two datasets of river flow were simulated under the same climate, one from a hypothetic least disturbed condition scenario and the second from the anthropogenic scenario with the actual water management occurring. Indicators describing the rivers’ hydrologic regime were calculated with the indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) software package and the river total mean flow and the relative baseflow magnitude over the total flow were used to express the deviations between the two scenarios as proxy metrics of rivers’ hydrologic alteration or hydrologic stress. The alteration results on Europe’s FEC-level background showed that Southern Europe is more hydrologically stressed than the rest of Europe, with greater potential for hydrology to be clearly associated with river segments of unreached good ecological status and high basin management needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Riparian Restoration Impacts on the Hydrologic Cycle at the Babacomari Ranch, SE Arizona, USA
Water 2019, 11(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020381
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper describes coupling field experiments with surface and groundwater modeling to investigate rangelands of SE Arizona, USA using erosion-control structures to augment shallow and deep aquifer recharge. We collected field data to describe the physical and hydrological properties before and after gabions [...] Read more.
This paper describes coupling field experiments with surface and groundwater modeling to investigate rangelands of SE Arizona, USA using erosion-control structures to augment shallow and deep aquifer recharge. We collected field data to describe the physical and hydrological properties before and after gabions (caged riprap) were installed in an ephemeral channel. The modular finite-difference flow model is applied to simulate the amount of increase needed to raise groundwater levels. We used the average increase in infiltration measured in the field and projected on site, assuming all infiltration becomes recharge, to estimate how many gabions would be needed to increase recharge in the larger watershed. A watershed model was then applied and calibrated with discharge and 3D terrain measurements, to simulate flow volumes. Findings were coupled to extrapolate simulations and quantify long-term impacts of riparian restoration. Projected scenarios demonstrate how erosion-control structures could impact all components of the annual water budget. Results support the potential of watershed-wide gabion installation to increase total aquifer recharge, with models portraying increased subsurface connectivity and accentuated lateral flow contributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Water Budget Components of the Sakarya River Basin by Using the WEAP-PGM Model
Water 2019, 11(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020271
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
The use of water resources has increased with rapid population growth, industrial development, and agricultural activities. Besides, the problem might increase with the potential climate change impacts on water quantity. Thus, sustainable use of water resources becomes crucial. Modeling studies provide scientific support [...] Read more.
The use of water resources has increased with rapid population growth, industrial development, and agricultural activities. Besides, the problem might increase with the potential climate change impacts on water quantity. Thus, sustainable use of water resources becomes crucial. Modeling studies provide scientific support to the analysis of water resource problems and develop strategies for current and potential problems for the sustainable management of water resources. In this study, WEAP-PGM (Water Evaluation and Planning System—Plant Growth Model) was applied to the Sakarya River Basin in Turkey, where almost 50% of the area is agricultural land. The main goals in the study are compiling/integrating available data from different sources in a data-scarce region for hydrological models, and estimating the water budget components of Sakarya River Basin on an annual basis as well as investigating the applicability of WEAP-PGM. General model performance ratings indicated that model simulations represent streamflow variations at acceptable levels. Model results revealed that, runoff is 4747 million m3, flow to groundwater is 3065 million m3 and evapotranspiration is 23,011 million m3. This model setup can be used as a baseline for calculating the crop yields under climate change in the context of water-food-energy nexus in the further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Calibration of SWAT and Two Data-Driven Models for a Data-Scarce Mountainous Headwater in Semi-Arid Konya Closed Basin
Water 2019, 11(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010147
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Hydrologic models are important tools for the successful management of water resources. In this study, a semi-distributed soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model is used to simulate streamflow at the headwater of Çarşamba River, located at the Konya Closed Basin, Turkey. For [...] Read more.
Hydrologic models are important tools for the successful management of water resources. In this study, a semi-distributed soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model is used to simulate streamflow at the headwater of Çarşamba River, located at the Konya Closed Basin, Turkey. For that, first a sequential uncertainty fitting-2 (SUFI-2) algorithm is employed to calibrate the SWAT model. The SWAT model results are also compared with the results of the radial-based neural network (RBNN) and support vector machines (SVM). The SWAT model performed well at the calibration stage i.e., determination coefficient (R2) = 0.787 and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) = 0.779, and relatively lower values at the validation stage i.e., R2 = 0.508 and NSE = 0.502. Besides, the data-driven models were more successful than the SWAT model. Obviously, the physically-based SWAT model offers significant advantages such as performing a spatial analysis of the results, creating a streamflow model taking into account the environmental impacts. Also, we show that SWAT offers the ability to produce consistent solutions under varying scenarios whereas it requires a large number of inputs as compared to the data-driven models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrological Guidelines for Reservoir Operation to Enhance Water Governance: Application to the Brazilian Semiarid Region
Water 2018, 10(11), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111628
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
The Brazilian water legislation advocates that some uses have priority over others, but this aspect has never been clearly addressed, generating conflicts. Water authorities usually refer to hydrological models to justify their decisions on water allocation. However, a significant group of stakeholders does [...] Read more.
The Brazilian water legislation advocates that some uses have priority over others, but this aspect has never been clearly addressed, generating conflicts. Water authorities usually refer to hydrological models to justify their decisions on water allocation. However, a significant group of stakeholders does not feel qualified to discuss these models and is excluded from the decision process. We hereby propose a hydrologically robust method to correlate water uses with their respective reservoir alert volumes, which should empower the less formally educated stakeholders. The method consists of: (i) generating the water yield versus reliability curve, using a stochastic approach; (ii) generating the yield versus alert volume family of curves, using a water-balance approach; (iii) calibrating the key parameter T (depletion duration) using field data; and (iv) associating each water use with its alert volume. We have applied the method to four of the largest reservoirs (2 × 103–2 × 102 hm3) in the semi-arid Ceará State. The results indicate that low-priority water uses should be rationalized when the reservoir volume is below 20%, whereas uses with very high priority should start rationalization when it is below 11%. These hydrological guidelines should help enhance water governance among non-specialist stakeholders in water-scarce and reservoir-dependent regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Infilling Missing Data in Hydrology: Solutions Using Satellite Radar Altimetry and Multiple Imputation for Data-Sparse Regions
Water 2018, 10(10), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101483
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In developing regions missing data are prevalent in historical hydrological datasets, owing to financial, institutional, operational and technical challenges. If not tackled, these data shortfalls result in uncertainty in flood frequency estimates and consequently flawed catchment management interventions that could exacerbate the impacts [...] Read more.
In developing regions missing data are prevalent in historical hydrological datasets, owing to financial, institutional, operational and technical challenges. If not tackled, these data shortfalls result in uncertainty in flood frequency estimates and consequently flawed catchment management interventions that could exacerbate the impacts of floods. This study presents a comparative analysis of two approaches for infilling missing data in historical annual peak river discharge timeseries required for flood frequency estimation: (i) satellite radar altimetry (RA) and (ii) multiple imputation (MI). These techniques were applied at five gauging stations along the floodprone Niger and Benue rivers within the Niger River Basin. RA and MI enabled the infilling of missing data for conditions where altimetry virtual stations were available and unavailable, respectively. The impact of these approaches on derived flood estimates was assessed, and the return period of a previously unquantified devastating flood event in Nigeria in 2012 was ascertained. This study revealed that the use of RA resulted in reduced uncertainty when compared to MI for data infilling, especially for widely gapped timeseries (>3 years). The two techniques did not differ significantly for data sets with gaps of 1–3 years, hence, both RA and MI can be used interchangeably in such situations. The use of the original in situ data with gaps resulted in higher flood estimates when compared to datasets infilled using RA and MI, and this can be attributed to extrapolation uncertainty. The 2012 flood in Nigeria was quantified as a 1-in-100-year event at the Umaisha gauging station on the Benue River and a 1-in-50-year event at Baro on the Niger River. This suggests that the higher levels of flooding likely emanated from the Kiri and Lagdo dams in Nigeria and Cameroon, respectively, as previously speculated by the media and recent studies. This study demonstrates the potential of RA and MI for providing information to support flood management in developing regions where in situ data is sparse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Spatial Pattern Oriented Multicriteria Sensitivity Analysis of a Distributed Hydrologic Model
Water 2018, 10(9), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091188
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 September 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrologic models are conventionally constrained and evaluated using point measurements of streamflow, which represent an aggregated catchment measure. As a consequence of this single objective focus, model parametrization and model parameter sensitivity typically do not reflect other aspects of catchment behavior. Specifically for [...] Read more.
Hydrologic models are conventionally constrained and evaluated using point measurements of streamflow, which represent an aggregated catchment measure. As a consequence of this single objective focus, model parametrization and model parameter sensitivity typically do not reflect other aspects of catchment behavior. Specifically for distributed models, the spatial pattern aspect is often overlooked. Our paper examines the utility of multiple performance measures in a spatial sensitivity analysis framework to determine the key parameters governing the spatial variability of predicted actual evapotranspiration (AET). The Latin hypercube one-at-a-time (LHS-OAT) sampling strategy with multiple initial parameter sets was applied using the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) and a total of 17 model parameters were identified as sensitive. The results indicate different parameter sensitivities for different performance measures focusing on temporal hydrograph dynamics and spatial variability of actual evapotranspiration. While spatial patterns were found to be sensitive to vegetation parameters, streamflow dynamics were sensitive to pedo-transfer function (PTF) parameters. Above all, our results show that behavioral model definitions based only on streamflow metrics in the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) type methods require reformulation by incorporating spatial patterns into the definition of threshold values to reveal robust hydrologic behavior in the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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