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A Systematic Review of Coastal Vulnerability Assessment Studies along Andhra Pradesh, India: A Critical Evaluation of Data Gathering, Risk Levels and Mitigation Strategies

1
Warsash School of Maritime Science and Engineering, Solent University, East Park Terrace, SO14 OYN Southampton, UK
2
The Interdisciplinary Programme in Climate Studies Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400076, India
3
Centre for Architecture and Built Environment Research, University of the West of England, BS16 1QY Bristol, UK
4
Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Gujarat 380015, India
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Anand Agriculture University, Anand 388110, India
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Department of Building Economics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda 10400, Sri Lanka
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Physics, maths and Science-Physics and Astronomy group, Tarrant County College, NW campus, Fort worth, TX 76179, USA
8
Faculty of Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
9
Department of Civil, Environment & Geomatic Engineering, University College London (UCL), Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020393
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract

The establishment and alteration of any coastal feature is largely dependent upon complex hydrological and geomorphologic processes. Therefore, understanding hazard factors and threat risk level is crucial for mitigating risk in coastal zones. This study examines coastal vulnerability factors and their influence along the Coastal Andhra Pradesh (CAP) region in India. CAP has been exposed to frequent hydrological and meteorological hazards due to variations in the geographical, geological, and bathymetric characteristics. Despite substantial vulnerabilities, the risk to the coastline of Andhra Pradesh has not been rigorously evaluated. The current research systematically reviews the drivers and effects of hazards and vulnerabilities in CAP. Findings indicate that urban cities have a considerably higher risk of cyclones and floods due to their locations on the Bay of Bengal tectonic plate, the topology of this coastal region, and higher population density. The study revealed that the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) data along CAP is mostly gathered using low-resolution satellite data and/or field observation surveys. The study further revealed that there are very few existing mitigation strategies developed or discussed within the obtained results. However, more accurate data gathering techniques for coastal vulnerability factors are available such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): Air-borne and LiDAR sensors, which provide very high resolution data and low-cost accessibility to physically inaccessible places, making them suitable for vulnerability data collection in coastal locations. These findings are useful for stakeholders seeking to reduce or ameliorate the impact of coastal disasters and their impacts on the CAP economy, environment, and population. The study further helps to reduce the existing shortcomings in the assessment techniques used previously. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal vulnerability; natural hazards; disasters; coastal Andhra Pradesh; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles coastal vulnerability; natural hazards; disasters; coastal Andhra Pradesh; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
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Kantamaneni, K.; Sudha Rani, N.; Rice, L.; Sur, K.; Thayaparan, M.; Kulatunga, U.; Rege, R.; Yenneti, K.; Campos, L.C. A Systematic Review of Coastal Vulnerability Assessment Studies along Andhra Pradesh, India: A Critical Evaluation of Data Gathering, Risk Levels and Mitigation Strategies. Water 2019, 11, 393.

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