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Special Issue "Multiscale Impacts of Anthropogenic and Climate Changes on Tropical and Mediterranean Hydrology"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Luc Descroix

UMR PALOC (Patrimoines Locaux et Gouvernance) IRD/MNHN, Paris and LMI PATEO (Joint Lab "Patrimoines et Territoires de l'Eau" IRD, Dakar, BP 1386, 18524 , Dakar Hann, Sénégal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +221775247973
Interests: hydrology; land use changes; climate change; impacts on water cycle
Guest Editor
Dr. Gil Mahé

IRD, UMR HSM IRD/Univ Montpellier, France
E-Mail
Interests: Hydrology; Climatology; Solid transport; Human impact; Environment; Hydrological modelling; Climatic scenarios
Guest Editor
Dr. Alain Laraque

IRD, UMR GET IRD/CNRS/CNES/UPS, Toulouse, France
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Guest Editor
Dr. Olivier Ribolzi

IRD, UMR GET IRD/CNRS/CNES/UPS, Toulouse, France
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Guest Editor
Dr. Guillaume Lacombe

IWMI, Vientiane, Laos
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In most Tropical and Mediterranean areas, landscapes, soils and territories are experiencing new vulnerabilities, facing global warming and accelerating changes in land use. Long droughts, dry spells, rainfall intensification, and an increase in number of storms and cyclones make agriculture as well as land management and water and sediment control more difficult. In many regions, the population increase is too strong to allow cropping and rural activities to easily reach a “boserupian” behavior. The intensification of the climatic cycle commonly leads to an acceleration of the hydrological cycle, increasing the occurrence of flooding, inundation, as well as droughts and water shortages. Human actions and overall rural activity can strongly modify water runoff and infiltration, then water balance, by increasing infiltration and buffering the water cycle, or on the contrary, by increasing runoff and accelerating the water cycle. Rural practices are commonly suspected to decrease the soil water-holding capacity. This could lead to a rise in flooding occurrence and intensity downstream, and on site they cause edaphic drought in areas where no climatic drought is observed.

These kinds of changes influence hydrology and erosion, with implications for various risks: food insecurity, natural disasters (landslides, flood damage), water shortages and pathogenic contaminations. The accelerating pace of these environmental changes leaves limited time for adaptation. While the need for “climate change adaption” is recognized, there is also a need for land-use change adaptation. To date, there is limited understanding of the processes linking land use management to these risks.

There is a need to understand causal chains of processes, from land-use, vegetation structure, soil, erosion, hydrological connectivity (surface and subsurface) infiltration and then related risks to better manage these risks and reduce them. Multi-scale approaches are relevant because there are multi-scale impacts; the micro-plot and hillslopes are relevant to understand processes controlling soil detachment and the partition of rainfall into surface and subsurface flow in relation with interacting land use and soil surface dynamics. At the watershed level, local dynamics translate into risks of hydrological extremes, erosion and contamination, threatening downstream populations and ecosystems.

Dr. Luc Descroix
Dr. Gil Mahé
Dr. Alain Laraque
Dr. Olivier Ribolzi
Dr. Guillaume Lacombe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • land use/land cover changes
  • water holding capacity
  • connectivity
  • risks

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Expanding Rubber Plantations in Southern China: Evidence for Hydrological Impacts
Water 2019, 11(4), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040651
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
While there is increasing evidence concerning the detrimental effects of expanding rubber plantations on biodiversity and local water balances, their implications on regional hydrology remain uncertain. We studied a mesoscale watershed (100 km2) in the Xishuangbanna prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The [...] Read more.
While there is increasing evidence concerning the detrimental effects of expanding rubber plantations on biodiversity and local water balances, their implications on regional hydrology remain uncertain. We studied a mesoscale watershed (100 km2) in the Xishuangbanna prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The influence of land-cover change on streamflow recorded since 1992 was isolated from that of rainfall variability using cross-simulation matrices produced with the monthly lumped conceptual water balance model GR2M. Our results indicate a statistically significant reduction in wet and dry season streamflow from 1992 to 2002, followed by an insignificant increase until 2006. Analysis of satellite images from 1992, 2002, 2007, and 2010 shows a gradual increase in the areal percentage of rubber tree plantations at the watershed scale. However, there were marked heterogeneities in land conversions (between forest, farmland, grassland, and rubber tree plantations), and in their distribution across elevations and slopes, among the studied periods. Possible effects of this heterogeneity on hydrological processes, controlled mainly by infiltration and evapotranspiration, are discussed in light of the hydrological changes observed over the study period. We suggest pathways to improve the eco-hydrological functionalities of rubber tree plantations, particularly those enhancing dry-season base flow, and recommend how to monitor them. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New 60-Year 1940/1999 Monthly-Gridded Rainfall Data Set for Africa
Water 2019, 11(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020387
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
PDF Full-text (3589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The African continent has a very low density of rain gauge stations, and long time-series for recent years are often limited and poorly available. In the context of global change, it is very important to be able to characterize the spatio-temporal variability of [...] Read more.
The African continent has a very low density of rain gauge stations, and long time-series for recent years are often limited and poorly available. In the context of global change, it is very important to be able to characterize the spatio-temporal variability of past rainfall, on the basis of datasets issued from observations, to correctly validate simulations. The quality of the rainfall data is for instance of very high importance to improve the efficiency of the hydrological modeling, through calibration/validation experiments. The HydroSciences Montpellier Laboratory (HSM) has a long experience in collecting and managing hydro-climatological data. Thus, HSM had initiated a program to elaborate a reference dataset, in order to build monthly rainfall grids over the African continent, over a period of 60 years (1940/1999). The large quantity of data collected (about 7000 measurement points were used in this project) allowed for interpolation using only observed data, with no statistical use of a reference period. Compared to other databases that are used to build the grids of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) or the Climatic Research Unit of University of East Anglia, UK (CRU), the number of available observational stations was significantly much higher, including the end of the century when the number of measurement stations dropped dramatically, everywhere. Inverse distance weighed (IDW) was the chosen method to build the 720 monthly grids and a mean annual grid, from rain gauges. The mean annual grid was compared to the CRU grid. The grids were significantly different in many places, especially in North Africa, Sahel, the horn of Africa, and the South Western coast of Africa, with HSM_SIEREM data (database HydroSciences Montpellier_Système d’Information Environnementales pour les Ressources en Eau et leur Modélisation) being closer to the observed rain gauge values. The quality of the grids computed was checked, following two approaches—cross-validation of the two interpolation methods, ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighting, which gave a comparable reliability, with regards to the observed data, long time-series analysis, and analysis of long-term signals over the continent, compared to previous studies. The statistical tests, computed on the observed and gridded data, detected a rupture in the rainfall regime around 1979/1980, on the scale of the whole continent; this was congruent with the results in the literature. At the monthly time-scale, the most widely observed signal over the period of 1940/1999, was a significant decrease of the austral rainy season between March and May, which has not earlier been well-documented. Thus, this would lead to a further detailed climatological study from this HSM_SIEREM database. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1.Title: Expanding rubber plantations in Southern China: evidence for hydrological impacts

Authors: Xing Ma, Guillaume Lacombe, Rhett Harrison, Jianchu Xu, Meine van Noordwijk

Abstract: While there is increasing evidence concerning the effects of expanding rubber plantations on biodiversity and local water balances, the implications for regional hydrology remain uncertain. We studied a mesoscale watershed (100 km2) in Xishuangbanna prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The influence of land-cover change on stream-flow recorded since 1992 was isolated from that of rainfall variability using cross-simulation matrices produced with the monthly lumped conceptual water balance model GR2M. Our results indicate a statistically significant reduction in wet and dry season stream-flow from 1992 to 2002 followed by an insignificant increase until 2006. Analysis of satellite images from 1992, 2002, 2007 and 2010 shows a gradual increase in the areal percentage of rubber tree plantation at the watershed scale. However, there were marked heterogeneities in land conversions (between forest, farmland, grassland and rubber tree plantations), and in their distribution across elevations and slopes, among the studied periods. Possible implications of this heterogeneity on hydrological processes, controlled mainly by infiltration and evapotranspiration, are discussed to explain hydrological changes observed over the study period. Pathways to improve eco-hydrological functionalities of rubber tree plantations and to monitor them are suggested.

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