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Special Issue "10th Anniversary of Water"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Arjen Y. Hoekstra

Twente Water Centre, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +31534893880
Fax: +31-53-489-5377
Interests: water resources management; water footprint assessment; sustainable development; water-food-energy nexus

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

First issued in 2009, Water is celebrating our 10th anniversary this year. Thanks to all dedicated researchers, reviewers, and editors, Water has become a popular outlet for cutting-edge research in the broad field of water science, technology, management, and governance. The open-access format has proven to be attractive, and authors highly value the quick handling of papers, higher visibility and citation, as well as free and unlimited access to the new papers. After ten years, Water has become an established journal in the field.

This Special Issue is set up to mark the 10th anniversary of Water. It is devoted to the publication of comprehensive reviews encompassing the most significant developments in the realm of water sciences in the last decade. Contributions to this Special Issue of Water will be accepted by the editorial office, the Editor-in-Chief, and editorial board members by invitation only.

Prof. Dr. Arjen Y. Hoekstra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
The Water Governance Reform Framework: Overview and Applications to Australia, Mexico, Tanzania, U.S.A and Vietnam
Water 2019, 11(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010137
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The world faces critical water risks in relation to water availability, yet water demand is increasing in most countries. To respond to these risks, some governments and water authorities are reforming their governance frameworks to achieve convergence between water supply and demand and [...] Read more.
The world faces critical water risks in relation to water availability, yet water demand is increasing in most countries. To respond to these risks, some governments and water authorities are reforming their governance frameworks to achieve convergence between water supply and demand and ensure freshwater ecosystem services are sustained. To assist in this reform process, the Water Governance Reform Framework (WGRF) is proposed, which includes seven key strategic considerations: (1) well-defined and publicly available reform objectives; (2) transparency in decision-making and public access to available data; (3) water valuation of uses and non-uses to assess trade-offs and winners and losers; (4) compensation for the marginalized or mitigation for persons who are disadvantaged by reform; (5) reform oversight and “champions”; (6) capacity to deliver; and (7) resilient decision-making. Using these reform criteria, we assess current and possible water reforms in five countries: Murray–Darling Basin (Australia); Rufiji Basin (Tanzania); Colorado Basin (USA and Mexico); and Vietnam. We contend that the WGRF provides a valuable approach to both evaluate and to improve water governance reform and, if employed within a broader water policy cycle, will help deliver both improved water outcomes and more effective water reforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
Open AccessArticle
Robust Assessment of Uncertain Freshwater Changes: The Case of Greece with Large Irrigation—and Climate-Driven Runoff Decrease
Water 2018, 10(11), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111645
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We develop a data-driven approach to robustly assess freshwater changes due to climate change and/or human irrigation developments by use of the overarching constraints of catchment water balance. This is applied to and tested in the high-uncertainty case of Greece for five nested [...] Read more.
We develop a data-driven approach to robustly assess freshwater changes due to climate change and/or human irrigation developments by use of the overarching constraints of catchment water balance. This is applied to and tested in the high-uncertainty case of Greece for five nested catchments of different scales across the country and for freshwater changes from an early period (1930–1949) with small human influences on climate and irrigation to a recent period (1990–2009) with expected greater such influences. The results show more or less equal contributions from climatic decrease in precipitation and from human irrigation development to a considerable total decrease in runoff (R) over Greece. This is on average −75 ± 10 mm/year and is greatest for the Ionian catchment in the west (−119 ± 18 mm/year) and the Peloponnese catchment in the south (−91 ± 16 mm/year). For evapotranspiration (ET), a climate-driven decrease component and an irrigation-driven increase component have led to a net total increase of ET over Greece. This is on average 26 ± 7 mm/year and is greatest for the Mainland catchment (29 ± 7 mm/year) and the Aegean catchment in the east (28 ± 6 mm/year). Overall, the resulting uncertainties in the water-balance constrained estimates of R and ET changes are smaller than the input data uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Philosophical Justification for a Novel Analysis-Supported, Stakeholder-Driven Participatory Process for Water Resources Planning and Decision Making
Water 2018, 10(8), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081009
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two trends currently shape water resources planning and decision making: reliance on participatory stakeholder processes to evaluate water management options; and growing recognition that deterministic approaches to the evaluation of options may not be appropriate. These trends pose questions regarding the proper role [...] Read more.
Two trends currently shape water resources planning and decision making: reliance on participatory stakeholder processes to evaluate water management options; and growing recognition that deterministic approaches to the evaluation of options may not be appropriate. These trends pose questions regarding the proper role of information, analysis, and expertise in the inherently social and political process of negotiating agreements and implementing interventions in the water sector. The question of how one might discover the best option in the face of deep uncertainty is compelling. The question of whether the best option even exists to be discovered is more vexing. While such existential questions are not common in the water management community, they are not new to political theory. This paper explores early classical writing related to issues of knowledge and governance as captured in the work of Plato and Aristotle; and then attempts to place a novel, analysis-supported, stakeholder-driven water resources planning and decision making practice within this philosophical discourse, making reference to current decision theory. Examples from the Andes and California, where this practice has been used to structure participation by key stakeholders in water management planning and decision-making, argue that when a sufficiently diverse group of stakeholders is engaged in the decision making process expecting the discovery of the perfect option may not be warranted. Simply discovering a consensus option may be more realistic. The argument touches upon the diversity of preferences, model credibility and the visualization of model output required to explore the implications of various management options across a broad range of inherently unknowable future conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Water, Population Growth and Contagious Diseases
Water 2019, 11(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020386
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water, essential for the biology of living organisms, is also important for agriculture, for the organization of social life and for culture. In this review we discuss the interrelationship between water availability and human population size. The total population of the globe, 3–5 [...] Read more.
Water, essential for the biology of living organisms, is also important for agriculture, for the organization of social life and for culture. In this review we discuss the interrelationship between water availability and human population size. The total population of the globe, 3–5 million people between the years 25,000 and 5000 Before Common Era (BCE), increased about 50-fold in coincidence with the development of agriculture. Later on, after the year 200 Common Era (CE), the number of people did not change appreciably and increased slowly in the period 1000 to 1500 CE. We show that the main cause of this observed slow-down in population growth was the increase in population density, which caused the appearance and spreading of infectious diseases, often due to the use of contaminated water. Population started to increase again when people learned how to use appropriate sanitation and hygienic rules. The management of water resources, including transport of water to the areas where it is needed, separation and depuration of wastewater and production of freshwater by desalination, have become increasingly important. The population level is today very high and will continue to grow, thus causing a further increase in the density of people and an increased risk of contagious diseases. Therefore, more water for sanitation will be needed all over the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
Open AccessReview
Improving Irrigation Water Use Efficiency: A Review of Advances, Challenges and Opportunities in the Australian Context
Water 2018, 10(12), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121771
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The demand for fresh water is on the increase, and the irrigation industry in Australia is looking to a future with less water. Irrigation consumes the bulk of the water extracted from various sources, and hence the efficiency of its use is of [...] Read more.
The demand for fresh water is on the increase, and the irrigation industry in Australia is looking to a future with less water. Irrigation consumes the bulk of the water extracted from various sources, and hence the efficiency of its use is of outmost importance. This paper reviewed the advancements made towards improving irrigation water use efficiency (WUE), with a focus on irrigation in Australia but with some examples from other countries. The challenges encountered, as well as the opportunities available, are also discussed. The review showed that improvements in irrigation infrastructure through modernisation and automation have led to water savings. The concept of real-time control and optimisation in irrigation is in its developmental stages but has already demonstrated potential for water savings. The future is likely to see increased use of remote sensing techniques as well as wireless communication systems and more versatile sensors to improve WUE. In many cases, water saved as a result of using efficient technologies ends up being reused to expand the area of land under irrigation, sometimes resulting in a net increase in the total water consumption at the basin scale. Hence, to achieve net water savings, water-efficient technologies and practices need to be used in combination with other measures such as incentives for conservation and appropriate regulations that limit water allocation and use. Factors that affect the trends in the irrigation WUE include engineering and technological innovations, advancements in plant and pasture science, environmental factors, and socio-economic considerations. Challenges that might be encountered include lack of public support, especially when the methods used are not cost-effective, and reluctance of irrigations to adopt new technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Cost Estimates for Flood Adaptation
Water 2018, 10(11), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111646
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Floods are the most devastating of global natural disasters, and flood adaptation measures are needed to reduce future risk. Researchers have started to evaluate the costs and benefits of flood adaptation, but information regarding the cost of different flood adaptation measures is often [...] Read more.
Floods are the most devastating of global natural disasters, and flood adaptation measures are needed to reduce future risk. Researchers have started to evaluate the costs and benefits of flood adaptation, but information regarding the cost of different flood adaptation measures is often not available or is hidden in non-peer-reviewed literature. Recent review studies have explored cost estimates for different aspects of flood adaptation, such as nature-based solutions. This study aims to contribute empirical data regarding the cost of flood adaptation by compiling peer-reviewed literature and research reports. The focus is on construction costs and expenses for operation and maintenance. This paper integrates the unit cost information of six main flood adaptation measure categories: (1) the flood-proofing of buildings, (2) flood protection, (3) beach nourishment and dunes, (4) nature-based solutions for coastal ecosystems, (5) channel management and nature-based solutions for riverine systems, and (6) urban drainage. Cost estimates are corrected for inflation and converted to U.S. dollars (2016). Measures are described, and cost figures for both developed and developing countries are provided. The results of this study can be used as input for economic-assessment studies on flood adaptation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Permeable Pavements Life Cycle Assessment: A Literature Review
Water 2018, 10(11), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111575
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of studies involving life cycle assessment has increased significantly in recent years. The life cycle assessment has been applied to assess the environmental performance of water infrastructures, including the environmental impacts associated with construction, maintenance and disposal, mainly evaluating the amount [...] Read more.
The number of studies involving life cycle assessment has increased significantly in recent years. The life cycle assessment has been applied to assess the environmental performance of water infrastructures, including the environmental impacts associated with construction, maintenance and disposal, mainly evaluating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the consumption of energy and natural resources. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of permeable pavements and show studies of life cycle assessment that compare the environmental performance of permeable pavements with traditional drainage systems. Although the studies found in the literature present an estimate of the sustainability of permeable pavements, the great heterogeneity in the evaluation methods and results is still notable. Therefore, it is necessary to homogenize the phases of goal and scope, inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation. It is also necessary to define the phases and processes of the evaluation, as well as the minimum amount of data to be considered in the modelling of life cycle assessment, in order to avoid heterogeneity in the functional units and other components. Thus, more consistent results will lead to a real evaluation of the environmental impacts caused by permeable pavements. Life cycle assessment studies are essential to guide planning and decision-making, leading to systems that consider increasing water resources and reducing natural disasters and environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
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Open AccessReview
River Channel Relocation: Problems and Prospects
Water 2018, 10(10), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101360
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
PDF Full-text (7146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
River relocation is the diversion of a river into an entirely new channel for part of their length (often called river diversions). Relocations have been common through history and have been carried out for a wide range of purposes, but most commonly to [...] Read more.
River relocation is the diversion of a river into an entirely new channel for part of their length (often called river diversions). Relocations have been common through history and have been carried out for a wide range of purposes, but most commonly to construct infrastructure and for mining. However, they have not been considered as a specific category of anthropogenic channel change. Relocated channels present a consistent set of physical and ecological challenges, often related to accelerated erosion and deposition. We present a new classification of river relocation, and present a series of case studies that highlight some of the key issues with river relocation construction and performance. Primary changes to the channel dimensions and materials, alongside changes to flow velocity or channel capacity, can lead to a consistent set of problems, and lead to further secondary and tertiary issues, such as heightened erosion or deposition, hanging tributaries, vegetation loss, water quality issues, and associated ecological impacts. Occasionally, relocated channels can suffer engineering failure, such as overtopping or complete channel collapse during floods. Older river relocation channels were constructed to minimise cost and carry large floods, and were straight and trapezoidal. In some countries, modern relocated channels represent an exciting new challenge in that they are now designed to replicate natural rivers, the success of which depends on understanding the characteristics, heterogeneity, and mechanisms at work within the natural channel. We discuss shortcomings in current practice for river relocation and highlight areas for future research for successful rehabilitation of relocated rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
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Open AccessReview
Muddy Waters: Refining the Way forward for the “Sustainability Science” of Socio-Hydrogeology
Water 2018, 10(9), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091111
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1992 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The trouble with groundwater is that despite its critical importance to global water supplies, it frequently attracts insufficient management attention relative to more visible surface water sources, irrespective of regional climate, socioeconomic profile, and regulatory environment. To this end, the recently defined sub-discipline [...] Read more.
The trouble with groundwater is that despite its critical importance to global water supplies, it frequently attracts insufficient management attention relative to more visible surface water sources, irrespective of regional climate, socioeconomic profile, and regulatory environment. To this end, the recently defined sub-discipline of “socio-hydrogeology”, an extension of socio-hydrology, seeks to translate and exchange knowledge with and between non-expert end-users, in addition to involving non-expert opinion and experience in hydrogeological investigations, thus emphasising a “bottom-up” methodology. It is widely acknowledged that issues pertaining to groundwater quality, groundwater quantity, climate change, and a poor general awareness and understanding of groundwater occurrence and movement are global in their scope. Moreover, while effective communication and engagement represent the key tenet of socio-hydrogeology, the authors consider that multiple actors should be identified and incorporated using stakeholder network analysis and may include policymakers, media and communications experts, mobile technology developers, and social scientists, to appropriately convey demographically focused bi-directional information, with the hydrogeological community representing the communication keystone. Accordingly, this article aims to highlight past and current work, elucidate key areas of development within socio-hydrogeology, and offer recommendations to ensure global efficacy of this increasingly important and growing field going forward. The authors seek to assist in protecting our global groundwater resource for future generations via an improved framework for understanding the interaction between communities and hydrogeological systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
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Open AccessReview
Artificial Aquatic Ecosystems
Water 2018, 10(8), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081096
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As humans increasingly alter the surface geomorphology of the Earth, a multitude of artificial aquatic systems have appeared, both deliberately and accidentally. Human modifications to the hydroscape range from alteration of existing waterbodies to construction of new ones. The extent of these systems [...] Read more.
As humans increasingly alter the surface geomorphology of the Earth, a multitude of artificial aquatic systems have appeared, both deliberately and accidentally. Human modifications to the hydroscape range from alteration of existing waterbodies to construction of new ones. The extent of these systems makes them important and dynamic components of modern landscapes, but their condition and provisioning of ecosystem services by these systems are underexplored, and likely underestimated. Instead of accepting that artificial ecosystems have intrinsically low values, environmental scientists should determine what combination of factors, including setting, planning and construction, subsequent management and policy, and time, impact the condition of these systems. Scientists, social scientists, and policymakers should more thoroughly evaluate whether current study and management of artificial aquatic systems is based on the actual ecological condition of these systems, or judged differently, due to artificiality, and consider resultant possible changes in goals for these systems. The emerging recognition and study of artificial aquatic systems presents an exciting and important opportunity for science and society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Water)
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