Special Issue "Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Martha J.M. Wells Website 1 Website 2 E-Mail
EnviroChem Services, Cookeville, Tennessee, USA
Interests: analytical/environmental/medicinal chemistry; separation science; water quality; pesticides; pharmaceutical and personal care products; endocrine disrupting chemicals; nanoparticles; humic/fulvic acids; EEM-PARAFAC

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world's water supply is a precious commodity that circulates in a continuous cycle of use, abuse, and reuse—we all live downstream. Chemical water quality monitoring data lead to assessments and management of this valuable resource. For this Special Issue in Water, manuscripts (research, reviews, short communications) are solicited that describe data-gathering by sampling and analyses of chemical constituents in all types of environmental water bodies over time and space, whether impacted by natural or anthropogenic sources. Beyond merely reporting monitoring data, manuscripts are expected to interpret results of water quality monitoring studies within the context of environmental chemistry principles by evaluating such issues as chemical character, sources and sinks, fate and transport, or other potential impacts of chemicals on our water supply.

Prof. Dr. Martha J.M. Wells
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Environmental aquatic chemistry
  • Water quality monitoring
  • Built (engineered) and natural aquatic environments
  • Chemical occurrence
  • Water pollution
  • Legacy and emerging contaminants
  • Chemical transformation processes and products

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Controlling Factors of Surface Water Ionic Composition Characteristics in the Lake Genggahai Catchment, NE Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, China
Water 2019, 11(7), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071329 - 27 Jun 2019
Abstract
This study has determined the major ion compositions of surface waters within the basin of Lake Genggahai, northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, China. The results showed that the anions in the groundwater and river water of Genggahai Lake are mainly HCO3, and [...] Read more.
This study has determined the major ion compositions of surface waters within the basin of Lake Genggahai, northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, China. The results showed that the anions in the groundwater and river water of Genggahai Lake are mainly HCO3, and the cations are mainly Ca2+ + Na+. Evaporite, carbonate, and silicate in the basin all have an impact on the chemical composition of river water and groundwater. Among them, carbonate weathering has a relatively larger contribution. The grazing activities of herdsmen in the basin have had a certain degree of impact on the water quality of river basins and groundwater. The anion of lake water is dominated by Cl, and the cation is mainly Na+. The content change is mainly affected by the change of corresponding ion content in groundwater coming into the lake and the evaporation of lake water. Among them, Cl in lake water is more affected by the change of Cl content in the groundwater coming into the lake, while Na+ in lake water is more affected by evaporation. More specifically, the low concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3 in lake water were determined to be related to the photosynthesis of aquatic plants in the lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
A Revised Method of Surface Water Quality Evaluation Based on Background Values and Its Application to Samples Collected in Heilongjiang Province, China
Water 2019, 11(5), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051057 - 21 May 2019
Abstract
In China, the use of certain standards to evaluate surface water quality in areas with high background values due to natural factors rather than to human activities results in water quality underestimation and thus affects regional water quality management and decision-making. Herein, we [...] Read more.
In China, the use of certain standards to evaluate surface water quality in areas with high background values due to natural factors rather than to human activities results in water quality underestimation and thus affects regional water quality management and decision-making. Herein, we examined river source water function zones of the Heilongjang province characterised by high background values and analysed the corresponding water quality data acquired in 2011–2016. The examined samples featured elevated chemical oxygen demand (COD), permanganate index (CODMn), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) levels, which indicated that water quality was affected by the natural environment. The concentrations of background pollutants almost exceeded the limits stipulated by regional surface water quality standards and exhibited strong spatiotemporal variability. A three-step discrimination method including single index recognition, limiting factors, and a synthetic index was proposed to distinguish the background area among these zones for determining background values, and 10 complete background areas were identified. The background values of COD, CODMn, and NH3-N for the entire area were determined based on the data acquired during background area monitoring. Finally, considering the present procedure of water quality evaluation in China (single factor exponential method), a revised method based on background values was suggested. Thus, the evaluation results objectively and accurately reflect the regional water quality situation and therefore provide a scientific basis for the development of a better water quality assessment and management system in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Quality Assessment in a Volcanic Mountain Range (South of Gran Canaria Island, Spain)
Water 2019, 11(4), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040754 - 11 Apr 2019
Abstract
The lack of rainfall in the Canary Islands′ Archipelago is leading to the depletion of the existing aquifers throughout the islands, above all in the easternmost isles (Gran Canaria, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Due to the increasing water demand in the southern area of [...] Read more.
The lack of rainfall in the Canary Islands′ Archipelago is leading to the depletion of the existing aquifers throughout the islands, above all in the easternmost isles (Gran Canaria, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Due to the increasing water demand in the southern area of the Island of Gran Canaria, appropriate planning has become necessary in order to avoid the depletion of the phreatic water resources that can be found there. One of the most affected areas is the Amurga Mountain Range, where the existing aquifers are depleted, as shown in the Hydrological Plan of Gran Canaria. The aim of this study was to characterize the hydrochemistry of the above-mentioned groundwater bodies. Water quality monitoring was carried out over a period of five years, involving the survey of a total of 288 samples (over 4300 tests). The water from those aquifers has the characteristic of being fairly mineralized, with a prevalence of Cl, Ca2+ and Na+ ions, salinity levels reaching 8646 mg/L, and chloride levels up to 4200 mg/L. The waters of these aquifers can be divided into two basic types, i.e., those containing high levels of sodium chloride, which can be found around the Tirajana Gorge; and the waters rich in magnesium chloride and sodium sulfate in the Arguineguín Gorge, as well as in the Amurga Massif itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial and Temporal Variation of Dissolved Heavy Metals in the Mun River, Northeast Thailand
Water 2019, 11(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020380 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
River water samples between August 2017 (wet season) and March 2018 (dry season) from the Mun River Basin in northeast Thailand were collected and their dissolved heavy metals concentrations (Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Ba) were measured. Compared with international drinking water [...] Read more.
River water samples between August 2017 (wet season) and March 2018 (dry season) from the Mun River Basin in northeast Thailand were collected and their dissolved heavy metals concentrations (Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Ba) were measured. Compared with international drinking water guidelines, Mn was the dominant pollutant in the dry season. The correlation analysis (CA) suggested that similar sources were shown in each element pair of Al-Fe, Mn-Zn, and Fe-Ba in both seasons. The principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the dominant source of dissolved heavy metals was sedimentary inputs or colloid destabilization in the wet season, while anthropogenic inputs were the main sources in the dry season, such as agricultural runoff, industrial effluents, and domestic discharge. On the basis of water quality index (WQI), water at most sites in the wet and dry seasons can be categorized as excellent water, except for a few sites with substandard values. The river water posed no significant health risks according to the health risk assessment, but Mn, Fe, and Ba needed to be paid more attention due to the relatively high values. Al, Fe, and Ba were the main dissolved heavy metals flowing into the Mekong River, and Cu contributed to the background value in the Mekong river. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial and Seasonal Distribution and Transportation of Different Forms of Phosphorus in the Middle Reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River
Water 2018, 10(12), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121858 - 14 Dec 2018
Abstract
The Yarlung Zangbo River basin ecosystem is fragile. The distribution and transportation of phosphorus is of great significance for aquatic environmental protection and ecological security. The sequential extraction method and molybdenum antimony anti-spectrophotometry were used to measure the concentrations of different forms of [...] Read more.
The Yarlung Zangbo River basin ecosystem is fragile. The distribution and transportation of phosphorus is of great significance for aquatic environmental protection and ecological security. The sequential extraction method and molybdenum antimony anti-spectrophotometry were used to measure the concentrations of different forms of phosphorus in the surface sediments from 15 sampling sites along the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and its tributaries. The results show that the total phosphorus concentration in the surface sediments is 194.0~540.7 mg/kg, which is mainly composed of inorganic phosphorus. The concentrations of various phosphorus forms ranked as calcium-bound phosphorus (355.6 ± 86.0 mg/kg) > soluble phosphorus (15.9 ± 10.0 mg/kg) > iron-bound phosphorus (12.4 ± 12.3 mg/kg) > organic phosphorus (9.6 ± 6.1 mg/kg) > occluded phosphorus (9.2 ± 3.8 mg/kg) > aluminum-bound phosphorus (5.4 ± 2.3 mg/kg). On the whole, phosphorus concentration is greater in wet season than dry season. Regarding the spatial distribution characteristics, there are great disparities in the different forms of phosphorus in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River. Comprehensive analysis shows that phosphorus of this area is mainly self-generated, and concentration of bioavailable phosphorus is small, demonstrating there will not be a large release. We also drew a “specific triangle” of the different forms of phosphorus concentrations in the research area and defined the “α” angle to determine the nutrient status of the overlying water quickly and effectively. Finally, phosphorus flux of the mainstream was estimated. This research may provide information on the phosphorus of Plateau Rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Karst Aquifer Mineralogy and Geochemistry on Groundwater Characteristics: West Bank, Palestine
Water 2018, 10(12), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121829 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This work reports, for the first time, the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of karst aquifers in the Central West Bank (CWB) catchment in Palestine. It provides an integrated study approach by correlating the geochemistry of the lithology and hydrochemical data of groundwater samples. [...] Read more.
This work reports, for the first time, the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of karst aquifers in the Central West Bank (CWB) catchment in Palestine. It provides an integrated study approach by correlating the geochemistry of the lithology and hydrochemical data of groundwater samples. Mineralogical analysis showed that all of the samples were dominantly composed of either calcite CaCO3 (5–100 wt. %) or dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 (4–100 wt. %), with minor amounts of quartz and feldspar, which is supported by the inorganic carbon content (9–13 wt. %) and hydrochemical composition of the spring water samples. The whole-rock geochemical data indicated that the samples have low contents of trace elements and transition metals. In contrast, the concentrations of alkaline earth elements (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and Mn were high in the rock and groundwater samples. Generally, the trace elements of rock samples with concentrations >10 ppm included Sr (17–330 ppm), Mn (17–367 ppm), Ba (2–32 ppm), W (5–37 ppm), Cr (3–23 ppm), Zn (1.7–28 ppm), V (4–23 ppm), and Zr (1–22 ppm), while the concentrations of all the other trace elements was below 10 ppm. Ionic ratios and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) suggested that the chemical evolution of groundwater was mainly related to the geogenic (rock–water) interaction in the study area. This is clear in the alkaline earth elements (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) ratios, especially regarding the Sr values. The calcite rock samples had higher Sr (mean 160 ppm, n = 11) than those of the dolomite rocks (mean 76 ppm, n = 9). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring)
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