Next Issue
Volume 9, August
Previous Issue
Volume 9, June

Cells, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 183 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study by Sousa et al. mechanistically associates cystic fibrosis (CF) with epithelial differentiation, helping to explain the higher incidence of cancers in individuals with CF. A link is found between CFTR (the mutant anion channel in CF) and transcriptional factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a key player in development, stem cell differentiation, and proliferation. Results show that KLF4 is upregulated in CF vs non-CF cells and that it negatively regulates expression and function of normal (wt) but not mutant (F508del-) CFTR. The authors also show that KLF4 acts differentially on wt and F508del-CFTR via AKT signaling: positively regulating the former but negatively the latter. In contrast GSK3β, negatively regulates both wt- and F508del-CFTR but is only dependent on KLF4 for wt-CFTR. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Senescence and Host–Pathogen Interactions
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071747 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Damage to our genomes triggers cellular senescence characterised by stable cell cycle arrest and a pro-inflammatory secretome that prevents the unrestricted growth of cells with pathological potential. In this way, senescence can be considered a powerful innate defence against cancer and viral infection. [...] Read more.
Damage to our genomes triggers cellular senescence characterised by stable cell cycle arrest and a pro-inflammatory secretome that prevents the unrestricted growth of cells with pathological potential. In this way, senescence can be considered a powerful innate defence against cancer and viral infection. However, damage accumulated during ageing increases the number of senescent cells and this contributes to the chronic inflammation and deregulation of the immune function, which increases susceptibility to infectious disease in ageing organisms. Bacterial and viral pathogens are masters of exploiting weak points to establish infection and cause devastating diseases. This review considers the emerging importance of senescence in the host–pathogen interaction: we discuss the pathogen exploitation of ageing cells and senescence as a novel hijack target of bacterial pathogens that deploys senescence-inducing toxins to promote infection. The persistent induction of senescence by pathogens, mediated directly through virulence determinants or indirectly through inflammation and chronic infection, also contributes to age-related pathologies such as cancer. This review highlights the dichotomous role of senescence in infection: an innate defence that is exploited by pathogens to cause disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The DNA Damage Response in Cell Physiology and Disease)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Emerging Roles of Inhibitor of Differentiation-1 in Alzheimer’s Disease: Cell Cycle Reentry and Beyond
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071746 - 21 Jul 2020
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Inhibitor of DNA-binding/differentiation (Id) proteins, a family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins that includes four members of Id1 to Id4 in mammalian cells, are critical for regulating cell growth, differentiation, senescence, cell cycle progression, and increasing angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, as well as accelerating the [...] Read more.
Inhibitor of DNA-binding/differentiation (Id) proteins, a family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins that includes four members of Id1 to Id4 in mammalian cells, are critical for regulating cell growth, differentiation, senescence, cell cycle progression, and increasing angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, as well as accelerating the ability of cell migration. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease in the adult population, manifests the signs of cognitive decline, behavioral changes, and functional impairment. The underlying mechanisms for AD are not well-clarified yet, but the aggregation of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβs), the major components in the senile plaques observed in AD brains, contributes significantly to the disease progression. Emerging evidence reveals that aberrant cell cycle reentry may play a central role in Aβ-induced neuronal demise. Recently, we have shown that several signaling mediators, including Id1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), cyclin-dependent kinases-5 (CDK5), and sonic hedgehog (Shh), may contribute to Aβ-induced cell cycle reentry in postmitotic neurons; furthermore, Id1 and CDK5/p25 mutually antagonize the expression/activity of each other. Therefore, Id proteins may potentially have clinical applications in AD. In this review article, we introduce the underlying mechanisms for cell cycle dysregulation in AD and present some examples, including our own studies, to show different aspects of Id1 in terms of cell cycle reentry and other signaling that may be crucial to alter the neuronal fates in this devastating neurodegenerative disease. A thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms may provide a rationale to make an earlier intervention before the occurrence of cell cycle reentry and subsequent apoptosis in the fully differentiated neurons during the progression of AD or other neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Signalling Molecules in Aging and Neurodegeneration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ribosomal Protein uL11 as a Regulator of Metabolic Circuits Related to Aging and Cell Cycle
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071745 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Aging is a biological phenomenon common to all living organisms. It is thought that the rate of aging is influenced by diverse factors, in many cases related to the control of energy metabolism, i.e., the so-called pro-longevity effects of starvation. Translation, regarded as [...] Read more.
Aging is a biological phenomenon common to all living organisms. It is thought that the rate of aging is influenced by diverse factors, in many cases related to the control of energy metabolism, i.e., the so-called pro-longevity effects of starvation. Translation, regarded as the main energy consumption process, lies at the center of interest, as it has a significant impact on the longevity phenomenon. It has been shown that perturbations in the translational apparatus may lead to a lower rate of aging. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate aging in relation to the protein biosynthesis circuit, taking into account the uL11 ribosomal protein as a vital ribosomal element. To this end, we used set of yeast mutants with deleted single uL11A or uL11B genes and a double disruptant uL11AB mutant. We applied an integrated approach analyzing a broad range of biological parameters of yeast mutant cells, especially the longevity phenomenon, supplemented with biochemical and high throughput transcriptomic and metobolomic approaches. The analysis showed that the longevity phenomenon is not fully related to the commonly considered energy restriction effect, thus the slow-down of translation does not represent the sole source of aging. Additionally, we showed that uL11 can be classified as a moonlighting protein with extra-ribosomal function having cell-cycle regulatory potential. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Hydrodynamics-Based Transplacental Delivery as a Useful Noninvasive Tool for Manipulating Fetal Genome
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071744 - 21 Jul 2020
Viewed by 668
Abstract
We previously demonstrated that the injection of pregnant wild-type female mice (carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing transgenic fetuses) at embryonic day (E) 12.5 with an all-in-one plasmid conferring the expression of both Cas9 and guide RNA (targeted to the EGFP cDNA) complexed [...] Read more.
We previously demonstrated that the injection of pregnant wild-type female mice (carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing transgenic fetuses) at embryonic day (E) 12.5 with an all-in-one plasmid conferring the expression of both Cas9 and guide RNA (targeted to the EGFP cDNA) complexed with the gene delivery reagent, resulted in some fetuses exhibiting reduced fluorescence in their hearts and gene insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. In this study, we examined whether the endogenous myosin heavy-chain α (MHCα) gene can be successfully genome-edited by this method in the absence of a gene delivery reagent with potential fetal toxicity. For this, we employed a hydrodynamics-based gene delivery (HGD) system with the aim of ensuring fetal gene delivery rates and biosafety. We also investigated which embryonic stages are suitable for the induction of genome editing in fetuses. Of the three pregnant females injected at E9.5, one had mutated fetuses: all examined fetuses carried exogenous plasmid DNA, and four of 10 (40%) exhibited mosaic indel mutations in MHCα. Gene delivery to fetuses at E12.5 and E15.5 did not cause mutations. Thus, the HGD-based transplacental delivery of a genome editing vector may be able to manipulate the fetal genomes of E9.5 fetuses. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Hyaluronic Acid: Redefining Its Role
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071743 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
The discovery of several unexpected complex biological roles of hyaluronic acid (HA) has promoted new research impetus for biologists and, the clinical interest in several fields of medicine, such as ophthalmology, articular pathologies, cutaneous repair, skin remodeling, vascular prosthesis, adipose tissue engineering, nerve [...] Read more.
The discovery of several unexpected complex biological roles of hyaluronic acid (HA) has promoted new research impetus for biologists and, the clinical interest in several fields of medicine, such as ophthalmology, articular pathologies, cutaneous repair, skin remodeling, vascular prosthesis, adipose tissue engineering, nerve reconstruction and cancer therapy. In addition, the great potential of HA in medicine has stimulated the interest of pharmaceutical companies which, by means of new technologies can produce HA and several new derivatives in order to increase both the residence time in a variety of human tissues and the anti-inflammatory properties. Minor chemical modifications of the molecule, such as the esterification with benzyl alcohol (Hyaff-11® biomaterials), have made possible the production of water-insoluble polymers that have been manufactured in various forms: membranes, gauzes, nonwoven meshes, gels, tubes. All these biomaterials are used as wound-covering, anti-adhesive devices and as scaffolds for tissue engineering, such as epidermis, dermis, micro-vascularized skin, cartilage and bone. In this review, the essential biological functions of HA and the applications of its derivatives for pharmaceutical and tissue regeneration purposes are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyaluronic Acid: Basic and Clinical Aspects)
Article
Annexin-A6 in Membrane Repair of Human Skeletal Muscle Cell: A Role in the Cap Subdomain
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071742 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Defects in membrane repair contribute to the development of some muscular dystrophies, highlighting the importance to decipher the membrane repair mechanisms in human skeletal muscle. In murine myofibers, the formation of a cap subdomain composed notably by annexins (Anx) is critical for membrane [...] Read more.
Defects in membrane repair contribute to the development of some muscular dystrophies, highlighting the importance to decipher the membrane repair mechanisms in human skeletal muscle. In murine myofibers, the formation of a cap subdomain composed notably by annexins (Anx) is critical for membrane repair. We applied membrane damage by laser ablation to human skeletal muscle cells and assessed the behavior of annexin-A6 (AnxA6) tagged with GFP by correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). We show that AnxA6 was recruited to the site of membrane injury within a few seconds after membrane injury. In addition, we show that the deficiency in AnxA6 compromises human sarcolemma repair, demonstrating the crucial role played by AnxA6 in this process. An AnxA6-containing cap-subdomain was formed in damaged human myotubes in about one minute. Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we observed that extension of the sarcolemma occurred during membrane resealing, which participated in forming a dense lipid structure in order to plug the hole. By properties of membrane folding and curvature, AnxA6 helped in the formation of this tight structure. The compaction of intracellular membranes—which are used for membrane resealing and engulfed in extensions of the sarcolemma—may also facilitate elimination of the excess of lipid and protein material once cell membrane has been repaired. These data reinforce the role played by AnxA6 and the cap subdomain in membrane repair of skeletal muscle cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Annexin Biology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Highly Efficient Conversion of Motor Neuron-Like NSC-34 Cells into Functional Motor Neurons by Prostaglandin E2
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071741 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
Motor neuron diseases are a group of progressive neurological disorders that degenerate motor neurons. The neuroblastoma × spinal cord hybrid cell line NSC-34 is widely used as an experimental model in studies of motor neuron diseases. However, the differentiation efficiency of NSC-34 cells [...] Read more.
Motor neuron diseases are a group of progressive neurological disorders that degenerate motor neurons. The neuroblastoma × spinal cord hybrid cell line NSC-34 is widely used as an experimental model in studies of motor neuron diseases. However, the differentiation efficiency of NSC-34 cells to neurons is not always sufficient. We have found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces morphological differentiation in NSC-34 cells. The present study investigated the functional properties of PGE2-differentiated NSC-34 cells. Retinoic acid (RA), a widely-used agent inducing cell differentiation, facilitated neuritogenesis, which peaked on day 7, whereas PGE2-induced neuritogenesis took only 2 days to reach the same level. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed that the current threshold of PGE2-treated cell action potentials was lower than that of RA-treated cells. PGE2 and RA increased the protein expression levels of neuronal differentiation markers, microtubule-associated protein 2c and synaptophysin, and to the same extent, motor neuron-specific markers HB9 and Islet-1. On the other hand, protein levels of choline acetyltransferase and basal release of acetylcholine in PGE2-treated cells were higher than in RA-treated cells. These results suggest that PGE2 is a rapid and efficient differentiation-inducing factor for the preparation of functionally mature motor neurons from NSC-34 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cells of the Nervous System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Lipid Receptor G2A (GPR132) Mediates Macrophage Migration in Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071740 - 21 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and mechanistically characterized by strong neuroimmune interactions, involving signaling lipids that act via specific G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we investigated the role of the signaling lipid receptor G2A (GPR132) in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using [...] Read more.
Nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and mechanistically characterized by strong neuroimmune interactions, involving signaling lipids that act via specific G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we investigated the role of the signaling lipid receptor G2A (GPR132) in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using the robust spared nerve injury (SNI) mouse model. We found that the concentrations of the G2A agonist 9-HODE (9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid) are strongly increased at the site of nerve injury during neuropathic pain. Moreover, G2A-deficient mice show a strong reduction of mechanical hypersensitivity after nerve injury. This phenotype is accompanied by a massive reduction of invading macrophages and neutrophils in G2A-deficient mice and a strongly reduced release of the proalgesic mediators TNFα, IL-6 and VEGF at the site of injury. Using a global proteome analysis to identify the underlying signaling pathways, we found that G2A activation in macrophages initiates MyD88-PI3K-AKT signaling and transient MMP9 release to trigger cytoskeleton remodeling and migration. We conclude that G2A-deficiency reduces inflammatory responses by decreasing the number of immune cells and the release of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors at the site of nerve injury. Inhibiting the G2A receptor after nerve injury may reduce immune cell-mediated peripheral sensitization and may thus ameliorate neuropathic pain. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Adenosine Receptors as Neuroinflammation Modulators: Role of A1 Agonists and A2A Antagonists
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071739 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
The pathological condition of neuroinflammation is caused by the activation of the neuroimmune cells astrocytes and microglia. The autacoid adenosine seems to be an important neuromodulator in this condition. Its main receptors involved in the neuroinflammation modulation are A1AR and A [...] Read more.
The pathological condition of neuroinflammation is caused by the activation of the neuroimmune cells astrocytes and microglia. The autacoid adenosine seems to be an important neuromodulator in this condition. Its main receptors involved in the neuroinflammation modulation are A1AR and A2AAR. Evidence suggests that A1AR activation produces a neuroprotective effect and A2AARs block prevents neuroinflammation. The aim of this work is to elucidate the effects of these receptors in neuroinflammation using the partial agonist 2′-dCCPA (2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl-2′-deoxyadenosine) (C1 KiA1AR = 550 nM, KiA2AAR = 24,800 nM, and KiA3AR = 5560 nM, α = 0.70, EC50A1AR = 832 nM) and the newly synthesized in house compound 8-chloro-9-ethyl-2-phenethoxyadenine (C2 KiA2AAR = 0.75 nM; KiA1AR = 17 nM and KiA3AR = 227 nM, IC50A2AAR = 251 nM unpublished results). The experiments were performed in in vitro and in in vivo models of neuroinflammation. Results showed that C1 was able to prevent the inflammatory effect induced by cytokine cocktail (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) while C2 possess both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, counteracting both neuroinflammation in mixed glial cells and in an animal model of neuroinflammation. In conclusion, C2 is a potential candidate for neuroinflammation therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Comment
Comment on “Dexamethasone Inhibits Spheroid Formation of Thyroid Cancer Cells Exposed to Simulated Microgravity”
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071738 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
This letter addresses our concerns about a paper by Melnik et al [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Killing Cancer: Discovery and Selection of New Target Molecules)
Review
The Leukemic Fly: Promises and Challenges
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071737 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
Leukemia involves different types of blood cancers, which lead to significant mortality and morbidity. Murine models of leukemia have been instrumental in understanding the biology of the disease and identifying therapeutics. However, such models are time consuming and expensive in high throughput genetic [...] Read more.
Leukemia involves different types of blood cancers, which lead to significant mortality and morbidity. Murine models of leukemia have been instrumental in understanding the biology of the disease and identifying therapeutics. However, such models are time consuming and expensive in high throughput genetic and drug screening. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an invaluable in vivo model for studying different diseases, including cancer. Fruit flies possess several hematopoietic processes and compartments that are in close resemblance to their mammalian counterparts. A number of studies succeeded in characterizing the fly’s response upon the expression of human leukemogenic proteins in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic tissues. Moreover, some of these studies showed that these models are amenable to genetic screening. However, none were reported to be tested for drug screening. In this review, we describe the Drosophila hematopoietic system, briefly focusing on leukemic diseases in which fruit flies have been used. We discuss myeloid and lymphoid leukemia fruit fly models and we further highlight their roles for future therapeutic screening. In conclusion, fruit fly leukemia models constitute an interesting area which could speed up the process of integrating new therapeutics when complemented with mammalian models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Pathology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
TRPV4 Inhibition and CRISPR-Cas9 Knockout Reduce Inflammation Induced by Hyperphysiological Stretching in Human Annulus Fibrosus Cells
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071736 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Mechanical loading and inflammation interact to cause degenerative disc disease and low back pain (LBP). However, the underlying mechanosensing and mechanotransductive pathways are poorly understood. This results in untargeted pharmacological treatments that do not take the mechanical aspect of LBP into account. We [...] Read more.
Mechanical loading and inflammation interact to cause degenerative disc disease and low back pain (LBP). However, the underlying mechanosensing and mechanotransductive pathways are poorly understood. This results in untargeted pharmacological treatments that do not take the mechanical aspect of LBP into account. We investigated the role of the mechanosensitive ion channel TRPV4 in stretch-induced inflammation in human annulus fibrosus (AF) cells. The cells were cyclically stretched to 20% hyperphysiological strain. TRPV4 was either inhibited with the selective TRPV4 antagonist GSK2193874 or knocked out (KO) via CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. The gene expression, inflammatory mediator release and MAPK pathway activation were analyzed. Hyperphysiological cyclic stretching significantly increased the IL6, IL8, and COX2 mRNA, PGE2 release, and activated p38 MAPK. The TRPV4 pharmacological inhibition significantly attenuated these effects. TRPV4 KO further prevented the stretch-induced upregulation of IL8 mRNA and reduced IL6 and IL8 release, thus supporting the inhibition data. We provide novel evidence that TRPV4 transduces hyperphysiological mechanical signals into inflammatory responses in human AF cells, possibly via p38. Additionally, we show for the first time the successful gene editing of human AF cells via CRISPR-Cas9. The pharmacological inhibition or CRISPR-based targeting of TRPV4 may constitute a potential therapeutic strategy to tackle discogenic LBP in patients with AF injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MiNICAD Special Issue: Ion Channels and Human Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
PCAF Involvement in Lamin A/C-HDAC2 Interplay during the Early Phase of Muscle Differentiation
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071735 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Lamin A/C has been implicated in the epigenetic regulation of muscle gene expression through dynamic interaction with chromatin domains and epigenetic enzymes. We previously showed that lamin A/C interacts with histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2). In this study, we deepened the relevance and regulation [...] Read more.
Lamin A/C has been implicated in the epigenetic regulation of muscle gene expression through dynamic interaction with chromatin domains and epigenetic enzymes. We previously showed that lamin A/C interacts with histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2). In this study, we deepened the relevance and regulation of lamin A/C-HDAC2 interaction in human muscle cells. We present evidence that HDAC2 binding to lamin A/C is related to HDAC2 acetylation on lysine 75 and expression of p300-CBP associated factor (PCAF), an acetyltransferase known to acetylate HDAC2. Our findings show that lamin A and farnesylated prelamin A promote PCAF recruitment to the nuclear lamina and lamin A/C binding in human myoblasts committed to myogenic differentiation, while protein interaction is decreased in differentiating myotubes. Interestingly, PCAF translocation to the nuclear envelope, as well as lamin A/C-PCAF interaction, are reduced by transient expression of lamin A mutated forms causing Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Consistent with this observation, lamin A/C interaction with both PCAF and HDAC2 is significantly reduced in Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy myoblasts. Overall, these results support the view that, by recruiting PCAF and HDAC2 in a molecular platform, lamin A/C might contribute to regulate their epigenetic activity required in the early phase of muscle differentiation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interplay of TRIM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and ALIX/ESCRT Complex: Control of Developmental Plasticity During Early Neurogenesis
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071734 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Tripartite motif 2 (TRIM2) drives neurite outgrowth and polarization, is involved in axon specification, and confers neuroprotective functions during rapid ischemia. The mechanisms controlling neuronal cell fate determination and differentiation are fundamental for neural development. Here, we show that in Xenopus, trim2 [...] Read more.
Tripartite motif 2 (TRIM2) drives neurite outgrowth and polarization, is involved in axon specification, and confers neuroprotective functions during rapid ischemia. The mechanisms controlling neuronal cell fate determination and differentiation are fundamental for neural development. Here, we show that in Xenopus, trim2 knockdown affects primary neurogenesis and neural progenitor cell survival. Embryos also suffer from severe craniofacial malformation, a reduction in brain volume, and the loss of motor sensory function. Using a high-throughput LC-MS/MS approach with GST-Trim2 as bait, we pulled down ALG-2 interacting protein X (Alix) from Xenopus embryonic lysates. We demonstrate that the expression of trim2/TRIM2 and alix/ALIX overlap during larval development and on a cellular level in cell culture. Interestingly, trim2 morphants showed a clustering and apoptosis of neural progenitors, which are phenotypic hallmarks that are also observed in Alix KO mice. Therefore, we propose that the interaction of Alix and Trim2 plays a key role in the determination and differentiation of neural progenitors via the modulation of cell proliferation/apoptosis during neurogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cells of the Nervous System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Human Cardiac Organoids for Modeling Genetic Cardiomyopathy
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071733 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Genetic cardiomyopathies are characterized by changes in the function and structure of the myocardium. The development of a novel in vitro model could help to better emulate healthy and diseased human heart conditions and may improve the understanding of disease mechanisms. In this [...] Read more.
Genetic cardiomyopathies are characterized by changes in the function and structure of the myocardium. The development of a novel in vitro model could help to better emulate healthy and diseased human heart conditions and may improve the understanding of disease mechanisms. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated the generation of cardiac organoids using a triculture approach of human induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs)—from healthy subjects and cardiomyopathy patients—human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) and human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs). We assessed the organoids’ suitability as a 3D cellular model for the representation of phenotypical features of healthy and cardiomyopathic hearts. We observed clear differences in structure and beating behavior between the organoid groups, depending on the type of hiPS-CMs (healthy versus cardiomyopathic) used. Organoids may thus prove a promising tool for the design and testing of patient-specific treatments as well as provide a platform for safer and more efficacious drug development. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Communication
Blocking Notch-Signaling Increases Neurogenesis in the Striatum after Stroke
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071732 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Stroke triggers neurogenesis in the striatum in mice, with new neurons deriving in part from the nearby subventricular zone and in part from parenchymal astrocytes. The initiation of neurogenesis by astrocytes within the striatum is triggered by reduced Notch-signaling, and blocking this signaling [...] Read more.
Stroke triggers neurogenesis in the striatum in mice, with new neurons deriving in part from the nearby subventricular zone and in part from parenchymal astrocytes. The initiation of neurogenesis by astrocytes within the striatum is triggered by reduced Notch-signaling, and blocking this signaling pathway by deletion of the gene encoding the obligate Notch coactivator Rbpj is sufficient to activate neurogenesis by striatal astrocytes in the absence of an injury. Here we report that blocking Notch-signaling in stroke increases the neurogenic response to stroke 3.5-fold in mice. Deletion of Rbpj results in the recruitment of a larger number of parenchymal astrocytes to neurogenesis and over larger areas of the striatum. These data suggest inhibition of Notch-signaling as a potential translational strategy to promote neuronal regeneration after stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuron-Glia Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Functionality of Endothelial-Colony-Forming Cells from Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1731; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071731 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Endothelial-colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a population of progenitor cells which have demonstrated promising angiogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. However, ECFCs from diabetic patients have been shown to be dysfunctional compared to ECFCs from healthy donors. Diabetes mellitus itself presents with [...] Read more.
Endothelial-colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a population of progenitor cells which have demonstrated promising angiogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. However, ECFCs from diabetic patients have been shown to be dysfunctional compared to ECFCs from healthy donors. Diabetes mellitus itself presents with many vascular co-morbidities and it has been hypothesized that ECFCs may be a potential cell therapy option to promote revascularisation in these disorders. While an allogeneic cell therapy approach would offer the potential of an ‘off the shelf’ therapeutic product, to date little research has been carried out on umbilical cord-ECFCs in diabetic models. Alternatively, autologous cell therapy using peripheral blood-ECFCs allows the development of a personalised therapeutic approach to medicine; however, autologous diabetic ECFCs are dysfunctional and need to be repaired so they can effectively treat diabetic co-morbidities. Many different groups have modified autologous diabetic ECFCs to improve their function using a variety of methods including pre-treatment with different factors or with genetic modification. While the in vitro and in vivo data from the literature is promising, no ECFC therapy has proceeded to clinical trials to date, indicating that more research is needed for a potential ECFC therapy in the future to treat diabetic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Therapies for Treating Diabetes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Molecular Function and Clinical Role of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor in Cancer Cells
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071730 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 884
Abstract
The thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and its cognate receptor (TSHR) are of crucial importance for thyrocytes to proliferate and exert their functions. Although TSHR is predominantly expressed in thyrocytes, several studies have revealed that functional TSHR can also be detected in many extra-thyroid [...] Read more.
The thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and its cognate receptor (TSHR) are of crucial importance for thyrocytes to proliferate and exert their functions. Although TSHR is predominantly expressed in thyrocytes, several studies have revealed that functional TSHR can also be detected in many extra-thyroid tissues, such as primary ovarian and hepatic tissues as well as their corresponding malignancies. Recent advances in cancer biology further raise the possibility of utilizing TSH and/or TSHR as a therapeutic target or as an informative index to predict treatment responses in cancer patients. The TSH/TSHR cascade has been considered a pivotal modulator for carcinogenesis and/or tumor progression in these cancers. TSHR belongs to a sub-group of family A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which activate a bundle of well-defined signaling transduction pathways to enhance cell renewal in response to external stimuli. In this review, recent findings regarding the molecular basis of TSH/TSHR functions in either thyroid or extra-thyroid tissues and the potential of directly targeting TSHR as an anticancer strategy are summarized and discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Daily Supplementation of L-Glutamine in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: The Effect on Heat Shock Proteins and Metabolites
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071729 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Pharmaco-therapeutic strategies of atrial fibrillation (AF) are moderately effective and do not prevent AF onset and progression. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies. Previous studies revealed heat shock protein (HSP)-inducing compounds to mitigate AF onset and progression. Such an [...] Read more.
Pharmaco-therapeutic strategies of atrial fibrillation (AF) are moderately effective and do not prevent AF onset and progression. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies. Previous studies revealed heat shock protein (HSP)-inducing compounds to mitigate AF onset and progression. Such an HSP inducing compound is L-glutamine. In the current study we investigate the effect of L-glutamine supplementation on serum HSP27 and HSP70 levels and metabolite levels in patients with AF patients (n = 21). Hereto, HSP27 and HSP70 levels were determined by ELISAs and metabolites with LC-mass spectrometry. HSP27 levels significantly decreased after 3-months of L-glutamine supplementation [540.39 (250.97–1315.63) to 380.69 (185.68–915.03), p = 0.004] and normalized to baseline levels after 6-months of L-glutamine supplementation [634.96 (139.57–3103.61), p < 0.001]. For HSP70, levels decreased after 3-months of L-glutamine supplementation [548.86 (31.50–1564.51) to 353.65 (110.58–752.50), p = 0.045] and remained low after 6-months of L-glutamine supplementation [309.30 (118.29–1744.19), p = 0.517]. Patients with high HSP27 levels at baseline showed normalization of several metabolites related to the carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, vitamins and cofactors metabolic pathways after 3-months L-glutamine supplementation. In conclusion, L-glutamine supplementation reduces the serum levels of HSP27 and HSP70 within 3-months and normalizes metabolite levels. This knowledge may fuel future clinical studies on L-glutamine to improve cardioprotective effects that may attenuate AF episodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Proteostasis Derailment in Cardiac Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ebola Virus Nucleocapsid-Like Structures Utilize Arp2/3 Signaling for Intracellular Long-Distance Transport
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071728 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
The intracellular transport of nucleocapsids of the highly pathogenic Marburg, as well as Ebola virus (MARV, EBOV), represents a critical step during the viral life cycle. Intriguingly, a population of these nucleocapsids is distributed over long distances in a directed and polar fashion. [...] Read more.
The intracellular transport of nucleocapsids of the highly pathogenic Marburg, as well as Ebola virus (MARV, EBOV), represents a critical step during the viral life cycle. Intriguingly, a population of these nucleocapsids is distributed over long distances in a directed and polar fashion. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the intracellular transport of filoviral nucleocapsids depends on actin polymerization. While it was shown that EBOV requires Arp2/3-dependent actin dynamics, the details of how the virus exploits host actin signaling during intracellular transport are largely unknown. Here, we apply a minimalistic transfection system to follow the nucleocapsid-like structures (NCLS) in living cells, which can be used to robustly quantify NCLS transport in live cell imaging experiments. Furthermore, in cells co-expressing LifeAct, a marker for actin dynamics, NCLS transport is accompanied by pulsative actin tails appearing on the rear end of NCLS. These actin tails can also be preserved in fixed cells, and can be visualized via high resolution imaging using STORM in transfected, as well as EBOV infected, cells. The application of inhibitory drugs and siRNA depletion against actin regulators indicated that EBOV NCLS utilize the canonical Arp2/3-Wave1-Rac1 pathway for long-distance transport in cells. These findings highlight the relevance of the regulation of actin polymerization during directed EBOV nucleocapsid transport in human cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Biology of Viral Infections)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Modulation of Determinant Factors to Improve Therapeutic Combinations with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071727 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) have shown their superiority over conventional therapies to treat some cancers. ICPi are effective against immunogenic tumors. However, patients with tumors poorly infiltrated with immune cells do not respond to ICPi. Combining ICPi with other anticancer therapies such as [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) have shown their superiority over conventional therapies to treat some cancers. ICPi are effective against immunogenic tumors. However, patients with tumors poorly infiltrated with immune cells do not respond to ICPi. Combining ICPi with other anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy, radiation, or vaccines, which can stimulate the immune system and recruit antitumor T cells into the tumor bed, may be a relevant strategy to increase the proportion of responding patients. Such an approach still raises the following questions: What are the immunological features modulated by immunogenic therapies that can be critical to ensure not only immediate but also long-lasting tumor protection? How must the combined treatments be administered to the patients to harness their full potential while limiting adverse immunological events? Here, we address these points by reviewing how immunogenic anticancer therapies can provide novel therapeutic opportunities upon combination with ICPi. We discuss their ability to create a permissive tumor microenvironment through the generation of inflamed tumors and stimulation of memory T cells such as resident (TRM) and stem-cell like (TSCM) cells. We eventually underscore the importance of sequence, dose, and duration of the combined anticancer therapies to design optimal and successful cancer immunotherapy strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Cell Death in Cancer Immunotherapy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
miR-22-3p Negatively Affects Tumor Progression in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1726; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071726 - 18 Jul 2020
Viewed by 840
Abstract
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a rare, aggressive disease arising from T-cell precursors. NOTCH1 plays an important role both in T-cell development and leukemia progression, and more than 60% of human T-ALLs harbor mutations in components of the NOTCH1 signaling pathway, leading [...] Read more.
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a rare, aggressive disease arising from T-cell precursors. NOTCH1 plays an important role both in T-cell development and leukemia progression, and more than 60% of human T-ALLs harbor mutations in components of the NOTCH1 signaling pathway, leading to deregulated cell growth and contributing to cell transformation. Besides multiple NOTCH1 target genes, microRNAs have also been shown to regulate T-ALL initiation and progression. Using an established mouse model of T-ALL induced by NOTCH1 activation, we identified several microRNAs downstream of NOTCH1 activation. In particular, we found that NOTCH1 inhibition can induce miR-22-3p in NOTCH1-dependent tumors and that this regulation is also conserved in human samples. Importantly, miR-22-3p overexpression in T-ALL cells can inhibit colony formation in vitro and leukemia progression in vivo. In addition, miR-22-3p was found to be downregulated in T-ALL specimens, both T-ALL cell lines and primary samples, relative to immature T-cells. Our results suggest that miR-22-3p is a functionally relevant microRNA in T-ALL whose modulation can be exploited for therapeutic purposes to inhibit T-ALL progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Related microRNAs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Tumor Suppressor PTEN as Molecular Switch Node Regulating Cell Metabolism and Autophagy: Implications in Immune System and Tumor Microenvironment
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071725 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Recent studies conducted over the past 10 years evidence the intriguing role of the tumor suppressor gene Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog deleted on Chromosome 10 PTEN in the regulation of cellular energy expenditure, together with its capability to modulate proliferation and survival, thus [...] Read more.
Recent studies conducted over the past 10 years evidence the intriguing role of the tumor suppressor gene Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog deleted on Chromosome 10 PTEN in the regulation of cellular energy expenditure, together with its capability to modulate proliferation and survival, thus expanding our knowledge of its physiological functions. Transgenic PTEN mice models are resistant to oncogenic transformation, present decreased adiposity and reduced cellular glucose and glutamine uptake, together with increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These acquisitions led to a novel understanding regarding the role of PTEN to counteract cancer cell metabolic reprogramming. Particularly, PTEN drives an “anti-Warburg state” in which less glucose is taken up, but it is more efficiently directed to the mitochondrial Krebs cycle. The maintenance of cellular homeostasis together with reduction of metabolic stress are controlled by specific pathways among which autophagy, a catabolic process strictly governed by mTOR and PTEN. Besides, a role of PTEN in metabolic reprogramming and tumor/stroma interactions in cancer models, has recently been established. The genetic inactivation of PTEN in stromal fibroblasts of mouse mammary glands, accelerates breast cancer initiation and progression. This review will discuss our novel understanding in the molecular connection between cell metabolism and autophagy by PTEN, highlighting novel implications regarding tumor/stroma/immune system interplay. The newly discovered action of PTEN opens innovative avenues for investigations relevant to counteract cancer development and progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The PTEN Tumor Suppressor and Its Role in Tumor Pathogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Secretome Analysis of Activated Human Renal Fibroblasts Revealed Beneficial Effect of the Modulation of the Secreted Peptidyl-Prolyl Cis-Trans Isomerase A in Kidney Fibrosis
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071724 - 18 Jul 2020
Viewed by 676
Abstract
The secretome is an important mediator in the permanent process of reciprocity between cells and their environment. Components of secretome are involved in a large number of physiological mechanisms including differentiation, migration, and extracellular matrix modulation. Alteration in secretome composition may therefore trigger [...] Read more.
The secretome is an important mediator in the permanent process of reciprocity between cells and their environment. Components of secretome are involved in a large number of physiological mechanisms including differentiation, migration, and extracellular matrix modulation. Alteration in secretome composition may therefore trigger cell transformation, inflammation, and diseases. In the kidney, aberrant protein secretion plays a central role in cell activation and transition and in promoting renal fibrosis onset and progression. Using comparative proteomic analyses, we investigated in the present study the impact of cell transition on renal fibroblast cells secretome. Human renal cell lines were stimulated with profibrotic hormones and cytokines, and alterations in secretome were investigated using proteomic approaches. We identified protein signatures specific for the fibrotic phenotype and investigated the impact of modeling secretome proteins on extra cellular matrix accumulation. The secretion of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA) was demonstrated to be associated with fibrosis phenotype. We showed that the in-vitro inhibition of PPIA with ciclosporin A (CsA) resulted in downregulation of PPIA and fibronectin (FN1) expression and significantly reduced their secretion. Knockdown studies of PPIA in a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model significantly impaired the secretion and accumulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), suggesting a positive therapeutic effect on renal fibrosis progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 25 Years of Proteomics in Cell Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
High-Dimensional Single-Cell Quantitative Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Cell Population Dynamics during Regeneration
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071723 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The interstitial space surrounding the skeletal muscle fibers is populated by a variety of mononuclear cell types. Upon acute or chronic insult, these cell populations become activated and initiate finely-orchestrated crosstalk that promotes myofiber repair and regeneration. Mass cytometry is a powerful and [...] Read more.
The interstitial space surrounding the skeletal muscle fibers is populated by a variety of mononuclear cell types. Upon acute or chronic insult, these cell populations become activated and initiate finely-orchestrated crosstalk that promotes myofiber repair and regeneration. Mass cytometry is a powerful and highly multiplexed technique for profiling single-cells. Herein, it was used to dissect the dynamics of cell populations in the skeletal muscle in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we characterized an antibody panel that could be used to identify most of the cell populations in the muscle interstitial space. By exploiting the mass cytometry resolution, we provided a comprehensive picture of the dynamics of the major cell populations that sensed and responded to acute damage in wild type mice and in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In addition, we revealed the intrinsic heterogeneity of many of these cell populations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characteristics of Extracellular Vesicles Released by the Pathogenic Yeast-Like Fungi Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071722 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Candida spp. yeast-like fungi are opportunistic pathogens in humans and have been recently found to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are involved in many vital biological processes in fungal cells. These include communication between microorganisms and host–pathogen interactions during infection. The production of [...] Read more.
Candida spp. yeast-like fungi are opportunistic pathogens in humans and have been recently found to release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are involved in many vital biological processes in fungal cells. These include communication between microorganisms and host–pathogen interactions during infection. The production of EVs and their content have been significantly characterized in the most common candidal species Candida albicans, including the identification of numerous virulence factors and cytoplasmic proteins in the EV cargo. We have here conducted the isolation and proteomic characterization of EVs produced by the clinically important non-albicans Candida species C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. With the use of ultracentrifugation of the cell-free culture supernatant, the candidal EVs were collected and found to be a heterogeneous population of particles for each species with sizes ranging from 60–280 nm. The proteinaceous contents of these vesicles were analyzed using LC-MS/MS, with particular attention paid to surface-expressed proteins that would come into immediate and direct contact with host cells. We thereby identified 42 extracellular and surface-connected proteins from C. glabrata, 33 from C. parapsilosis, and 34 from C. tropicalis, including membrane-associated transporters, glycoproteins and enzymes involved in the organization of the fungal cell wall, as well as several cytoplasmic proteins, including alcohol dehydrogenase, enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase, for which the vesicular transport is a possible mechanism underlying their non-classical secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: Biogenesis, Cargo and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Engineering CD4+ T Cells to Enhance Cancer Immunity
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071721 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
This review presents key advances in combining T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer to redirect T-cell specificity with gene engineering in order to enhance cancer-protective immune function. We discuss how emerging insights might be applied to CD4+ T cells. Although much attention has [...] Read more.
This review presents key advances in combining T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer to redirect T-cell specificity with gene engineering in order to enhance cancer-protective immune function. We discuss how emerging insights might be applied to CD4+ T cells. Although much attention has been paid to the role of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in tumour protection, we provide convincing evidence that CD4+ helper T cells play a critical role in cancer immune responses in animal models and also in patients. We demonstrate that genetic engineering technologies provide exciting opportunities to extend the specificity range of CD4+ T cells from MHC class-II-presented epitopes to include peptides presented by MHC class I molecules. Functional enhancement of tumour immunity can improve the sensitivity of T cells to cancer antigens, promote survival in a hostile tumour microenvironment, boost cancer-protective effector mechanisms and enable the formation of T-cell memory. Engineered cancer-specific CD4+ T cells may contribute to protective immunity by a direct pathway involving cancer cell killing, and by an indirect pathway that boosts the function, persistence and memory formation of CD8+ T cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TCR Gene Therapy: Challenges, Opportunities and Future Directions)
Review
The Quest for the Best: How TCR Affinity, Avidity, and Functional Avidity Affect TCR-Engineered T-Cell Antitumor Responses
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071720 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Over the past decades, adoptive transfer of T cells has revolutionized cancer immunotherapy. In particular, T-cell receptor (TCR) engineering of T cells has marked important milestones in developing more precise and personalized cancer immunotherapies. However, to get the most benefit out of this [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, adoptive transfer of T cells has revolutionized cancer immunotherapy. In particular, T-cell receptor (TCR) engineering of T cells has marked important milestones in developing more precise and personalized cancer immunotherapies. However, to get the most benefit out of this approach, understanding the role that TCR affinity, avidity, and functional avidity play on how TCRs and T cells function in the context of tumor-associated antigen (TAA) recognition is vital to keep generating improved adoptive T-cell therapies. Aside from TCR-related parameters, other critical factors that govern T-cell activation are the effect of TCR co-receptors on TCR–peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) stabilization and TCR signaling, tumor epitope density, and TCR expression levels in TCR-engineered T cells. In this review, we describe the key aspects governing TCR specificity, T-cell activation, and how these concepts can be applied to cancer-specific TCR redirection of T cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TCR Gene Therapy: Challenges, Opportunities and Future Directions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Distinct Roles for RAB10 and RAB29 in Pathogenic LRRK2-Mediated Endolysosomal Trafficking Alterations
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071719 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause familial Parkinson’s disease, and sequence variations are associated with the sporadic form of the disease. LRRK2 phosphorylates a subset of RAB proteins implicated in secretory and recycling trafficking pathways, including RAB8A and [...] Read more.
Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause familial Parkinson’s disease, and sequence variations are associated with the sporadic form of the disease. LRRK2 phosphorylates a subset of RAB proteins implicated in secretory and recycling trafficking pathways, including RAB8A and RAB10. Another RAB protein, RAB29, has been reported to recruit LRRK2 to the Golgi, where it stimulates its kinase activity. Our previous studies revealed that G2019S LRRK2 expression or knockdown of RAB8A deregulate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trafficking, with a concomitant accumulation of the receptor in a RAB4-positive recycling compartment. Here, we show that the G2019S LRRK2-mediated EGFR deficits are mimicked by knockdown of RAB10 and rescued by expression of active RAB10. By contrast, RAB29 knockdown is without effect, but expression of RAB29 also rescues the pathogenic LRRK2-mediated trafficking deficits independently of Golgi integrity. Our data suggest that G2019S LRRK2 deregulates endolysosomal trafficking by impairing the function of RAB8A and RAB10, while RAB29 positively modulates non-Golgi-related trafficking events impaired by pathogenic LRRK2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LRRK2-Dependent Neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Distribution of Circulating Tumor Cells Is Different in Metastatic Lobular Compared to Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast—Long-Term Prognostic Significance
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071718 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Background: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has distinguishing features when compared to invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (NST). In this study, we explored the distributional and prognostic characteristics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in metastatic ILC and NST. Materials and methods: Patients [...] Read more.
Background: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has distinguishing features when compared to invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (NST). In this study, we explored the distributional and prognostic characteristics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in metastatic ILC and NST. Materials and methods: Patients were included in an observational trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01322893) with ILC (n = 28) and NST (n = 111). CTC count (number/7.5 mL blood) was evaluated with serial sampling (CellSearch). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results: The CTC counts were higher in ILC (median 70) than in NST cases (median 2) at baseline (p < 0.001). The evidence for ≥5 CTCs as a prognostic factor for PFS in ILC was weak, but stronger with higher cut-offs (CTC ≥ 20: hazard ratio (HR) 3.0, p = 0.01) (CTC ≥ 80: HR 3.6, p = 0.004). In NST, however, the prognostic effect of CTCs ≥5 was strong. Decline in CTC count from baseline to three months was associated with improved prognosis in ILC and NST. Conclusions: The number of CTCs is higher in ILC than in NST, implying that a higher CTC cut-off could be considered for ILC when applying the CellSearch technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Biopsy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop