Special Issue "Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Signaling and Regulated Cell Death".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Katia Varani
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: G protein coupled receptors; drug discovery; cell signaling transduction; neurodegenerative disorders; chronic inflammatory diseases; cancer; clinical biophysics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adenosine is a ubiquitous molecule which is involved in the regulation of different functions in every organ and tissue through the interaction with four G protein coupled receptors named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). Due to the wide distribution of ARs throughout the body, this purine nucleoside induces a variety of physiopathological effects primarily regulating central nervous and peripheral systems. Adenosine levels rise during conditions concerning increased metabolic demand and/or lack of oxygen occurring in several pathological states, like ischemia, stress, seizures, pain, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, organ damage, and cancer. These characteristics make ARs a potential and attractive target for drug development in some of the most widespread disorders.

This Special Issue aims to provide the state-of-the-art on the involvement of the cellular and molecular pathways triggered by ARs that could play a role in the different adenosine effects and in their implications in diseases. Based on these important scientific and clinical advances, purine scientists are definitely getting closer to identifying novel adenosine drugs with the ability to have a therapeutic effect in improving human health.

We look forward to your contributions.

Dr. Katia Varani
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • adenosine receptors
  • drug discovery
  • cell signaling transduction
  • neurodegenerative disorders
  • chronic inflammatory diseases
  • fibrosis
  • cancer

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Adenosine Receptors as Neuroinflammation Modulators: Role of A1 Agonists and A2A Antagonists
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071739 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The pathological condition of neuroinflammation is caused by the activation of the neuroimmune cells astrocytes and microglia. The autacoid adenosine seems to be an important neuromodulator in this condition. Its main receptors involved in the neuroinflammation modulation are A1AR and A [...] Read more.
The pathological condition of neuroinflammation is caused by the activation of the neuroimmune cells astrocytes and microglia. The autacoid adenosine seems to be an important neuromodulator in this condition. Its main receptors involved in the neuroinflammation modulation are A1AR and A2AAR. Evidence suggests that A1AR activation produces a neuroprotective effect and A2AARs block prevents neuroinflammation. The aim of this work is to elucidate the effects of these receptors in neuroinflammation using the partial agonist 2′-dCCPA (2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl-2′-deoxyadenosine) (C1 KiA1AR = 550 nM, KiA2AAR = 24,800 nM, and KiA3AR = 5560 nM, α = 0.70, EC50A1AR = 832 nM) and the newly synthesized in house compound 8-chloro-9-ethyl-2-phenethoxyadenine (C2 KiA2AAR = 0.75 nM; KiA1AR = 17 nM and KiA3AR = 227 nM, IC50A2AAR = 251 nM unpublished results). The experiments were performed in in vitro and in in vivo models of neuroinflammation. Results showed that C1 was able to prevent the inflammatory effect induced by cytokine cocktail (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) while C2 possess both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, counteracting both neuroinflammation in mixed glial cells and in an animal model of neuroinflammation. In conclusion, C2 is a potential candidate for neuroinflammation therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
The Anti-Inflammatory and Pain-Relieving Effects of AR170, an Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonist, in a Rat Model of Colitis
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061509 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The pharmacological activation of A3 receptors has shown potential usefulness in the management of bowel inflammation. However, the role of these receptors in the control of visceral hypersensitivity in the presence of intestinal inflammation has not been investigated. The effects of AR170, [...] Read more.
The pharmacological activation of A3 receptors has shown potential usefulness in the management of bowel inflammation. However, the role of these receptors in the control of visceral hypersensitivity in the presence of intestinal inflammation has not been investigated. The effects of AR170, a potent and selective A3 receptor agonist, and dexamethasone (DEX) were tested in rats with 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis to assess their tissue inflammatory parameters. The animals received AR170, DEX, or a vehicle intraperitoneally for 6 days, starting 1 day before the induction of colitis. Visceral pain was assessed by recording the abdominal responses to colorectal distension in animals with colitis. Colitis was associated with a decrease in body weight and an increase in spleen weight. The macroscopic damage score and tissue tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were also enhanced. AR170, but not DEX, improved body weight. Both drugs counteracted the increase in spleen weight, ameliorated macroscopic colonic damage, and decreased TNF, IL-1β, and MPO tissue levels. The enhanced visceromotor response (VMR) in rats with colitis was decreased via AR170 administration. In rats with colitis, AR170 counteracted colonic inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, thereby relieving visceral hypersensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Glial A2B Adenosine Receptors Modulate Abnormal Tachykininergic Responses and Prevent Enteric Inflammation Associated with High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051245 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The role played by adenosine A2B receptors (A2BRs) in the regulation of enteric glial cell (EGC) functions remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of A2BRs in the control of EGC functions in a model [...] Read more.
The role played by adenosine A2B receptors (A2BRs) in the regulation of enteric glial cell (EGC) functions remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of A2BRs in the control of EGC functions in a model of obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed with standard diet (SD) or high fat diet (HFD) for eight weeks. Colonic tachykininergic contractions were recorded in the presence of BAY60-6583 (A2BRs agonist), MRS1754 (A2BRs antagonist), and the gliotoxin fluorocitrate. Immunofluorescence distribution of HuC/D, S100β, and A2BRs was assessed in whole mount preparations of colonic myenteric plexus. To mimic HFD, EGCs were incubated in vitro with palmitate (PA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the absence or in the presence of A2BR ligands. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was assessed by Western blot analysis. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), substance P (SP), and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) release were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays. MRS1754 enhanced electrically evoked tachykininergic contractions of colonic preparations from HFD mice. BAY60-6583 decreased the evoked tachykininergic contractions, with higher efficacy in HFD mice. Such effects were blunted upon incubation with fluorocitrate. In in vitro experiments on EGCs, PA and LPS increased TLR4 expression as well as IL-1β, GDNF, and SP release. Incubation with BAY60-6583 reduced TLR4 expression as well as IL-1β, GDNF, and SP release. Such effects were blunted by MRS1754. The present results suggest that A2BRs, expressed on EGCs, participate in the modulation of enteric inflammation and altered tachykininergic responses associated with obesity, thus representing a potential therapeutic target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
The Detrimental Action of Adenosine on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells Can Be Shifted towards a Neuroprotective Role through A1AR Positive Allosteric Modulation
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051242 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Glutamate cytotoxicity is implicated in neuronal death in different neurological disorders including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. Adenosine is a nucleoside that plays an important role in modulating neuronal activity and its receptors have been identified as promising therapeutic targets for [...] Read more.
Glutamate cytotoxicity is implicated in neuronal death in different neurological disorders including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. Adenosine is a nucleoside that plays an important role in modulating neuronal activity and its receptors have been identified as promising therapeutic targets for glutamate cytotoxicity. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the role of adenosine and its receptors on glutamate-induced injury in PC12 cells and to verify the protective effect of the novel A1 adenosine receptor positive allosteric modulator, TRR469. Flow cytometry experiments to detect apoptosis revealed that adenosine has a dual role in glutamate cytotoxicity, with A2A and A2B adenosine receptor (AR) activation exacerbating and A1 AR activation improving glutamate-induced cell injury. The overall effect of endogenous adenosine in PC12 cells resulted in a facilitating action on glutamate cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the use of adenosine deaminase and selective antagonists. However, enhancing the action of endogenous adenosine on A1ARs by TRR469 completely abrogated glutamate-mediated cell death, caspase 3/7 activation, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Our results indicate a novel potential therapeutic strategy against glutamate cytotoxicity based on the positive allosteric modulation of A1ARs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Allosteric Antagonism of the A2A Adenosine Receptor by a Series of Bitopic Ligands
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051200 - 12 May 2020
Abstract
Allosteric antagonism by bitopic ligands, as reported for many receptors, is a distinct modulatory mechanism. Although several bitopic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) ligand classes were reported as pharmacological tools, their receptor binding and functional antagonism patterns, i.e., allosteric or competitive, [...] Read more.
Allosteric antagonism by bitopic ligands, as reported for many receptors, is a distinct modulatory mechanism. Although several bitopic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) ligand classes were reported as pharmacological tools, their receptor binding and functional antagonism patterns, i.e., allosteric or competitive, were not well characterized. Therefore, here we systematically characterized A2AAR binding and functional antagonism of two distinct antagonist chemical classes. i.e., fluorescent conjugates of xanthine amine congener (XAC) and SCH442416. Bitopic ligands were potent, weak, competitive or allosteric, based on the combination of pharmacophore, linker and fluorophore. Among antagonists tested, XAC, XAC245, XAC488, SCH442416, MRS7352 showed Ki binding values consistent with KB values from functional antagonism. Interestingly, MRS7396, XAC-X-BY630 (XAC630) and 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA) were 9–100 times weaker in displacing fluorescent MRS7416 binding than radioligand binding. XAC245, XAC630, MRS7396, MRS7416 and MRS7322 behaved as allosteric A2AAR antagonists, whereas XAC488 and MRS7395 antagonized competitively. Schild analysis showed antagonism slopes of 0.42 and 0.47 for MRS7396 and XAC630, respectively. Allosteric antagonists HMA and MRS7396 were more potent in displacing [3H]ZM241385 binding than MRS7416 binding. Sodium site D52N mutation increased and decreased affinity of HMA and MRS7396, respectively, suggesting possible preference for different A2AAR conformations. The allosteric binding properties of some bitopic ligands were rationalized and analyzed using the Hall two-state allosteric model. Thus, fluorophore tethering to an orthosteric ligand is not neutral pharmacologically and may confer unexpected properties to the conjugate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists Affects NMDA Glutamate Receptor Function. Potential to Address Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051075 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
(1) Background. N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) ionotropic glutamate receptor (NMDAR), which is one of the main targets to combat Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is expressed in both neurons and glial cells. The aim of this paper was to assess whether the adenosine A [...] Read more.
(1) Background. N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) ionotropic glutamate receptor (NMDAR), which is one of the main targets to combat Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is expressed in both neurons and glial cells. The aim of this paper was to assess whether the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), which is a target in neurodegeneration, may affect NMDAR functionality. (2) Methods. Immuno-histo/cytochemical, biophysical, biochemical and signaling assays were performed in a heterologous cell expression system and in primary cultures of neurons and microglia (resting and activated) from control and the APPSw,Ind transgenic mice. (3) Results. On the one hand, NMDA and A2A receptors were able to physically interact forming complexes, mainly in microglia. Furthermore, the amount of complexes was markedly enhanced in activated microglia. On the other hand, the interaction resulted in a novel functional entity that displayed a cross-antagonism, that could be useful to prevent the exacerbation of NMDAR function by using A2AR antagonists. Interestingly, the amount of complexes was markedly higher in the hippocampal cells from the APPSw,Ind than from the control mice. In neurons, the number of complexes was lesser, probably due to NMDAR not interacting with the A2AR. However, the activation of the A2AR receptors resulted in higher NMDAR functionality in neurons, probably by indirect mechanisms. (4) Conclusions. A2AR antagonists such as istradefylline, which is already approved for Parkinson’s disease (Nouriast® in Japan and Nourianz® in the US), have potential to afford neuroprotection in AD in a synergistic-like fashion. i.e., via both neurons and microglia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Adenosinergic System Involvement in Ischemic Stroke Patients’ Lymphocytes
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051072 - 25 Apr 2020
Abstract
Adenosine modulates many physiological processes through the interaction with adenosine receptors (ARs) named as A1, A2A, A2B, and A3ARs. During ischemic stroke, adenosine mediates neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects through ARs activation. One of the dominant pathways [...] Read more.
Adenosine modulates many physiological processes through the interaction with adenosine receptors (ARs) named as A1, A2A, A2B, and A3ARs. During ischemic stroke, adenosine mediates neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects through ARs activation. One of the dominant pathways generating extracellular adenosine involves the dephosphorylation of ATP by ecto-nucleotidases CD39 and CD73, which efficiently hydrolyze extracellular ATP to adenosine. The aim of the study is to assess the presence of ARs in lymphocytes from ischemic stroke patients compared to healthy subjects and to analyze changes in CD39 and CD73 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Saturation binding experiments revealed that A2AARs affinity and density were significantly increased in ischemic stroke patients whilst no differences were found in A1, A2B, and A3ARs. These results were also confirmed in reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays where A2AAR mRNA levels of ischemic stroke patients were higher than in control subjects. In flow cytometry experiments, the percentage of CD73+ cells was significantly decreased in lymphocytes and in T-lymphocyte subclasses CD4+ and CD8+ obtained from ischemic stroke patients in comparison with healthy individuals. These data corroborate the importance of the adenosinergic system in ischemic stroke and could open the way to more targeted therapeutic approaches and biomarker development for ischemic stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Adenosine A1-A2A Receptor-Receptor Interaction: Contribution to Guanosine-Mediated Effects
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121630 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Guanosine, a guanine-based purine nucleoside, has been described as a neuromodulator that exerts neuroprotective effects in animal and cellular ischemia models. However, guanosine’s exact mechanism of action and molecular targets have not yet been identified. Here, we aimed to elucidate a role of [...] Read more.
Guanosine, a guanine-based purine nucleoside, has been described as a neuromodulator that exerts neuroprotective effects in animal and cellular ischemia models. However, guanosine’s exact mechanism of action and molecular targets have not yet been identified. Here, we aimed to elucidate a role of adenosine receptors (ARs) in mediating guanosine effects. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of guanosine in hippocampal slices from A2AR-deficient mice (A2AR−/−) subjected to oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). Next, we assessed guanosine binding at ARs taking advantage of a fluorescent-selective A2AR antagonist (MRS7396) which could engage in a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) process with NanoLuc-tagged A2AR. Next, we evaluated functional AR activation by determining cAMP and calcium accumulation. Finally, we assessed the impact of A1R and A2AR co-expression in guanosine-mediated impedance responses in living cells. Guanosine prevented the reduction of cellular viability and increased reactive oxygen species generation induced by OGD in hippocampal slices from wild-type, but not from A2AR−/− mice. Notably, while guanosine was not able to modify MRS7396 binding to A2AR-expressing cells, a partial blockade was observed in cells co-expressing A1R and A2AR. The relevance of the A1R and A2AR interaction in guanosine effects was further substantiated by means of functional assays (i.e., cAMP and calcium determinations), since guanosine only blocked A2AR agonist-mediated effects in doubly expressing A1R and A2AR cells. Interestingly, while guanosine did not affect A1R/A2AR heteromer formation, it reduced A2AR agonist-mediated cell impedance responses. Our results indicate that guanosine-induced effects may require both A1R and A2AR co-expression, thus identifying a molecular substrate that may allow fine tuning of guanosine-mediated responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Adenosine A2AReceptors in Substance Use Disorders: A Focus on Cocaine
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061372 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Several psychoactive drugs can evoke substance use disorders (SUD) in humans and animals, and these include psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids (CB), nicotine, and alcohol. The etiology, mechanistic processes, and the therapeutic options to deal with SUD are not well understood. The common feature of [...] Read more.
Several psychoactive drugs can evoke substance use disorders (SUD) in humans and animals, and these include psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids (CB), nicotine, and alcohol. The etiology, mechanistic processes, and the therapeutic options to deal with SUD are not well understood. The common feature of all abused drugs is that they increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesocorticolimbic circuitry of the brain followed by the activation of DA receptors. D2 receptors were proposed as important molecular targets for SUD. The findings showed that D2 receptors formed heteromeric complexes with other GPCRs, which forced the addiction research area in new directions. In this review, we updated the view on the brain D2 receptor complexes with adenosine (A)2A receptors (A2AR) and discussed the role of A2AR in different aspects of addiction phenotypes in laboratory animal procedures that permit the highly complex syndrome of human drug addiction. We presented the current knowledge on the neurochemical in vivo and ex vivo mechanisms related to cocaine use disorder (CUD) and discussed future research directions for A2AR heteromeric complexes in SUD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
Multiple Adenosine-Dopamine (A2A-D2 Like) Heteroreceptor Complexes in the Brain and Their Role in Schizophrenia
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051077 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
In the 1980s and 1990s, the concept was introduced that molecular integration in the Central Nervous System could develop through allosteric receptor–receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes presents in neurons. A number of adenosine–dopamine heteroreceptor complexes were identified that lead to the A2A [...] Read more.
In the 1980s and 1990s, the concept was introduced that molecular integration in the Central Nervous System could develop through allosteric receptor–receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes presents in neurons. A number of adenosine–dopamine heteroreceptor complexes were identified that lead to the A2A-D2 heteromer hypothesis of schizophrenia. The hypothesis is based on strong antagonistic A2A-D2 receptor–receptor interactions and their presence in the ventral striato-pallidal GABA anti-reward neurons leading to reduction of positive symptoms. Other types of adenosine A2A heteroreceptor complexes are also discussed in relation to this disease, such as A2A-D3 and A2A-D4 heteroreceptor complexes as well as higher order A2A-D2-mGluR5 and A2A-D2-Sigma1R heteroreceptor complexes. The A2A receptor protomer can likely modulate the function of the D4 receptors of relevance for understanding cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. A2A-D2-mGluR5 complex is of interest since upon A2A/mGluR5 coactivation they appear to synergize in producing strong inhibition of the D2 receptor protomer. For understanding the future of the schizophrenia treatment, the vulnerability of the current A2A-D2like receptor complexes will be tested in animal models of schizophrenia. A2A-D2-Simag1R complexes hold the highest promise through Sigma1R enhancement of inhibition of D2R function. In line with this work, Lara proposed a highly relevant role of adenosine for neurobiology of schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Adenosine-Related Mechanisms in Non-Adenosine Receptor Drugs
Cells 2020, 9(4), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040956 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Many ligands directly target adenosine receptors (ARs). Here we review the effects of noncanonical AR drugs on adenosinergic signaling. Non-AR mechanisms include raising adenosine levels by inhibiting adenosine transport (e.g., ticagrelor, ethanol, and cannabidiol), affecting intracellular metabolic pathways (e.g., methotrexate, nicotinamide riboside, salicylate, [...] Read more.
Many ligands directly target adenosine receptors (ARs). Here we review the effects of noncanonical AR drugs on adenosinergic signaling. Non-AR mechanisms include raising adenosine levels by inhibiting adenosine transport (e.g., ticagrelor, ethanol, and cannabidiol), affecting intracellular metabolic pathways (e.g., methotrexate, nicotinamide riboside, salicylate, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside), or undetermined means (e.g., acupuncture). However, other compounds bind ARs in addition to their canonical ‘on-target’ activity (e.g., mefloquine). The strength of experimental support for an adenosine-related role in a drug’s effects varies widely. AR knockout mice are the ‘gold standard’ method for investigating an AR role, but few drugs have been tested on these mice. Given the interest in AR modulation for treatment of cancer, CNS, immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal conditions, it is informative to consider AR and non-AR adenosinergic effects of approved drugs and conventional treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
Focusing on Adenosine Receptors as a Potential Targeted Therapy in Human Diseases
Cells 2020, 9(3), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030785 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 16
Abstract
Adenosine is involved in a range of physiological and pathological effects through membrane-bound receptors linked to G proteins. There are four subtypes of adenosine receptors, described as A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, and A3AR, which are the [...] Read more.
Adenosine is involved in a range of physiological and pathological effects through membrane-bound receptors linked to G proteins. There are four subtypes of adenosine receptors, described as A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, and A3AR, which are the center of cAMP signal pathway-based drug development. Several types of agonists, partial agonists or antagonists, and allosteric substances have been synthesized from these receptors as new therapeutic drug candidates. Research efforts surrounding A1AR and A2AAR are perhaps the most enticing because of their concentration and affinity; however, as a consequence of distressing conditions, both A2BAR and A3AR levels might accumulate. This review focuses on the biological features of each adenosine receptor as the basis of ligand production and describes clinical studies of adenosine receptor-associated pharmaceuticals in human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Inhibition of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Mitigates Excitotoxic Injury in Organotypic Tissue Cultures of the Rat Cochlea
Cells 2019, 8(8), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8080877 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The primary loss of cochlear glutamatergic afferent nerve synapses due to noise or ageing (cochlear neuropathy) often presents as difficulties in speech discrimination in noisy conditions (hidden hearing loss (HHL)). Currently, there is no treatment for this condition. Our previous studies in mice [...] Read more.
The primary loss of cochlear glutamatergic afferent nerve synapses due to noise or ageing (cochlear neuropathy) often presents as difficulties in speech discrimination in noisy conditions (hidden hearing loss (HHL)). Currently, there is no treatment for this condition. Our previous studies in mice with genetic deletion of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) have demonstrated better preservation of cochlear afferent synapses and spiral ganglion neurons after noise exposure compared to wildtype mice. This has informed our current targeted approach to cochlear neuroprotection based on pharmacological inhibition of the A2AR. Here, we have used organotypic tissue culture of the Wistar rat cochlea at postnatal day 6 (P6) to model excitotoxic injury induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)/kainic acid (NK) treatment for 2 h. The excitotoxic injury was characterised by a reduction in the density of neural processes immediately after NK treatment and loss of afferent synapses in the presence of intact sensory hair cells. The administration of istradefylline (a clinically approved A2AR antagonist) reduced deafferentation of inner hair cells and improved the survival of afferent synapses after excitotoxic injury. This study thus provides evidence that A2AR inhibition promotes cochlear recovery from excitotoxic injury, and may have implications for the treatment of cochlear neuropathy and prevention of HHL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adenosine Receptors: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases)
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