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Article

Daily Supplementation of L-Glutamine in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: The Effect on Heat Shock Proteins and Metabolites

1
Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Physiology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071729
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 20 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Proteostasis Derailment in Cardiac Diseases)
Pharmaco-therapeutic strategies of atrial fibrillation (AF) are moderately effective and do not prevent AF onset and progression. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies. Previous studies revealed heat shock protein (HSP)-inducing compounds to mitigate AF onset and progression. Such an HSP inducing compound is L-glutamine. In the current study we investigate the effect of L-glutamine supplementation on serum HSP27 and HSP70 levels and metabolite levels in patients with AF patients (n = 21). Hereto, HSP27 and HSP70 levels were determined by ELISAs and metabolites with LC-mass spectrometry. HSP27 levels significantly decreased after 3-months of L-glutamine supplementation [540.39 (250.97–1315.63) to 380.69 (185.68–915.03), p = 0.004] and normalized to baseline levels after 6-months of L-glutamine supplementation [634.96 (139.57–3103.61), p < 0.001]. For HSP70, levels decreased after 3-months of L-glutamine supplementation [548.86 (31.50–1564.51) to 353.65 (110.58–752.50), p = 0.045] and remained low after 6-months of L-glutamine supplementation [309.30 (118.29–1744.19), p = 0.517]. Patients with high HSP27 levels at baseline showed normalization of several metabolites related to the carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, vitamins and cofactors metabolic pathways after 3-months L-glutamine supplementation. In conclusion, L-glutamine supplementation reduces the serum levels of HSP27 and HSP70 within 3-months and normalizes metabolite levels. This knowledge may fuel future clinical studies on L-glutamine to improve cardioprotective effects that may attenuate AF episodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: atrial fibrillation; glutamine; heat shock proteins; metabolites; therapy atrial fibrillation; glutamine; heat shock proteins; metabolites; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Starreveld, R.; Ramos, K.S.; Muskens, A.J.Q.M.; Brundel, B.J.J.M.; de Groot, N.M.S. Daily Supplementation of L-Glutamine in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: The Effect on Heat Shock Proteins and Metabolites. Cells 2020, 9, 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071729

AMA Style

Starreveld R, Ramos KS, Muskens AJQM, Brundel BJJM, de Groot NMS. Daily Supplementation of L-Glutamine in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: The Effect on Heat Shock Proteins and Metabolites. Cells. 2020; 9(7):1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071729

Chicago/Turabian Style

Starreveld, Roeliene, Kennedy S. Ramos, Agnes J.Q.M. Muskens, Bianca J.J.M. Brundel, and Natasja M.S. de Groot 2020. "Daily Supplementation of L-Glutamine in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: The Effect on Heat Shock Proteins and Metabolites" Cells 9, no. 7: 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071729

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