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Cancers, Volume 15, Issue 15 (August-1 2023) – 263 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The reprogramming of metabolism is a key feature of cancer, and understanding this process offers potential effective therapeutic approaches. This review focuses on the role of ATP synthase and its physiological inhibitor, ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1), in metabolic reprogramming and cancer progression. The ATP synthase/IF1 axis is also involved in mitohormesis, cell death resistance, and cell-type specific pro-oncogenic or anti-metastatic phenotypes. The ATP synthase/IF1 axis is the most relevant biomarker of metastatic disease in lung adenocarcinomas. Post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating ATP synthase/IF1 expression and activity provide promising targets for cancer treatment. Finally, targeting mitochondrial OXPHOS in pre-clinical mouse models affords highly effective therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. View this paper
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24 pages, 2108 KiB  
Review
Challenges in Pharmacological Intervention in Perilipins (PLINs) to Modulate Lipid Droplet Dynamics in Obesity and Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4013; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154013 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
Perilipins (PLINs) are the most abundant proteins in lipid droplets (LD). These LD-associated proteins are responsible for upgrading LD from inert lipid storage structures to fully functional organelles, fundamentally integrated in the lipid metabolism. There are five distinct perilipins (PLIN1–5), each with specific [...] Read more.
Perilipins (PLINs) are the most abundant proteins in lipid droplets (LD). These LD-associated proteins are responsible for upgrading LD from inert lipid storage structures to fully functional organelles, fundamentally integrated in the lipid metabolism. There are five distinct perilipins (PLIN1–5), each with specific expression patterns and metabolic activation, but all capable of regulating the activity of lipases on LD. This plurality creates a complex orchestrated mechanism that is directly related to the healthy balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis. Given the essential role of PLINs in the modulation of the lipid metabolism, these proteins can become interesting targets for the treatment of lipid-associated diseases. Since reprogrammed lipid metabolism is a recognized cancer hallmark, and obesity is a known risk factor for cancer and other comorbidities, the modulation of PLINs could either improve existing treatments or create new opportunities for the treatment of these diseases. Even though PLINs have not been, so far, directly considered for pharmacological interventions, there are many established drugs that can modulate PLINs activity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the involvement of PLINs in diseases related to lipid metabolism dysregulation and whether PLINs can be viewed as potential therapeutic targets for cancer and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Pathophysiology)
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14 pages, 434 KiB  
Review
Maintenance Chemotherapy for Patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4012; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154012 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Maintenance chemotherapy (MC) defines the administration of prolonged relatively low-intensity chemotherapy with the aim of “maintaining” tumor complete remission. This paper aims to report an update of the RMS2005 trial, which demonstrated better survival for patients with high-risk localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) when MC [...] Read more.
Maintenance chemotherapy (MC) defines the administration of prolonged relatively low-intensity chemotherapy with the aim of “maintaining” tumor complete remission. This paper aims to report an update of the RMS2005 trial, which demonstrated better survival for patients with high-risk localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) when MC with vinorelbine and low-dose cyclophosphamide was added to standard chemotherapy, and to discuss the published experience on MC in RMS. In the RMS2005 study, the outcome for patients receiving MC vs. those who stopped the treatment remains superior, with a 5-year disease-free survival of 78.1% vs. 70.1% (p = 0.056) and overall survival of 85.0% vs. 72.4% (p = 0.008), respectively. We found seven papers describing MC in RMS, but only one randomized trial that did not demonstrate any advantage when MC with eight courses of trofosfamide/idarubicine alternating with trofosfamide/etoposide has been employed in high-risk RMS. The use of MC showed better results in comparison to high-dose chemotherapy in non-randomized studies, including metastatic patients, and demonstrated feasibility and tolerability in relapsed RMS. Many aspects of MC in RMS need to be investigated, including the best drug combination and the optimal duration. The ongoing EpSSG trial will try to answer some of these questions. Full article
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11 pages, 1660 KiB  
Article
Influence of De Novo Malignancies on Long-Term Survival after Lung Transplantation
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4011; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154011 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
(1) Background: Malignancies are an important cause of mortality after solid organ transplantation. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of malignancies in patients receiving lung transplants (LT) and their influence on patients’ survival. (2) Methods: Review of consecutive LT [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Malignancies are an important cause of mortality after solid organ transplantation. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of malignancies in patients receiving lung transplants (LT) and their influence on patients’ survival. (2) Methods: Review of consecutive LT from 1994 to 2021. Patients with and without malignancies were compared by univariable and multivariable analyses. Survival was compared with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. (3) Results: There were 731 LT malignancies developed in 91 patients (12.4%) with related mortality of 47% (n = 43). Native lung cancer, digestive and hematological malignancies were associated with higher lethality. Malignancies were more frequent in males (81%; p = 0.005), transplanted for emphysema (55%; p = 0.003), with cyclosporine-based immunosuppression (58%; p < 0.001), and receiving single LT (65%; p = 0.011). Survival was worse in patients with malignancies (overall) and with native lung cancer. Risk factors for mortality were cyclosporine-based immunosuppression (OR 1.8; 95%CI: 1.3–2.4; p < 0.001) and de novo lung cancer (OR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.5–4.4; p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: Malignancies are an important source of morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation that should not be neglected. Patients undergoing single LT for emphysema are especially at higher risk of mortality due to lung cancer in the native lung. Full article
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22 pages, 4193 KiB  
Article
YY1 Knockdown Relieves the Differentiation Block and Restores Apoptosis in AML Cells
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4010; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154010 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 801
Abstract
In this study we analyzed the expression of Yin and Yang 1 protein (YY1), a member of the noncanonical PcG complexes, in AML patient samples and AML cell lines and the effect of YY1 downregulation on the AML differentiation block. Our results show [...] Read more.
In this study we analyzed the expression of Yin and Yang 1 protein (YY1), a member of the noncanonical PcG complexes, in AML patient samples and AML cell lines and the effect of YY1 downregulation on the AML differentiation block. Our results show that YY1 is significantly overexpressed in AML patient samples and AML cell lines and that YY1 knockdown relieves the differentiation block. YY1 downregulation in two AML cell lines (HL-60 and OCI-AML3) and one AML patient sample restored the expression of members of the CEBP protein family, increased the expression of extrinsic growth factors/receptors and surface antigenic markers, induced morphological cell characteristics typical of myeloid differentiation, and sensitized cells to retinoic acid treatment and to apoptosis. Overall, our data show that YY1 is not a secondary regulator of myeloid differentiation but that, if overexpressed, it can play a predominant role in myeloid differentiation block. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Cancer Biology)
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12 pages, 1502 KiB  
Review
From Circulating Tumor Cells to Mirna: New Challenges in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4009; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154009 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignant tumor that arises from parafollicular C cells, which are responsible for producing calcitonin. The majority (75%) of MTC cases are sporadic forms, while the remaining (25%) have a hereditary component. In these hereditary cases, MTC can [...] Read more.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignant tumor that arises from parafollicular C cells, which are responsible for producing calcitonin. The majority (75%) of MTC cases are sporadic forms, while the remaining (25%) have a hereditary component. In these hereditary cases, MTC can occur in conjunction with other endocrine disorders (i.e., pheochromocytoma) or as an isolated condition known as familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. The primary genetic mutation associated with the development of MTC, regardless of its hereditary or sporadic nature, is a point mutation in the RET gene. Evaluation of serum calcitonin levels represents the most reliable and sensitive marker for both the initial diagnosis and the postsurgical monitoring of MTC. Unfortunately, most patients do not achieve normalization of postsurgical serum calcitonin (CT) levels after surgery. Therefore, there is a need to find new biomarkers to be used with serum CT in order to increase test sensitivity and specificity. In this review, we summarize the literature from 2010 to 2023 to review the role of circulating tumor cells, cell-free DNA, and miRNA and their application in diagnosis, outcome of MTC, and response to treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular Basis of Thyroid Cancer)
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13 pages, 2692 KiB  
Article
Assessing Osteolytic Lesion Size on Sequential CT Scans Is a Reliable Study Endpoint for Bone Remineralization in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4008; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154008 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 821
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) frequently induces persisting osteolytic manifestations despite hematologic treatment response. This study aimed to establish a biometrically valid study endpoint for bone remineralization through quantitative and qualitative analyses in sequential CT scans. Twenty patients (seven women, 58 ± 8 years) with [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) frequently induces persisting osteolytic manifestations despite hematologic treatment response. This study aimed to establish a biometrically valid study endpoint for bone remineralization through quantitative and qualitative analyses in sequential CT scans. Twenty patients (seven women, 58 ± 8 years) with newly diagnosed MM received standardized induction therapy comprising the anti-SLAMF7 antibody elotuzumab, carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (E-KRd). All patients underwent whole-body low-dose CT scans before and after six cycles of E-KRd. Two radiologists independently recorded osteolytic lesion sizes, as well as the presence of cortical destruction, pathologic fractures, rim and trabecular sclerosis. Bland–Altman analyses and Krippendorff’s α were employed to assess inter-reader reliability, which was high for lesion size measurement (standard error 1.2 mm) and all qualitative criteria assessed (α ≥ 0.74). After six cycles of E-KRd induction, osteolytic lesion size decreased by 22% (p < 0.001). While lesion size response did not correlate with the initial lesion size at baseline imaging (Pearson’s r = 0.144), logistic regression analysis revealed that the majority of responding osteolyses exhibited trabecular sclerosis (p < 0.001). The sum of osteolytic lesion sizes on sequential CT scans defines a reliable study endpoint to characterize bone remineralization. Patient level response is strongly associated with the presence of trabecular sclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Multiple Myeloma, Volume II)
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36 pages, 5863 KiB  
Article
Deep Transfer Learning with Enhanced Feature Fusion for Detection of Abnormalities in X-ray Images
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4007; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154007 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Medical image classification poses significant challenges in real-world scenarios. One major obstacle is the scarcity of labelled training data, which hampers the performance of image-classification algorithms and generalisation. Gathering sufficient labelled data is often difficult and time-consuming in the medical domain, but deep [...] Read more.
Medical image classification poses significant challenges in real-world scenarios. One major obstacle is the scarcity of labelled training data, which hampers the performance of image-classification algorithms and generalisation. Gathering sufficient labelled data is often difficult and time-consuming in the medical domain, but deep learning (DL) has shown remarkable performance, although it typically requires a large amount of labelled data to achieve optimal results. Transfer learning (TL) has played a pivotal role in reducing the time, cost, and need for a large number of labelled images. This paper presents a novel TL approach that aims to overcome the limitations and disadvantages of TL that are characteristic of an ImageNet dataset, which belongs to a different domain. Our proposed TL approach involves training DL models on numerous medical images that are similar to the target dataset. These models were then fine-tuned using a small set of annotated medical images to leverage the knowledge gained from the pre-training phase. We specifically focused on medical X-ray imaging scenarios that involve the humerus and wrist from the musculoskeletal radiographs (MURA) dataset. Both of these tasks face significant challenges regarding accurate classification. The models trained with the proposed TL were used to extract features and were subsequently fused to train several machine learning (ML) classifiers. We combined these diverse features to represent various relevant characteristics in a comprehensive way. Through extensive evaluation, our proposed TL and feature-fusion approach using ML classifiers achieved remarkable results. For the classification of the humerus, we achieved an accuracy of 87.85%, an F1-score of 87.63%, and a Cohen’s Kappa coefficient of 75.69%. For wrist classification, our approach achieved an accuracy of 85.58%, an F1-score of 82.70%, and a Cohen’s Kappa coefficient of 70.46%. The results demonstrated that the models trained using our proposed TL approach outperformed those trained with ImageNet TL. We employed visualisation techniques to further validate these findings, including a gradient-based class activation heat map (Grad-CAM) and locally interpretable model-independent explanations (LIME). These visualisation tools provided additional evidence to support the superior accuracy of models trained with our proposed TL approach compared to those trained with ImageNet TL. Furthermore, our proposed TL approach exhibited greater robustness in various experiments compared to ImageNet TL. Importantly, the proposed TL approach and the feature-fusion technique are not limited to specific tasks. They can be applied to various medical image applications, thus extending their utility and potential impact. To demonstrate the concept of reusability, a computed tomography (CT) case was adopted. The results obtained from the proposed method showed improvements. Full article
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17 pages, 4008 KiB  
Article
Α Humanized RANKL Transgenic Mouse Model of Progestin-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis for Evaluation of Novel Therapeutics
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4006; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154006 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is critically involved in mammary gland pathophysiology, while its pharmaceutical inhibition is being currently investigated in breast cancer. Herein, we investigated whether the overexpression of human RANKL in transgenic mice affects hormone-induced mammary carcinogenesis, and evaluated [...] Read more.
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is critically involved in mammary gland pathophysiology, while its pharmaceutical inhibition is being currently investigated in breast cancer. Herein, we investigated whether the overexpression of human RANKL in transgenic mice affects hormone-induced mammary carcinogenesis, and evaluated the efficacy of anti-RANKL treatments, such as OPG-Fc targeting both human and mouse RANKL or Denosumab against human RANKL. We established novel MPA/DMBA-driven mammary carcinogenesis models in TgRANKL mice that express both human and mouse RANKL, as well as in humanized humTgRANKL mice expressing only human RANKL, and compared them to MPA/DMBA-treated wild-type (WT) mice. Our results show that TgRANKL and WT mice have similar levels of susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis, while OPG-Fc treatment restored mammary ductal density, and prevented ductal branching and the formation of neoplastic foci in both genotypes. humTgRANKL mice also developed MPA/DMBA-induced tumors with similar incidence and burden to those of WT and TgRANKL mice. The prophylactic treatment of humTgRANKL mice with Denosumab significantly prevented the rate of appearance of mammary tumors from 86.7% to 15.4% and the early stages of carcinogenesis, whereas therapeutic treatment did not lead to any significant attenuation of tumor incidence or tumor burden compared to control mice, suggesting the importance of RANKL primarily in the initial stages of tumorigenesis. Overall, we provide unique genetic tools for investigating the involvement of RANKL in breast carcinogenesis, and allow the preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutics that target hormone-related breast cancers. Full article
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22 pages, 1618 KiB  
Review
Emerging Role of Epigenetic Modifiers in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Response
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4005; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154005 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Breast cancer pathogenesis, treatment, and patient outcomes are shaped by tumor-intrinsic genomic alterations that divide breast tumors into molecular subtypes. These molecular subtypes often dictate viable therapeutic interventions and, ultimately, patient outcomes. However, heterogeneity in therapeutic response may be a result of underlying [...] Read more.
Breast cancer pathogenesis, treatment, and patient outcomes are shaped by tumor-intrinsic genomic alterations that divide breast tumors into molecular subtypes. These molecular subtypes often dictate viable therapeutic interventions and, ultimately, patient outcomes. However, heterogeneity in therapeutic response may be a result of underlying epigenetic features that may further stratify breast cancer patient outcomes. In this review, we examine non-genetic mechanisms that drive functional changes to chromatin in breast cancer to contribute to cell and tumor fitness and highlight how epigenetic activity may inform the therapeutic response. We conclude by providing perspectives on the future of therapeutic targeting of epigenetic enzymes, an approach that holds untapped potential to improve breast cancer patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Breast Cancer: From Pathophysiology to Prevention and Treatment)
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14 pages, 780 KiB  
Article
Learning Needs of Patients with Cancer and a Pre-Existing Autoimmune Disease Who Are Candidates to Receive Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4004; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154004 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Patients with pre-existing autoimmune disorders and cancer considering immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) need to receive balanced information about the benefits and risk of developing immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and flare-ups of their autoimmune disease. To assess the learning needs of patients with cancer [...] Read more.
Patients with pre-existing autoimmune disorders and cancer considering immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) need to receive balanced information about the benefits and risk of developing immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and flare-ups of their autoimmune disease. To assess the learning needs of patients with cancer and pre-existing autoimmune disease regarding ICI treatment, we interviewed 29 patients with autoimmune disease and cancer from a comprehensive cancer center, of whom 20 had received ICI and 9 were candidates to receive ICI at a US Cancer Center. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted from August 2021 and January 2022. Interviewee’s opinions and preferences about content and information delivery methods were collected. We recorded and transcribed interviews and analyzed them using thematic analysis. Half of the participants were female, and their median (SD) age was 62.9 (±10.9) years. The identified health information needs included the following: (1) information on irAEs and autoimmune disease flare-ups; (2) benefits of ICI; (3) ICI mechanism in the context of autoimmune disease; (4) management of flare-ups; (5) reasons for stopping or modifying cancer or autoimmune disease treatment; (6) likelihood of autoimmune disease progression or organ damage; and (7) lifestyle changes that could help avoid irAEs. Patients who had received ICI and those who had not yet received treatment reported similar needs, although patients who had received ICI had more questions about cancer treatment modifications. Patients also expressed the need to better understand when to contact their provider and how to share information with multiple providers. Most patients wanted to receive information in visual formats for review at home and at their own pace. Patients expressed interest in having educational tools to facilitate shared decision-making with their physicians, and they identified several areas of health information concerning therapy with ICI. They also highlighted the importance of communication among their various providers. Full article
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2 pages, 1193 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Sepe et al. The Long Non-Coding RNA RP5-1024C24.1 and Its Associated-Gene MPPED2 Are Down-Regulated in Human Thyroid Neoplasias and Act as Tumour Suppressors. Cancers 2018, 10, 146
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4003; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154003 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 495
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
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20 pages, 1772 KiB  
Article
Tracking Therapy Response in Glioblastoma Using 1D Convolutional Neural Networks
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4002; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154002 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Background: Glioblastoma (GB) is a malignant brain tumour that is challenging to treat, often relapsing even after aggressive therapy. Evaluating therapy response relies on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria. However, early assessment is hindered by phenomena [...] Read more.
Background: Glioblastoma (GB) is a malignant brain tumour that is challenging to treat, often relapsing even after aggressive therapy. Evaluating therapy response relies on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria. However, early assessment is hindered by phenomena such as pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS/MRSI) provides metabolomics information but is underutilised due to a lack of familiarity and standardisation. Methods: This study explores the potential of spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in combination with several machine learning approaches, including one-dimensional convolutional neural networks (1D-CNNs), to improve therapy response assessment. Preclinical GB (GL261-bearing mice) were studied for method optimisation and validation. Results: The proposed 1D-CNN models successfully identify different regions of tumours sampled by MRSI, i.e., normal brain (N), control/unresponsive tumour (T), and tumour responding to treatment (R). Class activation maps using Grad-CAM enabled the study of the key areas relevant to the models, providing model explainability. The generated colour-coded maps showing the N, T and R regions were highly accurate (according to Dice scores) when compared against ground truth and outperformed our previous method. Conclusions: The proposed methodology may provide new and better opportunities for therapy response assessment, potentially providing earlier hints of tumour relapsing stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision-Support Systems for Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis)
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18 pages, 5362 KiB  
Article
Chemoprevention of Colon Cancer by DFMO, Sulindac, and NO-Sulindac Administered Individually or in Combinations in F344 Rats
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4001; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154001 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are promising colorectal cancer (CRC) chemopreventive drugs; however, to overcome NSAIDs’ associated side effects, there is a need to develop safer and efficacious approaches. The present study was designed to evaluate (i) the efficacy of nitric-oxide releasing (NO)-Sulindac as [...] Read more.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are promising colorectal cancer (CRC) chemopreventive drugs; however, to overcome NSAIDs’ associated side effects, there is a need to develop safer and efficacious approaches. The present study was designed to evaluate (i) the efficacy of nitric-oxide releasing (NO)-Sulindac as compared to Sulindac; (ii) whether NO-Sulindac is superior to Sulindac in enhancing low-dose difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)-induced chemopreventive efficacy, and (iii) assessing the key biomarkers associated with colon tumor inhibition by these combinations. In F344 rats, colonic tumors were induced by azoxymethane (AOM). At the adenoma stage (13 weeks post AOM), groups of rats were fed the experimental diets containing 0 ppm, 500 ppm DFMO, 150 ppm Sulindac, and 200 ppm NO-Sulindac, individually or in combinations, for 36 weeks. Colon tumors were evaluated histopathologically and assayed for expression levels of proliferative, apoptotic, and inflammatory markers. Results suggest that (except for NO-Sulindac alone), DFMO, Sulindac individually, and DFMO combined with Sulindac or NO-Sulindac significantly suppressed AOM-induced adenocarcinoma incidence and multiplicities. DFMO and Sulindac suppressed adenocarcinoma multiplicity by 63% (p < 0.0001) and 51% (p < 0.0011), respectively, whereas NO-Sulindac had a modest effect (22.8%, p = 0.09). Combinations of DFMO plus Sulindac or NO-Sulindac suppressed adenocarcinoma incidence (60%, p < 0.0001; 50% p < 0.0004), and multiplicity (81%, p < 0.0001; 62%, p < 0.0001). Rats that were fed the combination of DFMO plus Sulindac showed significant inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In addition, enhancement of p21, Bax, and caspases; downregulation of Ki-67, VEGF, and β-catenin; and modulation of iNOS, COX-2, and ODC activities in colonic tumors were observed. These observations show that a lower-dose of DFMO and Sulindac significantly enhanced CRC chemopreventive efficacy when compared to NO-Sulindac alone, and the combination of DFMO and NO-Sulindac was modestly efficacious as compared to DFMO alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemoprevention Advances in Cancer)
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10 pages, 2759 KiB  
Article
Irisin Induces Apoptosis in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells and Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vivo
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 4000; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15154000 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in males worldwide, with αVβ5 in-tegrin, a coactivator receptor, being highly expressed in advanced prostate cancer. Irisin, a hormone secreted from skeletal muscles, can reduce cell viability and migration and potentially inhibit αVβ5. Objective: [...] Read more.
Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in males worldwide, with αVβ5 in-tegrin, a coactivator receptor, being highly expressed in advanced prostate cancer. Irisin, a hormone secreted from skeletal muscles, can reduce cell viability and migration and potentially inhibit αVβ5. Objective: This study investigates the potential impact of irisin on prostate cancer cells and its underlying mechanism. Methods: In vitro evaluation of the antiproliferative action of irisin on metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3) cells was tested through MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. An in vivo evaluation of the antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer xenograft was evaluated in nude mice. Results: In vitro evaluations showed that irisin reduced PC-3 cell viability to 70% and increased the Annexin-V/7AAD positive cell population. Irisin altered the expression of apoptotic proteins, αVβ5, and proteins involved in the P13k-Akt pathway. In vivo, irisin inhibited tumor growth and progression, positively affecting animal well-being. In conclusion, irisin has an apoptotic effect on PC-3, possibly through altering αVβ5 and the Bcl2/BAX and P13k-Akt signaling pathway, inhibiting tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings can serve as a foundation for further evaluation of irisin’s role in prostate cancer. Full article
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21 pages, 3446 KiB  
Review
Alternative Splicing Events and Their Clinical Significance in Colorectal Cancer: Targeted Therapeutic Opportunities
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3999; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153999 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks as one of the top causes of cancer mortality worldwide and its incidence is on the rise, particularly in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). There are several factors that contribute to the development and progression of CRC. Alternative splicing (AS) was [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks as one of the top causes of cancer mortality worldwide and its incidence is on the rise, particularly in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). There are several factors that contribute to the development and progression of CRC. Alternative splicing (AS) was found to be one of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of CRC. With the advent of genome/transcriptome sequencing and large patient databases, the broad role of aberrant AS in cancer development and progression has become clear. AS affects cancer initiation, proliferation, invasion, and migration. These splicing changes activate oncogenes or deactivate tumor suppressor genes by producing altered amounts of normally functional or new proteins with different, even opposing, functions. Thus, identifying and characterizing CRC-specific alternative splicing events and variants might help in designing new therapeutic splicing disrupter drugs. CRC-specific splicing events can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In this review, alternatively spliced events and their role in CRC development will be discussed. The paper also reviews recent research on alternatively spliced events that might be exploited as prognostic, diagnostic, and targeted therapeutic indicators. Of particular interest is the targeting of protein arginine methyltransferase (PMRT) isoforms for the development of new treatments and diagnostic tools. The potential challenges and limitations in translating these discoveries into clinical practice will also be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Treatment of Colorectal Cancer)
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12 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis on Metastatic Prostate Cancer with Disease Progression
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3998; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153998 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
The positivity rate of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) next-generation sequencing (NGS) varies among patients with metastatic prostate cancer (mPC), complicating its incorporation into regular practice. This retrospective study analyzed the ctDNA sequencing results of 100 mPC patients from May 2021 to March 2023 [...] Read more.
The positivity rate of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) next-generation sequencing (NGS) varies among patients with metastatic prostate cancer (mPC), complicating its incorporation into regular practice. This retrospective study analyzed the ctDNA sequencing results of 100 mPC patients from May 2021 to March 2023 to identify the factors associated with positive ctDNA. Three custom gene panels were used for sequencing. Overall, 63% of the patients exhibited tier I/II somatic alterations, while 12% had pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline alterations. The key genes that were altered included AR, TP53, RB1, PTEN, and APC. Mutations in BRCA1/2, either germline or somatic, were observed in 21% of the patients. Among the metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients, the ctDNA-positive samples generally showed higher median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and were more likely to be at the radiographic and clinical progressive disease stages, although they were not significantly associated with PSA progression. Our results suggest that ctDNA analysis could detect meaningful genetic changes in mPC patients, especially during disease progression. Full article
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13 pages, 299 KiB  
Review
Tumor Mutational Burden in Breast Cancer: Current Evidence, Challenges, and Opportunities
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3997; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153997 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) correlates with tumor neoantigen burden, T cell infiltration, and response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in many solid tumor types. Based on data from the phase II KEYNOTE-158 study, the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab was granted approval for treating patients with [...] Read more.
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) correlates with tumor neoantigen burden, T cell infiltration, and response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in many solid tumor types. Based on data from the phase II KEYNOTE-158 study, the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab was granted approval for treating patients with advanced solid tumors and TMB ≥ 10 mutations per megabase. However, this trial did not include any patients with metastatic breast cancer; thus, several questions remain unanswered about the true role of TMB as a predictive biomarker of benefit to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in establishing TMB as a predictive biomarker of benefit to immunotherapy in metastatic breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Cancer Biology)
9 pages, 417 KiB  
Article
Surgical Management of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules across Different World Regions: Results from a Retrospective Multicentric (the MAIN-NODE) Study
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3996; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153996 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs) are characterized by an expected malignancy ranging from 5% to 30%, with most patients undergoing a diagnostic, rather than therapeutic, operation. The aim of our study was to compare the approach to ITNs across different regions of the world. [...] Read more.
Indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs) are characterized by an expected malignancy ranging from 5% to 30%, with most patients undergoing a diagnostic, rather than therapeutic, operation. The aim of our study was to compare the approach to ITNs across different regions of the world. In this retrospective, multicentric, international study, according to the WHO classification, we identified the South East Asian Region (SEAR), the Americas Region (AMR), the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), the Europe Region (EUR), and the Western Pacific Region (WPR). One high-volume thyroid centre was included for each region. Demographic, preoperative, and pathologic data were compared among the different regions. Overall, 5737 patients from five high-volume thyroid centres were included in this study. We found that the proportion of ITNs over the global activity for thyroid disease was higher in the EUR (37.6%) than in the other regions (21.1–23.6%). In the EMR, the patients were significantly younger (with a mean of 43.1 years) than in the other regions (range, 48.8–57.4 years). The proportion of lobectomy was significantly higher in the WPR, where 83.2% (114/137) of patients received this treatment, than in the other regions, where lobectomies were performed in 44.1–58.1% of patients. The pathological diagnosis of malignancy was significantly higher in the SEAR centre, being over 60%, than in centres of the other regions, where it ranged from 26.3% to 41.3%. The occurrence of lymph node metastases was higher in the WPR (27.8%), AMR (26.9%), and EMR (20%) centres than in the EUR and SEAR centres, where it was lower than 10%. In summary, we found in our study different approaches and outcomes in the diagnosis and treatment of ITNs among countries. Overall, almost 60% of patients with ITNs who underwent surgery actually presented a benign disease, potentially undergoing an unnecessary operation. Full article
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15 pages, 945 KiB  
Article
Serum Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Markers in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3995; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153995 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
Oxidative stress is believed to be a factor in the development and progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The identification of the oxidative and nitrosative modification of proteins and the definition of their roles in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) may be helpful in [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is believed to be a factor in the development and progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The identification of the oxidative and nitrosative modification of proteins and the definition of their roles in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) may be helpful in the elaboration of targeted therapeutic approaches to mitigate protein damage. This study aimed to investigate the status of oxidative/nitrosative stress and to explore its role in the development and progression. The studied group consisted of 48 newly diagnosed ccRCC and 30 healthy controls. Serum levels of oxidative stress markers—advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), thiol groups, Amadori reaction products, 3-nitrotyrosine, nitrate/nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)—were determined. Additionally, associations between tumour stage assessed according to TNM classification, histological grade, and the effect of the presence of angioinvasion on the level of stress markers were evaluated. The levels of Amadori products, 3-nitrotyrosine, and nitrate/nitrite were elevated, while the levels of thiol groups and TAC decreased in the ccRCC group. The levels of AOPP, Amadori, and 3-nitrotyrosine increased, and thiol groups and TAC levels decreased with the increasing pathological stage of the tumour. In the case of advanced histological assessment of the tumour, we found decreasing levels of thiol groups and increasing levels of MDA. In patients with angioinvasion, nitrate/nitrite and MDA levels were significantly elevated compared to those in patients without angioinvasion. Oxidative stress increased with the progression of the disease assessed according to the TNM and histological grade. These results demonstrate systemic oxidative stress in ccRCC, suggesting the therapeutic application of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Glycobiology)
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10 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Methylene Blue for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis during Head and Neck Cancer Treatment: An Uncontrolled Cohort
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3994; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153994 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Pain from radiation-therapy-induced oral mucositis during head-neck cancer treatment is aggravated by concurrent chemotherapy and commonly fails traditional treatments. To explore safe and sustainable alternatives, we investigated methylene blue oral rinse to reduce radiation-therapy-related oral mucositis pain. For this, we conducted a retrospective [...] Read more.
Pain from radiation-therapy-induced oral mucositis during head-neck cancer treatment is aggravated by concurrent chemotherapy and commonly fails traditional treatments. To explore safe and sustainable alternatives, we investigated methylene blue oral rinse to reduce radiation-therapy-related oral mucositis pain. For this, we conducted a retrospective observational cohort study in a tertiary-care academic care cancer center including 85 patients with refractory oral mucositis pain during radiation therapy for head-neck cancer. Changes in pain (scale 0–10), oral function burden (scale 0–6) and requirement for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement were measured. Among 58 patients, 60% received radiation therapy alone and 40% received concurrent chemotherapy-radiation therapy. Methylene blue oral rinse (MBOR) significantly decreased oral mucositis pain for at least 6.2 h (median + SD 8 ± 1.68 before vs. 2 ± 2.20 after; p < 0.0001) and oral function burden (3.5 ± 1.33 before vs. 0 ± 0.86 after; p < 0.0001). Eleven patients (19%) had percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes placed before using methylene blue oral rinse; subsequently, four (36%) resumed oral alimentation after methylene blue oral rinse. Two patients (3%) required percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes despite methylene blue oral rinse. Minimal adverse events were reported (n = 9, 15%). Our study showed that methylene blue oral rinse was an effective and safe topical treatment for opioid-refractory oral pain from oral mucositis associated with radiation therapy for head-neck cancer. Full article
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17 pages, 2288 KiB  
Review
New Era of Immune-Based Therapy in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3993; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153993 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) accounts for approximately 20% of all biliary tract cancer (BTC) cases and 10–15% of all primary liver cancer cases. Many patients are diagnosed with unresectable BTC, and, even among patients with resectable BTC, the 5-year survival rate is approximately 20%. [...] Read more.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) accounts for approximately 20% of all biliary tract cancer (BTC) cases and 10–15% of all primary liver cancer cases. Many patients are diagnosed with unresectable BTC, and, even among patients with resectable BTC, the 5-year survival rate is approximately 20%. The BTC incidence rate is high in Southeast and East Asia and has increased worldwide in recent years. Since 2010, cytotoxic chemotherapy, particularly combination gemcitabine + cisplatin (ABC-02 trial), has been the first-line therapy for patients with BTC. In 2022, a multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase 3 trial (TOPAZ-1 trial) examined the addition of programmed death-ligand 1 immunotherapy (durvalumab) to combination gemcitabine + cisplatin for BTC treatment, resulting in significantly improved survival without notable additional toxicity. As a result of this trial, this three-drug combination has become the new standard first-line therapy, leading to notable advances in BTC management for the first time since 2010. The molecular profiling of BTC has continued to drive the development of new targeted therapies for use when first-line therapies fail. Typically, second-line therapy decisions are based on identified genomic alterations in tumor tissue. Mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1/2/3, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2, and neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase A/B/C are relatively frequent in intrahepatic CC, and precision medicines are available that can target associated pathways. In this review, we suggest strategies for systemic pharmacotherapy with a focus on intrahepatic CC, in addition to presenting the results and safety outcomes of clinical trials evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies in BTC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Primary Liver Cancer)
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11 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Adverse Effects of Neck Radiotherapy in Childhood on the Carotid Arteries in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3992; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153992 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Introduction: Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma are recognized to have an increased risk of stroke and carotid artery disease owing to neck irradiation (RT). However, it remains unclear whether the vascular modifications induced by the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma during childhood persist over the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma are recognized to have an increased risk of stroke and carotid artery disease owing to neck irradiation (RT). However, it remains unclear whether the vascular modifications induced by the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma during childhood persist over the long term. Methods: Our matched study involved 79 survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood who received neck RT and 57 healthy controls. Parameters of arterial stiffness (AS), intima-media thickness (IMT), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of carotid arteries were assessed using ultrasound. Results: Our patient cohort demonstrated a significant increase in AS compared to controls (p < 0.05), though no such disparity was observed for FMD (p = 0.111). Neck RT intensified AS (B = 0.037, p = 0.000), while anthracyclines attenuated it (B = −0.803, p = 0.000). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between neck RT (p < 0.001) and AS. However, we found no significant association between neck RT and FMD (p = 0.277). We identified a substantial positive correlation between the dose of neck RT and AS. Conclusions: Vascular changes in survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma after neck RT seem to be long-term. Therefore, these patients may have an increased risk of stroke. We suggest refinement of international guidelines according to our results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Oncology)
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19 pages, 21644 KiB  
Article
Efficient Convolution Network to Assist Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Target Therapy
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3991; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153991 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide, and early detection and treatment has been shown to significantly reduce fatality rates from severe illness. Moreover, determination of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) gene amplification by Fluorescence in [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide, and early detection and treatment has been shown to significantly reduce fatality rates from severe illness. Moreover, determination of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) gene amplification by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Dual in situ hybridization (DISH) is critical for the selection of appropriate breast cancer patients for HER2-targeted therapy. However, visual examination of microscopy is time-consuming, subjective and poorly reproducible due to high inter-observer variability among pathologists and cytopathologists. The lack of consistency in identifying carcinoma-like nuclei has led to divergences in the calculation of sensitivity and specificity. This manuscript introduces a highly efficient deep learning method with low computing cost. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed framework achieves high precision and recall on three essential clinical applications, including breast cancer diagnosis and human epidermal receptor factor 2 (HER2) amplification detection on FISH and DISH slides for HER2 target therapy. Furthermore, the proposed method outperforms the majority of the benchmark methods in terms of IoU by a significant margin (p<0.001) on three essential clinical applications. Importantly, run time analysis shows that the proposed method obtains excellent segmentation results with notably reduced time for Artificial intelligence (AI) training (16.93%), AI inference (17.25%) and memory usage (18.52%), making the proposed framework feasible for practical clinical usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Pathology for Breast Cancer and Gynecologic Cancer)
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11 pages, 549 KiB  
Article
Race and Ethnicity Impacts Overall Survival of Patients with Appendiceal Cancer Who Undergo Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3990; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153990 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Appendiceal cancer treatment may include cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC). We investigated whether patient race/ethnicity influences outcomes and overall survival for patients with appendiceal cancer who undergo CRS/HIPEC. We queried the National Cancer Database for adult patients with appendiceal cancer treated [...] Read more.
Appendiceal cancer treatment may include cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC). We investigated whether patient race/ethnicity influences outcomes and overall survival for patients with appendiceal cancer who undergo CRS/HIPEC. We queried the National Cancer Database for adult patients with appendiceal cancer treated with CRS/HIPEC from 2006 to 2018. Patients were stratified by race/ethnicity: non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic, and Other. Sociodemographics and outcomes were compared using descriptive statistics. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Log-rank tests assessed differences in overall survival (OS). Cox Multivariate Regression evaluated factors associated with OS. In total, 2532 patients were identified: 2098 (82.9%) NHW, 186 (7.3%) NHB, 127 (5.0%) Hispanic, and 121 (4.8%) Other patients. The sociodemographics were statistically different across groups. The perioperative and postoperative outcomes were similar. OS was significantly different by race/ethnicity (p = 0.0029). NHB patients compared to Hispanic patients had the shortest median OS (106.7 vs. 145.9 months, p = 0.0093). Race/ethnicity was independently associated with OS: NHB (HR: 2.117 [1.306, 3.431], p = 0.0023) and NHW (HR: 1.549 [1.007, 2.383], p = 0.0463) patients compared to Hispanic patients had worse survival rates. Racial/ethnic disparities exist for patients with appendiceal cancer undergoing CRS/HIPEC. Despite having similar tumor and treatment characteristics, OS is associated with patient race/ethnicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Cancer Disparities)
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16 pages, 1425 KiB  
Article
Topographical and Chronological Analysis of Thin Cutaneous Melanoma’s Progressions: A Multicentric Study
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3989; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153989 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
A great portion of cutaneous melanoma’s diagnoses nowadays is attributed to thin tumors with up to 1 mm in Breslow thickness (hereafter thin CMs), which occasionally metastasize. The objective of this study was to identify thin CM’s metastatic patterns from a topographical and [...] Read more.
A great portion of cutaneous melanoma’s diagnoses nowadays is attributed to thin tumors with up to 1 mm in Breslow thickness (hereafter thin CMs), which occasionally metastasize. The objective of this study was to identify thin CM’s metastatic patterns from a topographical and chronological standpoint. A total of 204 cases of metastatic thin CMs from five specialized centers were included in the study, and corresponding data were collected (clinical, epidemiological, histopathological information of primary tumor and the number, anatomical site, and time intervals of their progressions). First progressions occurred locally, in regional lymph nodes, and in a distant site in 24%, 15% and 61% of cases, respectively, with a median time to first progression of 3.10 years (IQR: 1.09–5.24). The median elapsed time between the first and second progression and between the second and third progression was 0.82 (IQR: 0.34–1.97) and 0.49 (IQR: 0.21–2.30) years, respectively, while the median survival time was about 4 years since first progression. Furthermore, the sequences of locations and time intervals of the progressions were associated with the clinicopathological and demographic features of the primary tumors along with the features of the preceding progressions. In conclusion, the findings of this study describe the natural history of thin CMs, thus highlighting the necessity to identify subgroups of thin CMs at a higher risk for metastasis and contributing to the optimization of the management and follow-up of thin CM patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prognosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
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11 pages, 1606 KiB  
Review
Early-Stage HCC Percutaneous Locoregional Management: East versus West Perspectives
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3988; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153988 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 941
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma represents an important cause of death worldwide. Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma patients not suitable for surgery can be treated with a variety of minimally invasive locoregional interventional oncology techniques. Various guidelines in different countries address the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma represents an important cause of death worldwide. Early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma patients not suitable for surgery can be treated with a variety of minimally invasive locoregional interventional oncology techniques. Various guidelines in different countries address the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the actual treatment is usually discussed by a multidisciplinary tumor board in a personalized manner, leading to potential treatment differences based on Western and Eastern perspectives. The aim of this paper is to integrate literature evidence with the eminent experiences collected during a focused session at the Mediterranean Interventional Oncology (MIO) Live Congress 2023. Full article
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14 pages, 5139 KiB  
Article
Cannabidiol Enhances Cabozantinib-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death via Phosphorylation of p53 Regulated by ER Stress in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3987; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153987 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD), a primary constituent in hemp and cannabis, exerts broad pharmacological effects against various diseases, including cancer. Additionally, cabozantinib, a potent multi-kinase inhibitor, has been approved for treating patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, there has been an increase in research [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol (CBD), a primary constituent in hemp and cannabis, exerts broad pharmacological effects against various diseases, including cancer. Additionally, cabozantinib, a potent multi-kinase inhibitor, has been approved for treating patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, there has been an increase in research on combination therapy using cabozantinib to improve efficacy and safety when treating patients. Here, we investigated the effect of a combination treatment of cabozantinib and CBD on HCC cells. CBD treatment enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to cabozantinib-mediated anti-cancer activity by increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Phospho-kinase array analysis demonstrated that the apoptotic effect of the combination treatment was mainly related to p53 phosphorylation regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress when compared to other kinases. The inhibition of p53 expression and ER stress suppressed the apoptotic effect of the combination treatment, revealing no changes in the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, or cleaved caspase-9. Notably, the effect of the combination treatment was not associated with cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and the CNR2 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of cabozantinib and CBD provides therapeutic efficacy against HCC. Full article
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15 pages, 4850 KiB  
Article
Plasma Exosome Proteins ILK1 and CD14 Correlated with Organ-Specific Metastasis in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3986; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153986 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
The exosome plays important roles in driving tumor metastasis, while the role of exosome proteins during organ-specific metastasis in gastric cancer has not been fully understood. To address this question, peripheral blood samples from 12 AGC patients with organ-specific metastasis, including distant lymphatic, [...] Read more.
The exosome plays important roles in driving tumor metastasis, while the role of exosome proteins during organ-specific metastasis in gastric cancer has not been fully understood. To address this question, peripheral blood samples from 12 AGC patients with organ-specific metastasis, including distant lymphatic, hepatic and peritoneal metastasis, were collected to purify exosomes and to detect exosome proteins by Nano-HPLC–MS/MS. Gastric cancer cell lines were used for in vitro experiments. Peripheral blood sample and ascites sample from one patient were further analyzed by single-cell RNA sequencing. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed different expression proteins of hepatic metastasis were correlated with lipid metabolism. For peritoneal metastasis, actin cytoskeleton regulation and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis could be enriched. ILK1 and CD14 were correlated with hepatic and peritoneal metastasis, respectively. Overexpression of CD14 and ILK1 impacted the colony formation ability of gastric cancer and increased expression of Vimentin. CD14 derived from immune cells in malignant ascites correlated with high activation of chemokine- and cytokine-mediated signaling pathways. In summary, biological functions of plasma exosome proteins among AGC patients with different metastatic modes were distinct, in which ILK1 and CD14 were correlated with organ-specific metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Pathway in Gastrointestinal Cancer)
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18 pages, 6029 KiB  
Article
Optimisation of Sample Preparation from Primary Mouse Tissue to Maintain RNA Integrity for Methods Examining Translational Control
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3985; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153985 - 05 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1303
Abstract
The protein output of different mRNAs can vary by two orders of magnitude; therefore, it is critical to understand the processes that control gene expression operating at the level of translation. Translatome-wide techniques, such as polysome profiling and ribosome profiling, are key methods [...] Read more.
The protein output of different mRNAs can vary by two orders of magnitude; therefore, it is critical to understand the processes that control gene expression operating at the level of translation. Translatome-wide techniques, such as polysome profiling and ribosome profiling, are key methods for determining the translation rates occurring on specific mRNAs. These techniques are now widely used in cell lines; however, they are underutilised in tissues and cancer models. Ribonuclease (RNase) expression is often found to be higher in complex primary tissues in comparison to cell lines. Methods used to preserve RNA during lysis often use denaturing conditions, which need to be avoided when maintaining the interaction and position of the ribosome with the mRNA is required. Here, we detail the cell lysis conditions that produce high-quality RNA from several different tissues covering a range of endogenous RNase expression levels. We highlight the importance of RNA integrity for accurate determination of the global translation status of the cell as determined by polysome gradients and discuss key aspects to optimise for accurate assessment of the translatome from primary mouse tissue. Full article
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9 pages, 868 KiB  
Article
Clinical Relevance of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW) in Endometrial Cancer: A Retrospective Single-Center Experience from Korea
Cancers 2023, 15(15), 3984; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15153984 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Background: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a standard parameter of complete blood count and indicates the variability in red blood cell size. This study aimed to determine whether preoperative RDW can be used to predict the recurrence and prognosis of endometrial [...] Read more.
Background: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a standard parameter of complete blood count and indicates the variability in red blood cell size. This study aimed to determine whether preoperative RDW can be used to predict the recurrence and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma. Methods: The medical records of 431 patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed between May 2006 and June 2018. In addition to RDW, the clinicopathological factors, survival curves, and prognoses of the patients with endometrial carcinoma were compared between the high (n = 213) and low (n = 218) groups according to the median RDW value (12.8%). Results: The patients with high RDW had significantly advanced-stage (p = 0.00) pelvic lymph node metastasis (p = 0.01) and recurrence (p = 0.01) compared to those in the low-RDW group. In univariate analysis with DFS as the endpoint, surgical stage, type II histology, grade, RDW, and lymph node metastasis were independently associated with survival. Patients with high RDW values had significantly shorter disease-free survival and overall survival than those with low RDW values (log-rank p = 0.03, log-rank p = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that RDW is a simple and convenient indicator of endometrial carcinoma recurrence. Prospective studies are needed to validate the findings of the current study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cancer)
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