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Review

The Effect of Dietary Interventions on Hypertriglyceridemia: From Public Health to Molecular Nutrition Evidence

1
Doctorado en Ciencias de la Nutrición Traslacional, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud (CUCS), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG), Guadalajara 44340, Jalisco, Mexico
2
Instituto de Nutrigenética y Nutrigenómica Traslacional, CUCS, UdeG, Guadalajara 44340, Jalisco, Mexico
3
Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, CUCS, UdeG, Guadalajara 44340, Jalisco, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Spyridon N. Karras
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051104
Received: 31 January 2022 / Revised: 26 February 2022 / Accepted: 3 March 2022 / Published: 5 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Triglycerides and Triglyceride Metabolism in Human Health)
Approximately 25–50% of the population worldwide exhibits serum triglycerides (TG) (≥150 mg/dL) which are associated with an increased level of highly atherogenic remnant-like particles, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis risk. High serum TG levels could be related to cardiovascular disease, which is the most prevalent cause of mortality in Western countries. The etiology of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is multifactorial and can be classified as primary and secondary causes. Among the primary causes are genetic disorders. On the other hand, secondary causes of HTG comprise lifestyle factors, medical conditions, and drugs. Among lifestyle changes, adequate diets and nutrition are the initial steps to treat and prevent serum lipid alterations. Dietary intervention for HTG is recommended in order to modify the amount of macronutrients. Macronutrient distribution changes such as fat or protein, low-carbohydrate diets, and caloric restriction seem to be effective strategies in reducing TG levels. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet is the dietary pattern with the most consistent evidence for efficacy in HTG while the use of omega-3 supplements consumption is the dietary component with the highest number of randomized clinical trials (RCT) carried out with effective results on reducing TG. The aim of this review was to provide a better comprehension between human nutrition and lipid metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary interventions; triglycerides; hypertriglyceridemia; clinical trial; molecular nutrition dietary interventions; triglycerides; hypertriglyceridemia; clinical trial; molecular nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Luna-Castillo, K.P.; Olivares-Ochoa, X.C.; Hernández-Ruiz, R.G.; Llamas-Covarrubias, I.M.; Rodríguez-Reyes, S.C.; Betancourt-Núñez, A.; Vizmanos, B.; Martínez-López, E.; Muñoz-Valle, J.F.; Márquez-Sandoval, F.; López-Quintero, A. The Effect of Dietary Interventions on Hypertriglyceridemia: From Public Health to Molecular Nutrition Evidence. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051104

AMA Style

Luna-Castillo KP, Olivares-Ochoa XC, Hernández-Ruiz RG, Llamas-Covarrubias IM, Rodríguez-Reyes SC, Betancourt-Núñez A, Vizmanos B, Martínez-López E, Muñoz-Valle JF, Márquez-Sandoval F, López-Quintero A. The Effect of Dietary Interventions on Hypertriglyceridemia: From Public Health to Molecular Nutrition Evidence. Nutrients. 2022; 14(5):1104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051104

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luna-Castillo, Karla P., Xochitl C. Olivares-Ochoa, Rocío G. Hernández-Ruiz, Iris M. Llamas-Covarrubias, Saraí C. Rodríguez-Reyes, Alejandra Betancourt-Núñez, Barbara Vizmanos, Erika Martínez-López, José F. Muñoz-Valle, Fabiola Márquez-Sandoval, and Andres López-Quintero. 2022. "The Effect of Dietary Interventions on Hypertriglyceridemia: From Public Health to Molecular Nutrition Evidence" Nutrients 14, no. 5: 1104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051104

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