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Remote Sens., Volume 15, Issue 14 (July-2 2023) – 246 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper proposes a UAV-based computer vision framework for individual tree detection and health assessment. The proposed approach involves a two-stage process. Firstly, we propose a tree detection model by employing a hard negative mining strategy using RGB UAV images. Subsequently, we address the health classification problem by leveraging multi-band imagery-derived vegetation indices. The proposed framework achieves an F1-score of 86.24% for tree detection and an overall accuracy of 97.52% for the tree health assessment. This study demonstrates the robustness of the proposed framework in accurately assessing orchard tree health from UAV images. Moreover, the proposed approach holds potential for application in various other plantation settings, enabling plant detection and health assessments using UAV imagery. View this paper
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18 pages, 5793 KiB  
Technical Note
Spatially Variant Error Elimination for High-Resolution UAV SAR with Extremely Small Incident Angle
by Xintian Zhang, Shiyang Tang, Yi Ren, Jiahao Han, Chenghao Jiang, Juan Zhang, Yinan Li, Tong Jiang and Qi Dong
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3700; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143700 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is susceptible to atmospheric disturbance and other factors that cause the position offset error of the antenna phase center and motion error. In close-range detection scenarios, the large elevation angle may make it impossible to directly observe areas [...] Read more.
Airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is susceptible to atmospheric disturbance and other factors that cause the position offset error of the antenna phase center and motion error. In close-range detection scenarios, the large elevation angle may make it impossible to directly observe areas near the underlying plane, resulting in observation blind spots. In cases where the illumination elevation angle is extremely large, the influence of range variant envelope error and phase modulations becomes more serious, and traditional two-step motion compensation (MOCO) methods may fail to provide accurate imaging. In addition, conventional phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithms suffer from reduced performance in scenes with few strong scattering points. To address these practical challenges, we propose an improved phase-weighted estimation PGA algorithm that analyzes the motion error of UAV SAR under a large elevation angle, providing a solution for high-order range variant motion error. Based on this algorithm, we introduce a combined focusing method that applies a threshold value for selection and optimization. Unlike traditional MOCO methods, our proposed method can more accurately compensate for spatially variant motion error in the case of scenes with few strong scattering points, indicating its wider applicability. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is verified by simulation and real data experimental results. Full article
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21 pages, 5570 KiB  
Article
Integrated Node Infrastructure for Future Smart City Sensing and Response
by Dong Chen, Xiang Zhang, Wei Zhang and Xing Yin
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3699; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143699 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Emerging smart cities and digital twins are currently built from heterogenous cutting-edge low-power remote sensing systems limited by diverse inefficient communication and information technologies. Future smart cities delivering time-critical services and responses must transition towards utilizing massive numbers of sensors and more efficient [...] Read more.
Emerging smart cities and digital twins are currently built from heterogenous cutting-edge low-power remote sensing systems limited by diverse inefficient communication and information technologies. Future smart cities delivering time-critical services and responses must transition towards utilizing massive numbers of sensors and more efficient integrated systems that rapidly communicate intelligent self-adaptation for collaborative operations. Here, we propose a critical futuristic integrated communication element named City Sensing Base Station (CSBS), inspired by base stations for cell phones that address similar concerns. A CSBS is designed to handle massive volumes of heterogeneous observation data that currently need to be upgraded by middleware or registered. It also provides predictive and interpolation modelling for the control of sensors and response units such as emergency services and drones. A prototype of CSBS demonstrated that it could unify readily available heterogeneous sensing devices, including surveillance video, unmanned aerial vehicles, and ground sensor webs. Collaborative observation capability was also realized by integrating different object detection sources using advanced computer-vision technologies. Experiments with a traffic accident and water pipeline emergency showed sensing and intelligent analyses were greatly improved. CSBS also significantly reduced redundant Internet connections while maintaining high efficiency. This innovation successfully integrates high-density, high-diversity, and high-precision sensing in a distributed way for the future digital twin of cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GeoAI and EO Big Data Driven Advances in Earth Environmental Science)
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25 pages, 14012 KiB  
Article
Despeckling of SAR Images Using Residual Twin CNN and Multi-Resolution Attention Mechanism
by Blaž Pongrac and Dušan Gleich
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3698; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143698 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The despeckling of synthetic aperture radar images using two different convolutional neural network architectures is presented in this paper. The first method presents a novel Siamese convolutional neural network with a dilated convolutional network in each branch. Recently, attention mechanisms have been introduced [...] Read more.
The despeckling of synthetic aperture radar images using two different convolutional neural network architectures is presented in this paper. The first method presents a novel Siamese convolutional neural network with a dilated convolutional network in each branch. Recently, attention mechanisms have been introduced to convolutional networks to better model and recognize features. Therefore, we propose a novel design for a convolutional neural network using an attention mechanism for an encoder–decoder-type network. The framework consists of a multiscale spatial attention network to improve the modeling of semantic information at different spatial levels and an additional attention mechanism to optimize feature propagation. Both proposed methods are different in design but they provide comparable despeckling results in subjective and objective measurements in terms of correlated speckle noise. The experimental results are evaluated on both synthetically generated speckled images and real SAR images. The methods proposed in this paper are able to despeckle SAR images and preserve SAR features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in SAR Image Despeckling)
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21 pages, 5993 KiB  
Article
Locality Preserving Property Constrained Contrastive Learning for Object Classification in SAR Imagery
by Jing Wang, Sirui Tian, Xiaolin Feng, Bo Zhang, Fan Wu, Hong Zhang and Chao Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3697; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143697 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Robust unsupervised feature learning is a critical yet tough task for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) with limited labeled data. The developing contrastive self-supervised learning (CSL) method, which learns informative representations by solving an instance discrimination task, provides a novel [...] Read more.
Robust unsupervised feature learning is a critical yet tough task for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) with limited labeled data. The developing contrastive self-supervised learning (CSL) method, which learns informative representations by solving an instance discrimination task, provides a novel method for learning discriminative features from unlabeled SAR images. However, the instance-level contrastive loss can magnify the differences between samples belonging to the same class in the latent feature space. Therefore, CSL can dispel these targets from the same class and affect the downstream classification tasks. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a novel framework called locality preserving property constrained contrastive learning (LPPCL), which not only learns informative representations of data but also preserves the local similarity property in the latent feature space. In LPPCL, the traditional InfoNCE loss of the CSL models is reformulated in a cross-entropy form where the local similarity of the original data is embedded as pseudo labels. Furthermore, the traditional two-branch CSL architecture is extended to a multi-branch structure, improving the robustness of models trained with limited batch sizes and samples. Finally, the self-attentive pooling module is used to replace the global average pooling layer that is commonly used in most of the standard encoders, which provides an adaptive method for retaining information that benefits downstream tasks during the pooling procedure and significantly improves the performance of the model. Validation and ablation experiments using MSTAR datasets found that the proposed framework outperformed the classic CSL method and achieved state-of-the-art (SOTA) results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SAR-Based Signal Processing and Target Recognition)
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14 pages, 24765 KiB  
Communication
Sea Surface Chlorophyll-a Concentration Retrieval from HY-1C Satellite Data Based on Residual Network
by Guiying Yang, Xiaomin Ye, Qing Xu, Xiaobin Yin and Siyang Xu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3696; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143696 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
A residual network (ResNet) model was proposed for estimating Chl-a concentrations in global oceans from the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) observed by the Chinese ocean color and temperature scanner (COCTS) onboard the HY-1C satellite. A total of 52 images from September [...] Read more.
A residual network (ResNet) model was proposed for estimating Chl-a concentrations in global oceans from the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) observed by the Chinese ocean color and temperature scanner (COCTS) onboard the HY-1C satellite. A total of 52 images from September 2018 to September 2019 were collected, and the label data were from the multi-task Ocean Color-Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) daily products. The results of feature selection and sensitivity experiments show that the logarithmic values of Rrs565 and Rrs520/Rrs443, Rrs565/Rrs490, Rrs520/Rrs490, Rrs490/Rrs443, and Rrs670/Rrs565 are the optimal input parameters for the model. Compared with the classical empirical OC4 algorithm and other machine learning models, including the artificial neural network (ANN), deep neural network (DNN), and random forest (RF), the ResNet retrievals are in better agreement with the OC-CCI Chl-a products. The root-mean-square error (RMSE), unbiased percentage difference (UPD), and correlation coefficient (logarithmic, R(log)) are 0.13 mg/m3, 17.31%, and 0.97, respectively. The performance of the ResNet model was also evaluated against in situ measurements from the Aerosol Robotic Network-Ocean Color (AERONET-OC) and field survey observations in the East and South China Seas. Compared with DNN, ANN, RF, and OC4 models, the UPD is reduced by 5.9%, 0.7%, 6.8%, and 6.3%, respectively. Full article
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17 pages, 5422 KiB  
Article
Improving the Accuracy of TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model Using Least Squares Collocation Method
by Xingdong Shen, Cui Zhou and Jianjun Zhu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3695; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143695 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
The TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is limited by the radar side-view imaging mode, which still has gaps and anomalies that directly affect the application potential of the data. Many methods have been used to improve the accuracy of TanDEM-X DEM, but these [...] Read more.
The TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is limited by the radar side-view imaging mode, which still has gaps and anomalies that directly affect the application potential of the data. Many methods have been used to improve the accuracy of TanDEM-X DEM, but these algorithms primarily focus on eliminating systematic errors trending over a large area in the DEM, rather than random errors. Therefore, this paper presents the least-squares collocation-based error correction algorithm (LSC-TXC) for TanDEM-X DEM, which effectively eliminates both systematic and random errors, to enhance the accuracy of TanDEM-X DEM. The experimental results demonstrate that TanDEM-X DEM corrected by the LSC-TXC algorithm reduces the root mean square error (RMSE) from 6.141 m to 3.851 m, resulting in a significant improvement in accuracy (by 37.3%). Compared to three conventional algorithms, namely Random Forest, Height Difference Fitting Neural Network and Back Propagation in Neural Network, the presented algorithm demonstrates a reduction in the RMSEs of the corrected TanDEM-X DEMs by 6.5%, 7.6%, and 18.1%, respectively. This algorithm provides an efficient tool for correcting DEMs such as TanDEM-X for a wide range of areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Data Fusion and Applications)
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22 pages, 7826 KiB  
Article
An Improved VMD-LSTM Model for Time-Varying GNSS Time Series Prediction with Temporally Correlated Noise
by Hongkang Chen, Tieding Lu, Jiahui Huang, Xiaoxing He, Kegen Yu, Xiwen Sun, Xiaping Ma and Zhengkai Huang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3694; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143694 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
GNSS time series prediction plays a significant role in monitoring crustal plate motion, landslide detection, and the maintenance of the global coordinate framework. Long short-term memory (LSTM) is a deep learning model that has been widely applied in the field of high-precision time [...] Read more.
GNSS time series prediction plays a significant role in monitoring crustal plate motion, landslide detection, and the maintenance of the global coordinate framework. Long short-term memory (LSTM) is a deep learning model that has been widely applied in the field of high-precision time series prediction and is often combined with Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) to form the VMD-LSTM hybrid model. To further improve the prediction accuracy of the VMD-LSTM model, this paper proposes a dual variational modal decomposition long short-term memory (DVMD-LSTM) model to effectively handle noise in GNSS time series prediction. This model extracts fluctuation features from the residual terms obtained after VMD decomposition to reduce the prediction errors associated with residual terms in the VMD-LSTM model. Daily E, N, and U coordinate data recorded at multiple GNSS stations between 2000 and 2022 were used to validate the performance of the proposed DVMD-LSTM model. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the VMD-LSTM model, the DVMD-LSTM model achieves significant improvements in prediction performance across all measurement stations. The average RMSE is reduced by 9.86% and the average MAE is reduced by 9.44%; moreover, the average R2 increased by 17.97%. Furthermore, the average accuracy of the optimal noise model for the predicted results is improved by 36.50%, and the average velocity accuracy of the predicted results is enhanced by 33.02%. These findings collectively attest to the superior predictive capabilities of the DVMD-LSTM model, thereby demonstrating the reliability of the predicted results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in GNSS for Time Series Analysis)
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23 pages, 16640 KiB  
Article
A Super-Resolution Algorithm Based on Hybrid Network for Multi-Channel Remote Sensing Images
by Zhen Li, Wenjuan Zhang, Jie Pan, Ruiqi Sun and Lingyu Sha
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143693 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
In recent years, the development of super-resolution (SR) algorithms based on convolutional neural networks has become an important topic in enhancing the resolution of multi-channel remote sensing images. However, most of the existing SR models suffer from the insufficient utilization of spectral information, [...] Read more.
In recent years, the development of super-resolution (SR) algorithms based on convolutional neural networks has become an important topic in enhancing the resolution of multi-channel remote sensing images. However, most of the existing SR models suffer from the insufficient utilization of spectral information, limiting their SR performance. Here, we derive a novel hybrid SR network (HSRN) which facilitates the acquisition of joint spatial–spectral information to enhance the spatial resolution of multi-channel remote sensing images. The main contributions of this paper are three-fold: (1) in order to sufficiently extract the spatial–spectral information of multi-channel remote sensing images, we designed a hybrid three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) convolution module which can distill the nonlinear spectral and spatial information simultaneously; (2) to enhance the discriminative learning ability, we designed the attention structure, including channel attention, before the upsampling block and spatial attention after the upsampling block, to weigh and rescale the spectral and spatial features; and (3) to acquire fine quality and clear texture for reconstructed SR images, we introduced a multi-scale structural similarity index into our loss function to constrain the HSRN model. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons were carried out in comparison with other SR methods on public remote sensing datasets. It is demonstrated that our HSRN outperforms state-of-the-art methods on multi-channel remote sensing images. Full article
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27 pages, 8386 KiB  
Article
Towards a Guideline for UAV-Based Data Acquisition for Geomorphic Applications
by Dipro Sarkar, Rajiv Sinha and Bodo Bookhagen
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3692; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143692 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Recent years have seen a rapid rise in the generation of high-resolution topographic data using custom-built or commercial-grade Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Though several studies have demonstrated the application potential of UAV data, significant knowledge gaps still exist in terms of proper documentation [...] Read more.
Recent years have seen a rapid rise in the generation of high-resolution topographic data using custom-built or commercial-grade Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Though several studies have demonstrated the application potential of UAV data, significant knowledge gaps still exist in terms of proper documentation of protocols for data acquisition, post-flight data processing, error assessments, and their mitigation. This work documents and provides guidelines for UAV data acquisition and processing from several years of field experience in diverse geomorphic settings across India, including undulating topography (~17 km2), alluvial plains (~142 km2), lowland-river basin (~66 km2), and a highly urbanized area (~5 km2). A total of 37,065 images with 16 and 20 Megapixels and 604 ground control points (GCPs) were captured with multiple UAV systems and processed to generate point clouds for a total area of ~230 km2. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for each GCP for all sites ranged from 6.41 cm to 36.54 cm. This manuscript documents a comprehensive guideline for (a) pre-field flight planning and data acquisition, (b) generation and removal of noise and errors of the point cloud, and (c) generation of orthoimages and digital elevation models. We demonstrate that a well-distributed and not necessarily uniformly distributed GCP placement can significantly reduce doming error and other artifacts. We emphasize the need for using separate camera calibration parameters for each flight and demonstrate that errors in camera calibration can significantly impact the accuracy of the point cloud. Accordingly, we have evaluated the stability of lens calibration parameters between consumer-grade and professional cameras and have suggested measures for noise removal in the point cloud data. We have also identified and analyzed various errors during point cloud processing. These include systematic doming errors, errors during orthoimage and DEM generation, and errors related to water bodies. Mitigation strategies for various errors have also been discussed. Finally, we have assessed the accuracy of our point cloud data for different geomorphic settings. We concluded that the accuracy is influenced by Ground Sampling Distance (GSD), topographic features, and the placement, density, and distribution of GCPs. This guideline presented in this paper can be extremely beneficial to both experienced long-term users and newcomers for planning the UAV-based topographic survey and processing the data acquired. Full article
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1 pages, 161 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Lei et al. Three-Dimensional Surface Deformation Characteristics Based on Time Series InSAR and GPS Technologies in Beijing, China. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 3964
by Kunchao Lei, Fengshan Ma, Beibei Chen, Yong Luo, Wenjun Cui, Yi Zhou, He Liu and Te Sha
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143691 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 590
Abstract
In the published article [...] Full article
17 pages, 6554 KiB  
Article
Biophysical Variable Retrieval of Silage Maize with Gaussian Process Regression and Hyperparameter Optimization Algorithms
by Elahe Akbari, Ali Darvishi Boloorani, Jochem Verrelst, Stefano Pignatti, Najmeh Neysani Samany, Saeid Soufizadeh and Saeid Hamzeh
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3690; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143690 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Quantification of vegetation biophysical variables such as leaf area index (LAI), fractional vegetation cover (fCover), and biomass are among the key factors across hydrological, agricultural, and irrigation management studies. The present study proposes a kernel-based machine learning algorithm capable of performing adaptive and [...] Read more.
Quantification of vegetation biophysical variables such as leaf area index (LAI), fractional vegetation cover (fCover), and biomass are among the key factors across hydrological, agricultural, and irrigation management studies. The present study proposes a kernel-based machine learning algorithm capable of performing adaptive and nonlinear data fitting so as to generate a suitable, accurate, and robust algorithm for spatio-temporal estimation of the three mentioned variables using Sentinel-2 images. To this aim, Gaussian process regression (GPR)–particle swarm optimization (PSO), GPR–genetic algorithm (GA), GPR–tabu search (TS), and GPR–simulated annealing (SA) hyperparameter-optimized algorithms were developed and compared against kernel-based machine learning regression algorithms and artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest (RF) algorithms. The accuracy of the proposed algorithms was assessed using digital hemispherical photography (DHP) data and destructive measurements performed during the growing season of silage maize in agricultural fields of Ghale-Nou, southern Tehran, Iran, in the summer of 2019. The results on biophysical variables against validation data showed that the developed GPR-PSO algorithm outperformed other algorithms under study in terms of robustness and accuracy (0.917, 0.931, 0.882 using R2 and 0.627, 0.078, and 1.99 using RMSE in LAI, fCover, and biomass of Sentinel-2 20 m, respectively). GPR-PSO also possesses the unique ability to generate pixel-based uncertainty maps (confidence level) for prediction purposes (i.e., estimated uncertainty level <0.7 in LAI, fCover, and biomass, for 96%, 98%, and 71% of the total study area, respectively). Altogether, GPR-PSO appears to be the most suitable option for mapping biophysical variables at the local scale using Sentinel-2 images. Full article
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21 pages, 7816 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Glacial Lakes in the Altai Mountains with Climate Change from 2000 to 2020
by Nan Wang, Tao Zhong, Jianghua Zheng, Chengfeng Meng and Zexuan Liu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3689; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143689 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1359
Abstract
The evolution of a glacial lake is a true reflection of glacial and climatic change. Currently, the study of glacial lakes in the Altai Mountains is mainly concerned with the application of high-resolution remote sensing images to monitor and evaluate the potential hazards [...] Read more.
The evolution of a glacial lake is a true reflection of glacial and climatic change. Currently, the study of glacial lakes in the Altai Mountains is mainly concerned with the application of high-resolution remote sensing images to monitor and evaluate the potential hazards of glacial lakes. At present, there is no rapid and large-scale method to monitor the dynamical variation in glacial lakes in the Altai Mountains, and there is little research on predicting its future tendency. Based on the supervised classification results obtained by Google Earth Engine (GEE), combined with an analysis of meteorological data, we analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in glacial lakes in the Altai Mountains between 2000 and 2020, and used the MCE-CA-Markov model to predict their changes in the future. According to the results, as of 2020, there are 3824 glacial lakes in the Altai Mountains, with an area of 682.38 km2. Over the entire period, the glacial lake quantity growth rates and area were 47.82% and 17.07%, respectively. The distribution of glacial lakes in this region showed a larger concentration in the north than in the south. Most glacial lakes had areas smaller than 0.1 km2, and there was minimal change observed in glacial lakes larger than 0.2 km2. Analyzing the regional elevation in 100 m intervals, the study found that glacial lakes were predominantly distributed at elevations from 2000 m to 3000 m. Interannual rainfall and temperature fluctuations in the Altai Mountains have slowed since 2014, and the trends for the area and number of glacial lakes have stabilized. The growth of glacial lakes in both number and surface area is expected to continue through 2025 and 2030, although the pace of change will slow. In the context of small increases in precipitation and large increases in temperature, in the future, glacial lakes with faster surface area growth rates will be located primarily in the southern Altai Mountains. Full article
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16 pages, 8601 KiB  
Technical Note
Uncertainty Evaluation on Temperature Detection of Middle Atmosphere by Rayleigh Lidar
by Xinqi Li, Kai Zhong, Xianzhong Zhang, Tong Wu, Yijian Zhang, Yu Wang, Shijie Li, Zhaoai Yan, Degang Xu and Jianquan Yao
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3688; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143688 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
Measurement uncertainty is an extremely important parameter for characterizing the quality of measurement results. In order to measure the reliability of atmospheric temperature detection, the uncertainty needs to be evaluated. In this paper, based on the measurement models originating from the Chanin-Hauchecorne (CH) [...] Read more.
Measurement uncertainty is an extremely important parameter for characterizing the quality of measurement results. In order to measure the reliability of atmospheric temperature detection, the uncertainty needs to be evaluated. In this paper, based on the measurement models originating from the Chanin-Hauchecorne (CH) method, the atmospheric temperature uncertainty was evaluated using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) by considering the ancillary temperature uncertainty and the detection noise as the major uncertainty sources. For the first time, the GUM atmospheric temperature uncertainty framework was comprehensively and quantitatively validated by MCM following the instructions of JCGM 101: 2008 GUM Supplement 1. The results show that the GUM method is reliable when discarding the data in the range of 10–15 km below the reference altitude. Compared with MCM, the GUM method is recommended to evaluate the atmospheric temperature uncertainty of Rayleigh lidar detection in terms of operability, reliability, and calculation efficiency. Full article
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15 pages, 7818 KiB  
Article
Measuring Vertical Urban Growth of Patna Urban Agglomeration Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry SAR (PSInSAR) Remote Sensing
by Aniket Prakash, Diksha and Amit Kumar
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143687 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1548
Abstract
In the present study, the vertical and horizontal growth of Patna Urban Agglomeration was evaluated using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR) technique during 2015–2018. The vertical urban growth assessment of the city landscape was assessed using microwave time series (30 [...] Read more.
In the present study, the vertical and horizontal growth of Patna Urban Agglomeration was evaluated using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR) technique during 2015–2018. The vertical urban growth assessment of the city landscape was assessed using microwave time series (30 temporal) datasets of Single Look Complex (SLC) Sentinel-1A interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar using SARPROZ software (ver. 2020). This study demonstrated that peripheral city regions experienced higher vertical growth (~4 m year−1) compared to the city core regions, owing to higher urban development opportunities leading to significant land use alterations, the development of high-rise buildings, and infrastructural development. While the city core of Patna observed an infill and densification process, as it was already saturated and highly densified. The rapidly urbanizing city in the developing region witnessed a considerable horizontal urban expansion as estimated through the normalized difference index for built-up areas (NDIB) and speckle divergence (SD) using optical Sentinel 2A and microwave Sentinel-1A ground range detected (GRD) satellite data, respectively. The speckle divergence-based method exhibited high urban growth (net growth of 11.28 km2) with moderate urban infill during 2015–2018 and reported a higher accuracy as compared to NDIB. This study highlights the application of SAR remote sensing for precise urban area delineation and temporal monitoring of urban growth considering horizontal and vertical expansion through processing a long series of InSAR datasets that provide valuable information for informed decision-making and support the development of sustainable and resilient cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SAR Processing in Urban Planning)
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16 pages, 1092 KiB  
Article
Depth Information Precise Completion-GAN: A Precisely Guided Method for Completing Ill Regions in Depth Maps
by Ren Qian, Wenfeng Qiu, Wenbang Yang, Jianhua Li, Yun Wu, Renyang Feng, Xinan Wang and Yong Zhao
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3686; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143686 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 960
Abstract
In the depth map obtained through binocular stereo matching, there are many ill regions due to reasons such as lighting or occlusion. These ill regions cannot be accurately obtained due to the lack of information required for matching. Since the completion model based [...] Read more.
In the depth map obtained through binocular stereo matching, there are many ill regions due to reasons such as lighting or occlusion. These ill regions cannot be accurately obtained due to the lack of information required for matching. Since the completion model based on Gan generates random results, it cannot accurately complete the depth map. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately complete the depth map according to reality. To address this issue, this paper proposes a depth information precise completion GAN (DIPC-GAN) that effectively uses the Guid layer normalization (GuidLN) module to guide the model for precise completion by utilizing depth edges. GuidLN flexibly adjusts the weights of the guiding conditions based on intermediate results, allowing modules to accurately and effectively incorporate the guiding information. The model employs multiscale discriminators to discriminate results of different resolutions at different generator stages, enhancing the generator’s grasp of overall image and detail information. Additionally, this paper proposes Attention-ResBlock, which enables all ResBlocks in each task module of the GAN-based multitask model to focus on their own task by sharing a mask. Even when the ill regions are large, the model can effectively complement the missing details in these regions. Additionally, the multiscale discriminator in the model enhances the generator’s robustness. Finally, the proposed task-specific residual module can effectively focus different subnetworks of a multitask model on their respective tasks. The model has shown good repair results on datasets, including artificial, real, and remote sensing images. The final experimental results showed that the model’s REL and RMSE decreased by 9.3% and 9.7%, respectively, compared to RDFGan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Vision and Image Processing in Remote Sensing)
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17 pages, 26389 KiB  
Article
Surface Displacement of Hurd Rock Glacier from 1956 to 2019 from Historical Aerial Frames and Satellite Imagery (Livingston Island, Antarctic Peninsula)
by Gonçalo Prates and Gonçalo Vieira
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3685; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143685 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
In the second half of the 20th century, the western Antarctic Peninsula recorded the highest mean annual air temperature rise in the Antarctic. The South Shetland Islands are located about 100 km northwest of the Antarctic Peninsula. The mean annual air temperature at [...] Read more.
In the second half of the 20th century, the western Antarctic Peninsula recorded the highest mean annual air temperature rise in the Antarctic. The South Shetland Islands are located about 100 km northwest of the Antarctic Peninsula. The mean annual air temperature at sea level in this Maritime Antarctic region is close to −2 °C and, therefore, very sensitive to permafrost degradation following atmospheric warming. Among geomorphological indicators of permafrost are rock glaciers found below steep slopes as a consequence of permafrost creep, but with surficial movement also generated by solifluction and shallow landslides of rock debris and finer sediments. Rock glacier surface velocity is a new essential climate variable parameter by the Global Climate Observing System, and its historical analysis allows insight into past permafrost behavior. Recovery of 1950s aerial image stereo-pairs and structure-from-motion processing, together with the analysis of QuickBird 2007 and Pleiades 2019 high-resolution satellite imagery, allowed inferring displacements of the Hurd rock glacier using compression ridge-and-furrow morphology analysis over 60 years. Displacements measured on the rock glacier surface from 1956 until 2019 were from 7.5 m to 22.5 m and surface velocity of 12 cm/year to 36 cm/year, measured on orthographic images, with combined deviation root-mean-square of 2.5 m and 2.4 m in easting and northing. The inferred surface velocity also provides a baseline reference to assess today’s displacements. The results show patterns of the Hurd rock glacier displacement velocity, which are analogous to those reported within the last decade, without being possible to assess any displacement acceleration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Cryosphere and Related Processes)
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4 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
Cartography of the Solar System: Remote Sensing beyond Earth
by Stephan van Gasselt and Andrea Naß
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3684; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143684 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Cartography is traditionally associated with map making and the visualization of spatial information [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartography of the Solar System: Remote Sensing beyond Earth)
21 pages, 11020 KiB  
Article
Effects of Production–Living–Ecological Space Patterns Changes on Land Surface Temperature
by Han Liu, Ling Qin, Menggang Xing, Haiming Yan, Guofei Shang and Yuanyuan Yuan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3683; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143683 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Rapid economic and social development has triggered competition for limited land space from different industries, accelerating the evolution of Beijing’s urban landscape types. The increase in impermeable surfaces and the decrease in ecological land have led to an increase in the impact on [...] Read more.
Rapid economic and social development has triggered competition for limited land space from different industries, accelerating the evolution of Beijing’s urban landscape types. The increase in impermeable surfaces and the decrease in ecological land have led to an increase in the impact on the urban thermal environment. Since previous studies have mainly focused on the impact of a single urban landscape on the urban thermal environment and lacked an exploration of the combined impact of multiple landscapes, this study applied standard deviation ellipses, Pearson correlation analysis, land surface temperature (LST) profile analysis, and hot spot analysis to comprehensively explore the influence of the evolving production–living–ecological space (PLES) pattern on LST. The results show that the average LST of various spaces continued to increase before 2009 and decreased slowly after 2009, with the highest average temperature being living space, followed by production space, and the lowest average temperature being ecological space for each year. The spatiotemporal shift path of the thermal environment is consistent with the shift trajectory of the living space center of gravity in Beijing; LST is positively correlated with living space (LS) and negatively correlated with production space (PS) and ecological space (ES). LST is positively correlated with LS and negatively correlated with PS and ES. Influenced by the change in bedding surface type, the longitudinal thermal profile curve of LST shows a general trend of “low at both ends and high in the middle”. With the change in land space type, LST fluctuates significantly, and the horizontal thermal profile curve shows a general trend of “first decreasing, followed by increasing and finally decreasing”. In addition, the hot spot analysis shows that the coverage area of very hot spots, hot spots, and warm spots increased by 0.72%, 1.13%, and 2.03%, respectively, in the past 30 years, and the main expansion direction is southeast, and very cold spots and cold spots are distributed in the northwest ecological space, and the area change first decreases and then increases. Full article
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13 pages, 2268 KiB  
Communication
A High-Performance Thin-Film Sensor in 6G for Remote Sensing of the Sea Surface
by Qi Song, Xiaoguang Xu, Jianchen Zi, Jiatong Wang, Zhongze Peng, Bingyuan Zhang and Min Zhang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3682; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143682 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Functional devices in the THz band will provide a highly important technical guarantee for the promotion and application of 6G technology. We sought to design a high-performance sensor with a large area, high responsiveness, and low equivalent noise power, which is stable at [...] Read more.
Functional devices in the THz band will provide a highly important technical guarantee for the promotion and application of 6G technology. We sought to design a high-performance sensor with a large area, high responsiveness, and low equivalent noise power, which is stable at room temperature for long periods and still usable under high humidity; it is suitable for the environment of marine remote sensing technology and has the potential for mass production. We prepared a Te film with high stability and studied its crystallization method by comparing the sensing and detection effects of THz waves at different annealing temperatures. It is proposed that the best crystallization and detection effect is achieved by annealing at 100 °C for 60 min, with a sensitivity of up to 19.8 A/W and an equivalent noise power (NEP) of 2.8 pW Hz−1/2. The effective detection area of the detector can reach the centimeter level, and this level is maintained for more than 2 months in a humid environment at 30 °C with 70–80% humidity and without encapsulation. Considering its advantages of stability, detection performance, large effective area, and easy mass preparation, our Te thin film is an ideal sensor for 6G ocean remote sensing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Water-Related Remote Sensing)
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11 pages, 1935 KiB  
Technical Note
Research on Stellar Occultation Detection with Bandpass Filtering for Oxygen Density Retrieval
by Zheng Li, Xiaocheng Wu, Cui Tu, Xiong Hu, Zhaoai Yan, Junfeng Yang and Yanan Zhang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3681; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143681 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
Stellar occultation instruments detect the transmission of stellar spectra through the planetary atmosphere to retrieve densities of various atmospheric components. This paper introduces an idea of using instruments with bandpass filters for stellar occultation detection. According to the characteristics of the occultation technique [...] Read more.
Stellar occultation instruments detect the transmission of stellar spectra through the planetary atmosphere to retrieve densities of various atmospheric components. This paper introduces an idea of using instruments with bandpass filters for stellar occultation detection. According to the characteristics of the occultation technique for oxygen density measurement, a full-link forward model is established, and the average transmission under a typical nocturnal atmosphere is calculated with the help of the HITRAN database, occultation simulation and a 3D ray-tracing program. The central wavelength and bandwidth suitable for 760 nm oxygen A-band absorption measurement are discussed. This paper also compares the results of the forward model with GOMOS spectrometer data under this band, calculates the observation signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to different instrument parameters, and target star magnitudes. The results of this paper provide a theoretical basis for the development of a stellar occultation technique with a bandpass filter and guidance on the instrument design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Remote Sensing)
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41 pages, 10735 KiB  
Article
A Thorough Evaluation of 127 Potential Evapotranspiration Models in Two Mediterranean Urban Green Sites
by Nikolaos Proutsos, Dimitris Tigkas, Irida Tsevreni, Stavros G. Alexandris, Alexandra D. Solomou, Athanassios Bourletsikas, Stefanos Stefanidis and Samuel Chukwujindu Nwokolo
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3680; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143680 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a particularly important parameter for understanding water interactions and balance in ecosystems, while it is also crucial for assessing vegetation water requirements. The accurate estimation of PET is typically data demanding, while specific climatic, geographical and local factors may [...] Read more.
Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a particularly important parameter for understanding water interactions and balance in ecosystems, while it is also crucial for assessing vegetation water requirements. The accurate estimation of PET is typically data demanding, while specific climatic, geographical and local factors may further complicate this task. Especially in city environments, where built-up structures may highly influence the micrometeorological conditions and urban green sites may occupy limited spaces, the selection of proper PET estimation approaches is critical, considering also data availability issues. In this study, a wide variety of empirical PET methods were evaluated against the FAO56 Penman–Monteith benchmark method in the environment of two Mediterranean urban green sites in Greece, aiming to investigate their accuracy and suitability under specific local conditions. The methods under evaluation cover all the range of empirical PET estimations: namely, mass transfer-based, temperature-based, radiation-based, and combination approaches, including 112 methods. Furthermore, 15 locally calibrated and adjusted models have been developed based on the general forms of the mass transfer, temperature, and radiation equations, improving the performance of the original models for local application. Among the 127 (112 original and 15 adjusted) evaluated methods, the radiation-based methods and adjusted models performed overall better than the temperature-based and the mass transfer methods, whereas the data-demanding combination methods received the highest ranking scores. The adjusted models seem to give accurate PET estimates for local use, while they might be applied in sites with similar conditions after proper validation. Full article
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20 pages, 25724 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Speckle Filter for Multi-Temporal PolSAR Image with Multi-Dimensional Information Fusion
by Haoliang Li, Xingchao Cui, Mingdian Li, Junwu Deng and Siwei Chen
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143679 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) is an important sensor for earth observation. Multi-temporal PolSAR images obtained by successive observations of the region of interest contain rich polarimetric–temporal–spatial information of the land covers, which has wide applications. Speckle filtering becomes a necessary pre-processing for [...] Read more.
Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) is an important sensor for earth observation. Multi-temporal PolSAR images obtained by successive observations of the region of interest contain rich polarimetric–temporal–spatial information of the land covers, which has wide applications. Speckle filtering becomes a necessary pre-processing for many subsequent applications. Currently, it is common to filter multi-temporal PolSAR data by directly using a speckle filter developed for single SAR or PolSAR data. The cross-correlation between different time series contains rich information in multi-temporal PolSAR images. How to utilize complete polarimetric–temporal–spatial information becomes a large challenge to achieve more satisfied performances of speckle reduction and details preservation simultaneously. This work dedicates to this issue and develops a novel speckle filtering approach for multi-temporal PolSAR data by multi-dimensional information fusion. The core idea is to establish an adaptive and efficient strategy of similar pixel selection based on the similarity test of multi-temporal polarimetric covariance matrices. This similar pixel selection scheme fuses the complete information of multi-temporal PolSAR data. The sensitivity of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with several typical and challenging texture patterns. Then, an adaptive speckle filter is established specifically for multi-temporal PolSAR data. Intensive comparison studies are carried out with airborne UAVSAR datasets and spaceborne ALOS/PALSAR datasets. Quantitative investigations in terms of the equivalent number of looks (ENL) and the figure of merit (FOM) indexes demonstrate and validate the superiority of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in SAR Image Despeckling)
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18 pages, 5301 KiB  
Article
Urban Flood Risk Assessment through the Integration of Natural and Human Resilience Based on Machine Learning Models
by Wenting Zhang, Bin Hu, Yongzhi Liu, Xingnan Zhang and Zhixuan Li
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3678; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143678 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Flood risk assessment and mapping are considered essential tools for the improvement of flood management. This research aims to construct a more comprehensive flood assessment framework by emphasizing factors related to human resilience and integrating them with meteorological and geographical factors. Moreover, two [...] Read more.
Flood risk assessment and mapping are considered essential tools for the improvement of flood management. This research aims to construct a more comprehensive flood assessment framework by emphasizing factors related to human resilience and integrating them with meteorological and geographical factors. Moreover, two ensemble learning models, namely voting and stacking, which utilize heterogeneous learners, were employed in this study, and their prediction performance was compared with that of traditional machine learning models, including support vector machine, random forest, multilayer perceptron, and gradient boosting decision tree. The six models were trained and tested using a sample database constructed from historical flood events in Hefei, China. The results demonstrated the following findings: (1) the RF model exhibited the highest accuracy, while the SVR model underestimated the extent of extremely high-risk areas. The stacking model underestimated the extent of very-high-risk areas. It should be noted that the prediction results of ensemble learning methods may not be superior to those of the base models upon which they are built. (2) The predicted high-risk and very-high-risk areas within the study area are predominantly clustered in low-lying regions along the rivers, aligning with the distribution of hazardous areas observed in historical inundation events. (3) It is worth noting that the factor of distance to pumping stations has the second most significant driving influence after the DEM (Digital Elevation Model). This underscores the importance of considering human resilience factors. This study expands the empirical evidence for the ability of machine learning methods to be employed in flood risk assessment and deepens our understanding of the potential mechanisms of human resilience in influencing urban flood risk. Full article
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21 pages, 7886 KiB  
Article
Mapping Irish Water Bodies: Comparison of Platforms, Indices and Water Body Type
by Minyan Zhao and Fiachra O’Loughlin
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143677 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Accurate monitoring of water bodies is essential for the management and regulation of water resources. Traditional methods for measuring water quality are always time-consuming and expensive; furthermore, it can be very difficult capture the full spatiotemporal variations across regions. Many studies have shown [...] Read more.
Accurate monitoring of water bodies is essential for the management and regulation of water resources. Traditional methods for measuring water quality are always time-consuming and expensive; furthermore, it can be very difficult capture the full spatiotemporal variations across regions. Many studies have shown the possibility of remote-sensing-based water monitoring work in many areas, especially for water quality monitoring. However, the use of optical remotely sensed imagery depends on several factors, including weather, quality of images and the size of water bodies. Hence, in this study, the feasibility of optical remote sensing for water quality monitoring in the Republic of Ireland was investigated. To assess the value of remote sensing for water quality monitoring, it is critical to know how well water bodies and the existing in situ monitoring stations are mapped. In this study, two satellite platforms (Sentinel-2 MSI and Landsat-8 OLI) and four indices for separating water and land pixel (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI; Normalized Difference Water Index—NDWI; Modified Normalized Difference Water Index—MNDWI; and Automated Water Extraction Index—AWEI) have been used to create water masks for two scenarios. In the first scenario (Scenario 1), we included all pixels classified as water, while for the second scenario (Scenario 2) accounts for potential land contamination and only used water pixels that were completed surround by other water pixels. The water masks for the different scenarios and combinations of platforms and indices were then compared with the existing water quality monitoring station and to the shapefile of the river network, lakes and coastal and transitional water bodies. We found that both platforms had potential for water quality monitoring in the Republic of Ireland, with Sentinel-2 outperforming Landsat due to its finer spatial resolution. Overall, Sentinel-2 was able to map ~25% of the existing monitoring station, while Landsat-8 could only map ~21%. These percentages were heavily impacted by the large number of river monitoring stations that were difficult to map with either satellite due to their location on smaller rivers. Our results showed the importance of testing several indices. No index performed the best across the different platforms. AWEInsh (Automated Water Extraction Index—no shadow) and Sentinel-2 outperformed all other combinations and was able to map over 80% of the area of all non-river water bodies across the Republic of Ireland. While MNDWI was the best index for Landsat-8, it was the worst performer for Sentinel-2. This study showed that optical remote sensing has potential for water monitoring in the Republic of Ireland, especially for larger rivers, lakes and transitional and coastal water bodies. Full article
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18 pages, 11121 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scale Feature Residual Feedback Network for Super-Resolution Reconstruction of the Vertical Structure of the Radar Echo
by Xiangyu Fu, Qiangyu Zeng, Ming Zhu, Tao Zhang, Hao Wang, Qingqing Chen, Qiu Yu and Linlin Xie
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3676; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143676 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 949
Abstract
The vertical structure of radar echo is crucial for understanding complex microphysical processes of clouds and precipitation, and for providing essential data support for the study of low-level wind shear and turbulence formation, evolution, and dissipation. Therefore, finding methods to improve the vertical [...] Read more.
The vertical structure of radar echo is crucial for understanding complex microphysical processes of clouds and precipitation, and for providing essential data support for the study of low-level wind shear and turbulence formation, evolution, and dissipation. Therefore, finding methods to improve the vertical data resolution of the existing radar network is crucial. Existing algorithms for improving image resolution usually focus on increasing the width and height of images. However, improving the vertical data resolution of weather radar requires a focus on improving the elevation angle resolution while maintaining distance resolution. To address this challenge, we propose a network for super-resolution reconstruction of weather radar echo vertical structures. The network is based on a multi-scale residual feedback network (MR-FBN) and uses new multi-scale feature residual blocks (MSRB) to effectively extract and utilize data features at different scales. The feedback network gradually generates the final high-resolution vertical structure data. In addition, we propose an elevation upsampling layer (EUL) specifically for this task, replacing the traditional image subpixel convolution layer. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the elevation angle resolution of weather radar echo vertical structure data, providing valuable help for atmospheric detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Doppler Radar: Signal, Data and Applications)
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30 pages, 6565 KiB  
Review
Google Earth Engine: A Global Analysis and Future Trends
by Andrés Velastegui-Montoya, Néstor Montalván-Burbano, Paúl Carrión-Mero, Hugo Rivera-Torres, Luís Sadeck and Marcos Adami
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3675; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143675 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 17266
Abstract
The continuous increase in the volume of geospatial data has led to the creation of storage tools and the cloud to process data. Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a cloud-based platform that facilitates geoprocessing, making it a tool of great interest to the [...] Read more.
The continuous increase in the volume of geospatial data has led to the creation of storage tools and the cloud to process data. Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a cloud-based platform that facilitates geoprocessing, making it a tool of great interest to the academic and research world. This article proposes a bibliometric analysis of the GEE platform to analyze its scientific production. The methodology consists of four phases. The first phase corresponds to selecting “search” criteria, followed by the second phase focused on collecting data during the 2011 and 2022 periods using Elsevier’s Scopus database. Software and bibliometrics allowed to review the published articles during the third phase. Finally, the results were analyzed and interpreted in the last phase. The research found 2800 documents that received contributions from 125 countries, with China and the USA leading as the countries with higher contributions supporting an increment in the use of GEE for the visualization and processing of geospatial data. The intellectual structure study and knowledge mapping showed that topics of interest included satellites, sensors, remote sensing, machine learning, land use and land cover. The co-citations analysis revealed the connection between the researchers who used the GEE platform in their research papers. GEE has proven to be an emergent web platform with the potential to manage big satellite data easily. Furthermore, GEE is considered a multidisciplinary tool with multiple applications in various areas of knowledge. This research adds to the current knowledge about the Google Earth Engine platform, analyzing its cognitive structure related to the research in the Scopus database. In addition, this study presents inferences and suggestions to develop future works with this methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Google Earth Engine for Geo-Big Data Applications)
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21 pages, 5263 KiB  
Article
Precision Aquaculture Drone Mapping of the Spatial Distribution of Kappaphycus alvarezii Biomass and Carrageenan
by Nurjannah Nurdin, Evangelos Alevizos, Rajuddin Syamsuddin, Hasni Asis, Elmi Nurhaidah Zainuddin, Agus Aris, Simon Oiry, Guillaume Brunier, Teruhisa Komatsu and Laurent Barillé
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3674; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143674 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
The aquaculture of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Kappaphycus hereafter) seaweed has rapidly expanded among coastal communities in Indonesia due to its relatively simple farming process, low capital costs and short production cycles. This species is mainly cultivated for its carrageenan content used as a [...] Read more.
The aquaculture of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Kappaphycus hereafter) seaweed has rapidly expanded among coastal communities in Indonesia due to its relatively simple farming process, low capital costs and short production cycles. This species is mainly cultivated for its carrageenan content used as a gelling agent in the food industry. To further assist producers in improving cultivation management and providing quantitative information about the yield, a novel approach involving remote sensing techniques was tested. In this study, multispectral images obtained from a drone (Unoccupied Aerial Vehicle, UAV) were processed to estimate the fresh and carrageenan weights of Kappaphycus at a cultivation site in South Sulawesi. The UAV imagery was geometrically and radiometrically corrected, and the resulting orthomosaics were used for detecting and classifying Kappaphycus using a random forest algorithm. The classification results were combined with in situ measurements of Kappaphycus fresh weight and carrageenan content using empirical relations between the area and weight of fresh seaweed/carrageenan. This approach allowed quantifying seaweed biometry and biochemistry at single cultivation lines and cultivation plot scales. Fresh seaweed and carrageenan weights were estimated for different dates within three distinct cultivation cycles, and the daily growth rate for each cycle was derived. Data were upscaled to a small family-scale farm and a large-scale leader farm and compared with previous estimations. To our knowledge, this study provides, for the first time, an estimation of yield at the scale of cultivation lines by exploiting the very high spatial resolution of drone data. Overall, the use of UAV remote sensing proved to be a promising approach for seaweed monitoring, opening the way to precision aquaculture of Kappaphycus. Full article
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21 pages, 6823 KiB  
Article
Research on an Intra-Pulse Orthogonal Waveform and Methods Resisting Interrupted-Sampling Repeater Jamming within the Same Frequency Band
by Huahua Dai, Yingxiao Zhao, Hanning Su, Zhuang Wang, Qinglong Bao and Jiameng Pan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3673; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143673 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
Interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) is a kind of intra-pulse coherent deception jamming that can generate false target peaks in the range profile and interfere with the detection and tracking of real targets. In this paper, an anti-ISRJ method based on the intra-pulse orthogonal [...] Read more.
Interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) is a kind of intra-pulse coherent deception jamming that can generate false target peaks in the range profile and interfere with the detection and tracking of real targets. In this paper, an anti-ISRJ method based on the intra-pulse orthogonal waveform is proposed, which can recognize common interference signals by comparing sub-signal matched filtering results. For some special scenes where real targets cannot be directly differentiated from false targets, a new recognition method based on the energy discontinuity of the interference signal in the time domain is proposed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can recognize real and false targets in all ISRJ modes without any prior information, such as jammer parameters, with a small amount of calculation, which is suitable for actual radar systems. Simulation experiments using different interference parameters show that although this method has a 3 dB loss of pulse compression gain, it can completely suppress different kinds of ISRJ interference when the SNR before pulse compression is higher than −20 dB, with 100% target detection probability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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17 pages, 11842 KiB  
Article
Regional Climate Effects of Irrigation under Central Asia Warming by 2.0 °C
by Liyang Wu and Hui Zheng
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3672; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143672 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 972
Abstract
There has been a severe shortage of water resources in Central Asia and agriculture has been highly dependent on irrigation because of the scarce precipitation in the croplands. Central Asia is also experiencing climate warming in the context of global warming; however, few [...] Read more.
There has been a severe shortage of water resources in Central Asia and agriculture has been highly dependent on irrigation because of the scarce precipitation in the croplands. Central Asia is also experiencing climate warming in the context of global warming; however, few studies have focused on changes in the amount of irrigation in Central Asia under future climate warming and their regional climate effects. In this study, we adopted the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to design three types of experiments: historical experiments (Exp01); warming experiments using future driving fields (Exp02); and warming experiments that involved increasing the surface energy (Exp03). In each type of experiment, two experiments (considering and not considering irrigation) were carried out. We analyzed the regional climate effects of irrigation under the warming of Central Asia by 2.0 °C through determining the differences between the two types of warming experiments and the historical experiments. For surface variables (irrigation amount; sensible heat flux; latent heat flux; and surface air temperature), the changes (relative to Exp01) in Exp03 were thought to be reasonable. For precipitation, the changes (relative to Exp01) in Exp02 were thought to be reasonable. The main conclusions were as follows: in Central Asia, after warming by 2.0 °C, the irrigation amount increased by 10–20%; in the irrigated croplands of Central Asia, the irrigation-caused increases (decreases) in latent heat flux (sensible heat flux) further expanded; and then the irrigation-caused decreases in surface air temperature also became enhanced; during the irrigation period, the irrigation-caused increases in precipitation in the mid-latitude mountainous areas were reduced. This study also showed that, in the WRF model, the warming experiments caused by driving fields were not suitable to simulate the changes in irrigation amount affected by climate warming. Full article
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19 pages, 13191 KiB  
Article
Automatic Monitoring of Maize Seedling Growth Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based RGB Imagery
by Min Gao, Fengbao Yang, Hong Wei and Xiaoxia Liu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3671; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143671 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Accurate and rapid monitoring of maize seedling growth is critical in early breeding decision making, field management, and yield improvement. However, the number and uniformity of seedlings are conventionally determined by manual evaluation, which is inefficient and unreliable. In this study, we proposed [...] Read more.
Accurate and rapid monitoring of maize seedling growth is critical in early breeding decision making, field management, and yield improvement. However, the number and uniformity of seedlings are conventionally determined by manual evaluation, which is inefficient and unreliable. In this study, we proposed an automatic assessment method of maize seedling growth using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) RGB imagery. Firstly, high-resolution images of maize at the early and late seedling stages (before and after the third leaf) were acquired using the UAV RGB system. Secondly, the maize seedling center detection index (MCDI) was constructed, resulting in a significant enhancement of the color contrast between young and old leaves, facilitating the segmentation of maize seedling centers. Furthermore, the weed noise was removed by morphological processing and a dual-threshold method. Then, maize seedlings were extracted using the connected component labeling algorithm. Finally, the emergence rate, canopy coverage, and seedling uniformity in the field at the seedling stage were calculated and analyzed in combination with the number of seedlings. The results revealed that our approach showed good performance for maize seedling count with an average R2 greater than 0.99 and an accuracy of F1 greater than 98.5%. The estimation accuracies at the third leaf stage (V3) for the mean emergence rate and the mean seedling uniformity were 66.98% and 15.89%, respectively. The estimation accuracies at the sixth leaf stage (V6) for the mean seedling canopy coverage and the mean seedling uniformity were 32.21% and 8.20%, respectively. Our approach provided the automatic monitoring of maize growth per plot during early growth stages and demonstrated promising performance for precision agriculture in seedling management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
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