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Remote Sens., Volume 15, Issue 15 (August-1 2023) – 217 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Advanced visualization methods, such as mixed (MR) and virtual reality (VR), allow for the visualization of complex datasets with unprecedented levels of detail and user experience; however, as of today, such visualization techniques have largely been used for communication purposes. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential use of MR and VR for the collection and analysis of geological data, using applications built in-house that allow users to process three-dimensional datasets and visualize numerical modeling results. While important limitations still exist in terms of hardware capabilities, portability, and accessibility, the expected technological advances and cost reductions will ensure that this technology forms a standard mapping and data analysis tool for future engineers and geoscientists. View this paper
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22 pages, 8741 KiB  
Article
A Relative Field Antenna Calibration Method Designed for Low-Cost GNSS Antennas by Exploiting Triple-Differenced Measurements
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3917; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153917 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 944
Abstract
Performing the high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications with low-cost antennas is an up-and-coming research field. However, the antenna-induced phase biases, i.e., phase center corrections (PCCs), of the low-cost antennas can be up to centimeters and need to be calibrated in advance. [...] Read more.
Performing the high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications with low-cost antennas is an up-and-coming research field. However, the antenna-induced phase biases, i.e., phase center corrections (PCCs), of the low-cost antennas can be up to centimeters and need to be calibrated in advance. The relative field antenna calibration method is easy to conduct, but the classical procedure entails integer ambiguity resolution, which may face the problem of low success rate under the centimeter-level PCCs. In this contribution, we designed a relative field calibration method suitable for the low-cost GNSS antennas. The triple-differencing operations were utilized to eliminate the carrier-phase ambiguities and then construct PCC measurements; the time-differencing interval was set to a relatively long time span, such as one hour, and the reference satellite was selected according to the angular distance it passed over during a time-differencing interval. To reduce the effect of significant triple-differencing noise, a weight setting method based on the area of a spherical quadrilateral was proposed for the spherical harmonics fitting process. The duration of the data collection with respect to GPS and BDS was discussed. The performance of the proposed method was assessed with real GPS and BDS observations and a variety of simulated phase patterns, showing that calibration results could be obtained with millimeter-level accuracy. The impact of cycle slip and elevation mask angle on the calibration results was also analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Navigation and Signal Processing)
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25 pages, 1714 KiB  
Article
E-FPN: Evidential Feature Pyramid Network for Ship Classification
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3916; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153916 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Ship classification, as an important problem in the field of computer vision, has been the focus of research for various algorithms over the past few decades. In particular, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become one of the most popular models for ship classification [...] Read more.
Ship classification, as an important problem in the field of computer vision, has been the focus of research for various algorithms over the past few decades. In particular, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become one of the most popular models for ship classification tasks, especially using deep learning methods. Currently, several classical methods have used single-scale features to tackle ship classification, without paying much attention to the impact of multiscale features. Therefore, this paper proposes a multiscale feature fusion ship classification method based on evidence theory. In this method, multiple scales of features were utilized to fuse the feature maps of three different sizes (40 × 40 × 256, 20 × 20 × 512, and 10 × 10 × 1024), which were used to perform ship classification tasks separately. Finally, the multiscales-based classification results were treated as pieces of evidence and fused at the decision level using evidence theory to obtain the final classification result. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared to classical classification networks, this method can effectively improve classification accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section AI Remote Sensing)
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18 pages, 7718 KiB  
Article
Tilt-to-Length Coupling Analysis of an Off-Axis Optical Bench Design for NGGM
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3915; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153915 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 819
Abstract
A new off-axis optical design alternative to that of the GRACE Follow-on mission for future NGGM missions is considered. In place of the triple-mirror assembly of the GRACE Follow-on mission, a laser retro-reflector is instead generated by means of lens systems. The receiving [...] Read more.
A new off-axis optical design alternative to that of the GRACE Follow-on mission for future NGGM missions is considered. In place of the triple-mirror assembly of the GRACE Follow-on mission, a laser retro-reflector is instead generated by means of lens systems. The receiving (RX) beam and transmitting (TX) beam are enforced to be anti-parallel by a control loop with differential wavefront sensing (DWS) signals as readout, and a fast-steering mirror is employed to actuate the pointing of the local beam. The tilt-to-length (TTL) coupling noise of the new off-axis optical bench layout is carefully studied in the present work. Local TTL originated from piston noise as well as assembly and alignment errors of optical components are studied. Effort is also made to have an in depth understanding of global TTL due to relative attitude jitter between spacecraft. The margin of TTL noise in the position noise budget for laser ranging is examined. With an open loop control of the offset between the reference point of the optical bench and the centre of mass of a satellite, the TTL noise of the new off-axis optical bench design may be suppressed efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Gravity Mission)
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20 pages, 2929 KiB  
Article
A High-Precision 3D Target Perception Algorithm Based on a Mobile RFID Reader and Double Tags
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153914 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 733
Abstract
With the popularization of positioning technology, more and more industries have begun to pay attention to the application and demand of location information, and almost all industries can benefit from low-cost and high-precision location information. This paper introduces a novel three-dimensional (3D) low-cost, [...] Read more.
With the popularization of positioning technology, more and more industries have begun to pay attention to the application and demand of location information, and almost all industries can benefit from low-cost and high-precision location information. This paper introduces a novel three-dimensional (3D) low-cost, high-precision target perception algorithm that utilizes a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) mobile reader and double tags. Initially, the Received Signal Strength (RSS) is employed to estimate the approximate position of the target along the length direction of the shelf. Additionally, double tags are affixed to the target, enabling the perception of its approximate height and depth through phase information measurements. Subsequently, the obtained rough position serves as an initial value for calibration using the proposed algorithm, allowing for the refinement of the target’s length information relative to the shelf. Simulation results demonstrate the exceptional accuracy of the proposed method in perceiving the 3D position information of the target, achieving centimeter-level sensing accuracy. Full article
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18 pages, 6779 KiB  
Article
Risk Zoning of Permafrost Thaw Settlement in the Qinghai–Tibet Engineering Corridor
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3913; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153913 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
The Qinghai–Tibet Plateau is the highest and largest permafrost area in the middle and low latitudes of China. In this region, permafrost thaw settlement is the main form of expressway subgrade disaster. Therefore, the quantitative analysis and regionalization study of permafrost thaw settlement [...] Read more.
The Qinghai–Tibet Plateau is the highest and largest permafrost area in the middle and low latitudes of China. In this region, permafrost thaw settlement is the main form of expressway subgrade disaster. Therefore, the quantitative analysis and regionalization study of permafrost thaw settlement deformation are of great significance for expressway construction and maintenance in the Qinghai–Tibet region. This paper establishes a thaw settlement prediction model using the thaw settlement coefficient and thaw depth. The thaw depth was predicted by the mean annual ground temperatures and active-layer thicknesses using the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network model, and the thaw settlement coefficient was determined according to the type of ice content. Further, the distribution characteristics of thaw settlement risk of the permafrost subgrade in the study region were mapped and analyzed. The results showed that the thaw settlement risk was able to be divided into four risk levels, namely significant risk, high risk, medium risk and low risk levels, with the areas of these four risk levels covering 3868.67 km2, 1594.21 km2, 2456.10 km2 and 558.78 km2, respectively, of the total study region. The significant risk level had the highest proportion among all the risk levels and was mainly distributed across the Chumar River Basin, Beiluhe River Basin and Gaerqu River Basin regions. Moreover, ice content was found to be the main factor affecting thaw settlement, with thaw settlement found to increase as the ice content increased. Full article
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17 pages, 3610 KiB  
Technical Note
Autonomous Planning Algorithm for Satellite Laser Ranging Tasks Based on Rolling Horizon Optimization Framework
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3912; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153912 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Observation task planning is a key issue and the first step in the development of automated Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) systems. Aiming at the problem of dynamic change of cloud cover during SLR operation, this paper proposes an autonomous mission planning algorithm for [...] Read more.
Observation task planning is a key issue and the first step in the development of automated Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) systems. Aiming at the problem of dynamic change of cloud cover during SLR operation, this paper proposes an autonomous mission planning algorithm for SLR based on the Rolling Horizon Optimization (RHO) framework. A hybrid event- and cycle-driven replanning mechanism is adopted, and four functional modules, rolling, planning, information acquisition and decision-making, are established to decompose the SLR observation task planning process into a series of static planning intervals. An improved ant colony algorithm is proposed and utilized to realize the autonomous planning of SLR system observation tasks, and the above autonomous planning algorithm is verified and analyzed based on the SLR system at station 7237. The results show that the above algorithm can effectively increase the number of observation satellites and revenue under cloud disturbance, solve the problems of low efficiency and poor interference resistance of conventional static algorithms, and provide a new research idea for the establishment of an unattended SLR system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Satellite Missions for Earth and Planetary Exploration)
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16 pages, 5005 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Two Common Residue Burning Parameters on Urban Air Quality Indicators
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153911 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Crop residue burning produces a lot of polluting gases and fine particles, endangering human health, damaging soil structure, and causing fire accidents. In addition to the impact of residue burning on the local environment, pollutants can spread with the wind to more distant [...] Read more.
Crop residue burning produces a lot of polluting gases and fine particles, endangering human health, damaging soil structure, and causing fire accidents. In addition to the impact of residue burning on the local environment, pollutants can spread with the wind to more distant areas and impact their air quality. Nevertheless, a comparative analysis of the impact of two common residue burning parameters, the number of residue fire points, and residue burned area on urban air quality indicators has not been reported. In this study, the correlation between these two different residue burning parameters on air quality in Daqing City (Western Heilongjiang Province, China) was investigated comparatively using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) fire point product, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area product, and buffer zone analysis. The association between MODIS burned area products and air quality index (AQI) was found to be around 0.8. Meanwhile, it was found that the correlation between the number of residue fire points extracted from the VIIRS active fire products and air quality was above 0.6, again with a maximum of 0.75 at a buffer radius of 50 km. Within other levels of buffer zones, the correlation between residue burned area and AQI was consistently higher than that between residue fire points and AQI. By comparing the correlation between VIIRS fire points, MODIS burned area, and the concentration of each AQI pollutant, it can be found that the correlation between the concentration of each AQI pollutant and the residue burned area was higher than that and the fire points number. MODIS burned area monitoring, on the other hand, detects changes in the time series of images taken by satellite at two transit moments to obtain a new burned area and cumulative burned area during this period, allowing the monitoring of fire traces caused by fire points at non-transit moments. From analyzing the correlation between residue fire points, residue burned area, and the concentration of each pollutant (PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, and O3), we found significant correlations between residue burning and PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 concentrations, with the highest correlation (R2) of 0.81 for PM2.5. Moreover, the correlation between residue burned area and PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 concentrations was significantly higher than that between the number of residue fire points and their concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
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30 pages, 11991 KiB  
Article
A Study on Urban-Scale Building, Tree Canopy Footprint Identification and Sky View Factor Analysis with Airborne LiDAR Remote Sensing Data
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3910; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153910 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Urbanization transforms simple two-dimensional natural spaces into complex three-dimensional (3D) artificial spaces through intense land use. Hence, urbanization continuously transforms vertical urban settings and the corresponding sky view area. As such, collecting data on urban settings and their interactions with urban climate is [...] Read more.
Urbanization transforms simple two-dimensional natural spaces into complex three-dimensional (3D) artificial spaces through intense land use. Hence, urbanization continuously transforms vertical urban settings and the corresponding sky view area. As such, collecting data on urban settings and their interactions with urban climate is important. In this study, LiDAR remote sensing was applied to obtain finer-resolution footprints of urban-scale buildings and tree canopies (TCs). Additionally, a related sky view factor (SVF) analysis was performed. The study site comprised an area of Incheon Metropolitan City (501.5 km2). Results show that the proposed method can be applied to update institutional land maps, enhance land use management, and implement optimized and balanced urban settings. Full article
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26 pages, 29095 KiB  
Article
Self-Incremental Learning for Rapid Identification of Collapsed Buildings Triggered by Natural Disasters
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3909; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153909 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
The building damage caused by natural disasters seriously threatens human security. Applying deep learning algorithms to identify collapsed buildings from remote sensing images is crucial for rapid post-disaster emergency response. However, the diversity of buildings, limited training dataset size, and lack of ground-truth [...] Read more.
The building damage caused by natural disasters seriously threatens human security. Applying deep learning algorithms to identify collapsed buildings from remote sensing images is crucial for rapid post-disaster emergency response. However, the diversity of buildings, limited training dataset size, and lack of ground-truth samples after sudden disasters can significantly reduce the generalization of a pre-trained model for building damage identification when applied directly to non-preset locations. To address this challenge, a self-incremental learning framework (i.e., SELF) is proposed in this paper, which can quickly improve the generalization ability of the pre-trained model in disaster areas by self-training an incremental model using automatically selected samples from post-disaster images. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on the 2010 Yushu earthquake, 2023 Turkey earthquake, and other disaster types. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of collapsed building identification, with an average increase of more than 6.4% in the Kappa coefficient. Furthermore, the entire process of the self-incremental learning method, including sample selection, incremental learning, and collapsed building identification, can be completed within 6 h after obtaining the post-disaster images. Therefore, the proposed method is effective for emergency response to natural disasters, which can quickly improve the application effect of the deep learning model to provide more accurate building damage results. Full article
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23 pages, 2658 KiB  
Article
GCMTN: Low-Overlap Point Cloud Registration Network Combining Dense Graph Convolution and Multilevel Interactive Transformer
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3908; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153908 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 816
Abstract
A single receptive field limits the expression of multilevel receptive field features in point cloud registration, leading to the pseudo-matching of objects with similar geometric structures in low-overlap scenes, which causes a significant degradation in registration performance. To handle this problem, a point [...] Read more.
A single receptive field limits the expression of multilevel receptive field features in point cloud registration, leading to the pseudo-matching of objects with similar geometric structures in low-overlap scenes, which causes a significant degradation in registration performance. To handle this problem, a point cloud registration network that incorporates dense graph convolution and a mutilevel interaction Transformer (GCMTN) in pursuit of better registration performance in low-overlap scenes is proposed in this paper. In GCMTN, a dense graph feature aggregation module is designed for expanding the receptive field of points and fusing graph features at multiple scales. To make pointwise features more discriminative, a multilevel interaction Transformer module combining Multihead Offset Attention and Multihead Cross Attention is proposed to refine the internal features of the point cloud and perform feature interaction. To filter out the undesirable effects of outliers, an overlap prediction module containing overlap factor and matching factor is also proposed for determining the match ability of points and predicting the overlap region. The final rigid transformation parameters are generated based on the distribution of the overlap region. The proposed GCMTN was extensively verified on publicly available ModelNet and ModelLoNet, 3DMatch and 3DLoMatch, and odometryKITTI datasets and compared with recent methods. The experimental results demonstrate that GCMTN significantly improves the capability of feature extraction and achieves competitive registration performance in low-overlap scenes. Meanwhile, GCMTN has value and potential for application in practical remote sensing tasks. Full article
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23 pages, 26356 KiB  
Article
National-Standards- and Deep-Learning-Oriented Raster and Vector Benchmark Dataset (RVBD) for Land-Use/Land-Cover Mapping in the Yangtze River Basin
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3907; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153907 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
A high-quality remote sensing interpretation dataset has become crucial for driving an intelligent model, i.e., deep learning (DL), to produce land-use/land-cover (LULC) products. The existing remote sensing datasets face the following issues: the current studies (1) lack object-oriented fine-grained information; (2) they cannot [...] Read more.
A high-quality remote sensing interpretation dataset has become crucial for driving an intelligent model, i.e., deep learning (DL), to produce land-use/land-cover (LULC) products. The existing remote sensing datasets face the following issues: the current studies (1) lack object-oriented fine-grained information; (2) they cannot meet national standards; (3) they lack field surveys for labeling samples; and (4) they cannot serve for geographic engineering application directly. To address these gaps, the national-standards- and DL-oriented raster and vector benchmark dataset (RVBD) is the first to be established to map LULC for conducting soil water erosion assessment (SWEA). RVBD has the following significant innovation and contributions: (1) it is the first second-level object- and DL-oriented dataset with raster and vector data for LULC mapping; (2) its classification system conforms to the national industry standards of the Ministry of Water Resources of the People’s Republic of China; (3) it has high-quality LULC interpretation accuracy assisted by field surveys rather than indoor visual interpretation; and (4) it could be applied to serve for SWEA. Our dataset is constructed as follows: (1) spatio-temporal-spectrum information is utilized to perform automatic vectorization and label LULC attributes conforming to the national standards; and (2) several remarkable DL networks (DenseNet161, HorNet, EfficientNetB7, Vision Transformer, and Swin Transformer) are chosen as the baselines to train our dataset, and five evaluation metrics are chosen to perform quantitative evaluation. Experimental results verify the reliability and effectiveness of RVBD. Each chosen network achieves a minimum overall accuracy of 0.81 and a minimum Kappa of 0.80, and Vision Transformer achieves the best classification performance with overall accuracy of 0.87 and Kappa of 0.86. It indicates that RVBD is a significant benchmark, which could lay a foundation for intelligent interpretation of relevant geographic research about SWEA in the Yangtze River Basin and promote artificial intelligence technology to enrich geographical theories and methods. Full article
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27 pages, 21638 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Evaluation of Time Series InSAR Monitoring Results for Landslide Detection
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153906 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques are important for landslide detection and monitoring; however, several limitations and uncertainties, such as the unique north–south flying direction and side-look radar observing geometry, currently limit the ability of InSAR to credibly detect landslides, especially those [...] Read more.
Spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques are important for landslide detection and monitoring; however, several limitations and uncertainties, such as the unique north–south flying direction and side-look radar observing geometry, currently limit the ability of InSAR to credibly detect landslides, especially those related to high and steep slopes. Here, we conducted experimental and statistical analysis on the feasibility of time-series InSAR monitoring for steep slopes using ascending and descending SAR images. First, the theoretical (TGNSS), practical (PGNSS), and terrain (Hterrain) (T-P-H) indices for sensitivity evaluations of the slope displacement monitoring results from time-series InSAR were proposed for slope monitoring. Subsequently, two experimental and statistical studies were conducted for the cases with and without Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) monitoring data. Our experimental results of two high and steep open-pit mines showed that the defined theoretical and practical sensitivity indices can quantitatively evaluate the feasibility of ascending and descending InSAR observations in steep-slope deformation monitoring with GNSS data, and the terrain sensitivity index can qualitatively evaluate the feasibility of landslide monitoring results from ascending and descending Sentinel-1 satellite data without GNSS data. We further demonstrate the generalizability of these proposed indices using four landslide cases with both public GNSS and InSAR monitoring data and 119 landslide cases with only InSAR monitoring data. The statistical results indicated that greater indices correlated with higher reliability of the monitoring results, suggesting that these novel indices have wide suitability and applicability. This study can help to improve the practice of slope deformation monitoring using spaceborne InSAR, especially for high and steep slopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Landslide Prediction, Monitoring and Early Warning)
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21 pages, 7362 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Radiometric Calibration of ZY1-02E Thermal Infrared Data
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3905; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153905 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764 | Correction
Abstract
Following the launch of the ZY1-02E satellite, the thermal infrared sensor aboard the satellite experienced alterations in the space environment, leading to varying degrees of attenuation in some components. The laboratory calibration accuracy could not satisfy the demands of quantitative production, and a [...] Read more.
Following the launch of the ZY1-02E satellite, the thermal infrared sensor aboard the satellite experienced alterations in the space environment, leading to varying degrees of attenuation in some components. The laboratory calibration accuracy could not satisfy the demands of quantitative production, and a certain degree of deviation was observed in on-orbit calibration. To accurately characterize the on-orbit radiation properties of thermal infrared remote sensing payloads, an absolute radiometric calibration campaign was carried out at the Ulansuhai Nur and Baotou calibration sites in Inner Mongolia in July 2022. This paper outlines the processes of onboard calibration and vicarious calibration for the ZY1-02E satellite, comparing the outcomes of onboard calibration with those of vicarious calibration. The onboard calibration method involved internal calibration, while the vicarious calibration method utilized an on-orbit absolute radiometric calibration technique based on various natural features that were not constrained by satellite–Earth spectrum matching requirements. Calibration coefficients were acquired, and the absolute radiometric calibration results of on-orbit vicarious and onboard calibration were compared, analyzed, and verified using the radiance computed from measured data and the reference sensor data. The accuracy of on-orbit absolute vicarious calibration was determined, and the causes for the decline in the radiation calibration accuracy on the orbiting satellite were examined. The findings revealed that the vicarious calibration results exhibited a lower percentage of radiance deviation compared with the onboard calibration results, meeting the quantitative requirements of remote sensing data. These results were significantly better than those obtained from onboard blackbody calibration, offering a data foundation for devising satellite calibration plans and enhancing calibration algorithms. In the future, the developmental trend of on-orbit radiometric calibration technology will encompass high-precision and slow-attenuation onboard calibration techniques, as well as high-frequency and simplified-step vicarious calibration methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing)
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19 pages, 7089 KiB  
Article
Retrieving Sub-Canopy Terrain from ICESat-2 Data Based on the RNR-DCM Filtering and Erroneous Ground Photons Correction Approach
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153904 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
Currently, the new space-based laser altimetry mission, Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), is widely used to obtain terrain information. Photon cloud filtering is a crucial step toward retrieving sub-canopy terrain. However, an unsuccessful photon cloud filtering performance weakens the retrieval of [...] Read more.
Currently, the new space-based laser altimetry mission, Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), is widely used to obtain terrain information. Photon cloud filtering is a crucial step toward retrieving sub-canopy terrain. However, an unsuccessful photon cloud filtering performance weakens the retrieval of sub-canopy terrain. In addition, sub-canopy terrain retrieval would not be accurate in densely forested areas due to existing sparse ground photons. This paper proposes a photon cloud filtering method and a ground photon extraction method to accurately retrieve sub-canopy terrain from ICESat-2 data. First, signal photon cloud data were derived from ICESat-2 data using the proposed photon cloud filtering method. Second, ground photons were extracted based on a specific percentile range of elevation. Third, erroneous ground photons were identified and corrected to obtain accurate sub-canopy terrain results, assuming that the terrain in the local area with accurate ground photons was continuous and therefore could be fitted appropriately through a straight line. Then, the signal photon cloud data obtained by the proposed method were compared with the reference signal photon cloud data. The results demonstrate that the overall accuracy of the signal photon identification achieved by the proposed filtering method exceeded 96.1% in the study areas. The sub-canopy terrain retrieved by the proposed sub-canopy terrain retrieval method was compared with the airborne LiDAR terrain measurements. The root-mean-squared error (RMSE) values in the two study areas were 1.28 m and 1.19 m, while the corresponding R2 (coefficient of determination) values were 0.999 and 0.999, respectively. We also identified and corrected erroneous ground photons with an RMSE lower than 2.079 m in densely forested areas. Therefore, the results of this study can be used to improve the accuracy of sub-canopy terrain retrieval, thus pioneering the application of ICESat-2 data, such as the generation of global sub-canopy terrain products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Smart Forestry II)
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29 pages, 15594 KiB  
Article
A Study on Leveraging Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Collaborative Driving and Aerial Photography Systems to Improve the Accuracy of Crop Phenotyping
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3903; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153903 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based aerial images have enabled a prediction of various factors that affect crop growth. However, the single UAV system leaves much to be desired; the time lag between images affects the accuracy of crop information, lowers the image registration quality [...] Read more.
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based aerial images have enabled a prediction of various factors that affect crop growth. However, the single UAV system leaves much to be desired; the time lag between images affects the accuracy of crop information, lowers the image registration quality and a maximum flight time of 20–25 min, and limits the mission coverage. A multiple UAV system developed from our previous study was used to resolve the problems centered on image registration, battery duration and to improve the accuracy of crop phenotyping. The system can generate flight routes, perform synchronous flying, and ensure capturing and safety protocol. Artificial paddy plants were used to evaluate the multiple UAV system based on leaf area index (LAI) and crop height measurements. The multiple UAV system exhibited lower error rates on average than the single UAV system, with 13.535% (without wind effects) and 17.729–19.693% (with wind effects) for LAI measurements and 5.714% (without wind effect) and 4.418% (with wind effects) for crop’s height measurements. Moreover, the multiple UAV system reduced the flight time by 66%, demonstrating its ability to overcome battery-related barriers. The developed multiple UAV collaborative system has enormous potential to improve crop growth monitoring by addressing long flight time and low-quality phenotyping issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerial Remote Sensing System for Agriculture)
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15 pages, 3898 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Frequency-Divided Magnetic Field and Channel-Base Current for Rocket-Triggered Lightning
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3902; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153902 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Different discharge processes of triggered lightning can radiate electromagnetic signals with different frequency bands. During the triggered-lightning experiment conducted at the Field Experiment Base on Lightning Sciences of China Meteorological Administration (CMA-FEBLS), three magnetic field (B-field) antennas with different frequency responses [...] Read more.
Different discharge processes of triggered lightning can radiate electromagnetic signals with different frequency bands. During the triggered-lightning experiment conducted at the Field Experiment Base on Lightning Sciences of China Meteorological Administration (CMA-FEBLS), three magnetic field (B-field) antennas with different frequency responses were deployed at about 80 m from the rocket-launching site. By using the synchronous observations, the quantitative relationship between the close-range B-field measurement and the channel-base current at different stages of triggered lightning were established in the investigation. The initial continuous current (ICC) waveform can be reconstructed by numerically integrating the B-field signals measured with the dB/dt antenna. However, the slow variations of ICC cannot be retrieved by the B-field signals measured with the LF-MF antenna because the antenna bandwidth cannot cover a frequency below 500 Hz. The B-field signals of the return stroke measured with the low-sensitivity antenna can be simulated by the MTLL return-stroke model, and the B-field signal shows a fairly good consistency with the return-stroke current. The analyses suggest that the current waveform of the natural return stroke that occurred within 1.5 km can be retrieved, or at least its peak value can be estimated by using the B-field measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Remote Sensing)
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33 pages, 16484 KiB  
Article
Rapid Landslide Extraction from High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Using SHAP-OPT-XGBoost
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3901; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153901 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Landslides, the second largest geological hazard after earthquakes, result in significant loss of life and property. Extracting landslide information quickly and accurately is the basis of landslide disaster prevention. Fengjie County, Chongqing, China, is a typical landslide-prone area in the Three Gorges Reservoir [...] Read more.
Landslides, the second largest geological hazard after earthquakes, result in significant loss of life and property. Extracting landslide information quickly and accurately is the basis of landslide disaster prevention. Fengjie County, Chongqing, China, is a typical landslide-prone area in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. In this study, we newly integrate Shapley Additive Explanation (SHAP) and Optuna (OPT) hyperparameter tuning into four basic machine learning algorithms: Gradient Boosting Decision Tree (GBDT), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM), and Additive Boosting (AdaBoost). We construct four new models (SHAP-OPT-GBDT, SHAP-OPT-XGBoost, SHAP-OPT-LightGBM, and SHAP-OPT-AdaBoost) and apply the four new models to landslide extraction for the first time. Firstly, high-resolution remote sensing images were preprocessed, landslide and non-landslide samples were constructed, and an initial feature set with 48 features was built. Secondly, SHAP was used to select features with significant contributions, and the important features were selected. Finally, Optuna, the Bayesian optimization technique, was utilized to automatically select the basic models’ best hyperparameters. The experimental results show that the accuracy (ACC) of these four SHAP-OPT models was above 92% and the training time was less than 1.3 s using mediocre computational hardware. Furthermore, SHAP-OPT-XGBoost achieved the highest accuracy (96.26%). Landslide distribution information in Fengjie County from 2013 to 2020 can be extracted by SHAP-OPT-XGBoost accurately and quickly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rockfall Hazard Analysis Using Remote Sensing Techniques)
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21 pages, 13149 KiB  
Article
A Split-Frequency Filter Network for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3900; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153900 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
The intricate structure of hyperspectral images comprising hundreds of successive spectral bands makes it challenging for conventional approaches to quickly and precisely classify this information. The classification performance of hyperspectral images has substantially improved in the past decade with the emergence of deep-learning-based [...] Read more.
The intricate structure of hyperspectral images comprising hundreds of successive spectral bands makes it challenging for conventional approaches to quickly and precisely classify this information. The classification performance of hyperspectral images has substantially improved in the past decade with the emergence of deep-learning-based techniques. Due to convolutional neural networks’(CNNs) excellent feature extraction and modeling, they have become a robust backbone network for hyperspectral image classification. However, CNNs fail to adequately capture the dependency and contextual information of the sequence of spectral properties due to the restrictions inherent in their fundamental network characteristics. We analyzed hyperspectral image classification from a frequency-domain angle to tackle this issue and proposed a split-frequency filter network. It is a simple and effective network architecture that improves the performance of hyperspectral image classification through three critical operations: a split-frequency filter network, a detail-enhancement layer, and a nonlinear unit. Firstly, a split-frequency filtering network captures the interactions between neighboring spectral bands in the frequency domain. The classification performance is then enhanced using a detail-improvement layer with a frequency-domain attention technique. Finally, a nonlinear unit is incorporated into the frequency-domain output layer to expedite training and boost performance. Experiments on various hyperspectral datasets demonstrate that the method outperforms other state-of-art approaches (an overall accuracy(OA) improvement of at least 2%), particularly when the training sample is insufficient. Full article
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11 pages, 6557 KiB  
Communication
Emerging Signal of Englacial Debris on One Clean Surface Glacier Based on High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Data in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3899; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153899 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 807
Abstract
The Tibetan Plateau contains a large number of mountain glaciers with clean surfaces, where englacial debris is generally entrained by the ice flow and exposed at the glacier margins. The long-term observation on one of the typical clean surface glaciers (the Qiyi Glacier, [...] Read more.
The Tibetan Plateau contains a large number of mountain glaciers with clean surfaces, where englacial debris is generally entrained by the ice flow and exposed at the glacier margins. The long-term observation on one of the typical clean surface glaciers (the Qiyi Glacier, northern Tibetan Plateau) suggests an early emergence of englacial debris on its transport pathway, with accelerated surface melting from the mid-2000s onwards. Given that the englacial debris layers of the tongue part of Qiyi Glacier are approximately parallel to the glacier surface, the continuing melting might be expected to result in the rapid expansion of exposed debris. Compared with the clean surface ice, debris cover at the same elevation reduced glacier mass loss by ~25.4% during a hydrological year (2020–2021), indicating that the early emergence of englacial debris can protect the glacier from climate warming with prolonged life expectance. As such, future glacial runoff will then reach its peak earlier and be followed by a gentler decreasing trend than model projections with constant clean surface ice. These findings imply that the emerging debris on clean surface glacier may mitigate the glacial-runoff risk, which has so far been neglected in projections of future water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Remote Sensing)
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22 pages, 6874 KiB  
Article
Estimating Plant Nitrogen by Developing an Accurate Correlation between VNIR-Only Vegetation Indexes and the Normalized Difference Nitrogen Index
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3898; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153898 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Nitrogen is crucial for plant physiology due to the fact that plants consume a significant amount of nitrogen during the development period. Nitrogen supports the root, leaf, stem, branch, shoot and fruit development of plants. At the same time, it also increases flowering. [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is crucial for plant physiology due to the fact that plants consume a significant amount of nitrogen during the development period. Nitrogen supports the root, leaf, stem, branch, shoot and fruit development of plants. At the same time, it also increases flowering. To monitor the vegetation nitrogen concentration, one of the best indicators developed in the literature is the Normalized Difference Nitrogen Index (NDNI), which is based on the usage of the spectral bands of 1510 and 1680 nm from the Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, the majority of remote sensing sensors, like cameras and/or satellites, do not have an SWIR sensor due to high costs. Many vegetation indexes, like NDVI, EVI and MNLI, have also been developed in the VNIR region to monitor the greenness and health of the crops. However, these indexes are not very well correlated to the nitrogen content. Therefore, in this study, a novel method is developed which transforms the estimated VNIR band indexes to NDNI by using a regression method between a group of VNIR indexes and NDNI. Training is employed by using VNIR band indexes as the input and NDNI as the output, both of which are calculated from the same location. After training, an overall correlation of 0.93 was achieved. Therefore, by using only VNIR band sensors, it is possible to estimate the nitrogen content of the plant with high accuracy. Full article
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20 pages, 4769 KiB  
Article
A Robust and High-Precision Three-Step Positioning Method for an Airborne SAR Platform
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3897; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153897 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 783
Abstract
When airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) encounters long-time global navigation satellite system (GNSS) denial, the system cannot eliminate inertial navigation system (INS) accumulated drift. Platform positioning technology based on SAR image-matching is one of the important auxiliary navigation methods. This paper proposes a [...] Read more.
When airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) encounters long-time global navigation satellite system (GNSS) denial, the system cannot eliminate inertial navigation system (INS) accumulated drift. Platform positioning technology based on SAR image-matching is one of the important auxiliary navigation methods. This paper proposes a three-step positioning method for an airborne SAR platform, which can achieve the robust and high-precision estimation of platform position and velocity. Firstly, the motion model of the airborne SAR platform is established and a nonlinear overdetermined equation set of SAR Range-Doppler based on the ground-control points set obtained by SAR image-matching is constructed. Then, to overcome the ill-conditioned problem generated by the singular Jacobian matrix when solving the equations directly, a three-step robust and high-precision estimation of platform position and velocity is achieved through singular value decomposition and equation decoupling. Furthermore, the error transfer model of systematic and random platform positioning errors is derived. Finally, a set of semi-physical simulation experiments of airborne SAR is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the positioning method and the accuracy of the error model presented in this paper. Full article
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15 pages, 2922 KiB  
Article
Implementation of the Optical Flow to Estimate the Propagation of Eddies in the South Atlantic Ocean
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3894; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153894 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
The ocean is filled with mesoscale eddies that account for most of the oceanic kinetic energy. The importance of eddies in transporting properties and energy across the ocean basins has led to numerous efforts to track their motion. Here, we implement a computer [...] Read more.
The ocean is filled with mesoscale eddies that account for most of the oceanic kinetic energy. The importance of eddies in transporting properties and energy across the ocean basins has led to numerous efforts to track their motion. Here, we implement a computer vision technique—the optical flow—to map the pathways of mesoscale eddies in the South Atlantic Ocean. The optical flow is applied to the pairs of consecutive sea surface height maps produced from a nearly 30-year-long satellite altimetry record. In contrast to other methods to estimate the eddy propagation velocity, the optical flow can reveal the temporal evolution of eddy motion, which is particularly useful in the regions of strong currents. We present the time-dependent estimates of the speed and direction of eddy propagation in the Eulerian frame of reference. In an excellent agreement with earlier studies, the obtained pattern of eddy propagation reveals the interaction of eddies with the background flow and the bottom topography. We show that in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, the variability of the eddy propagation velocity is correlated with the variability of the surface geostrophic velocity, demonstrating the robustness of the optical flow to detect the time-variable part of eddy motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Satellite Altimetry in Ocean Observation)
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18 pages, 2126 KiB  
Article
DAFNet: A Novel Change-Detection Model for High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Imagery Based on Feature Difference and Attention Mechanism
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3896; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153896 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Change detection is an important component in the field of remote sensing. At present, deep-learning-based change-detection methods have acquired many breakthrough results. However, current algorithms still present issues such as target misdetection, false alarms, and blurry edges. To alleviate these problems, this work [...] Read more.
Change detection is an important component in the field of remote sensing. At present, deep-learning-based change-detection methods have acquired many breakthrough results. However, current algorithms still present issues such as target misdetection, false alarms, and blurry edges. To alleviate these problems, this work proposes a network based on feature differences and attention mechanisms. This network includes a Siamese architecture-encoding network that encodes images at different times, a Difference Feature-Extraction Module (DFEM) for extracting difference features from bitemporal images, an Attention-Regulation Module (ARM) for optimizing the extracted difference features through attention, and a Cross-Scale Feature-Fusion Module (CSFM) for merging features from different encoding stages. Experimental results demonstrate that this method effectively alleviates issues of target misdetection, false alarms, and blurry edges. Full article
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27 pages, 54337 KiB  
Article
Using Local Knowledge and Remote Sensing in the Identification of Informal Settlements in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3895; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153895 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Urban planning within Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, has been impacted by the presence of informal settlements. An understanding of the spatial distribution of these settlements is essential in developing urban policies. This study used remotely sensed imagery to evaluate and characterize [...] Read more.
Urban planning within Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, has been impacted by the presence of informal settlements. An understanding of the spatial distribution of these settlements is essential in developing urban policies. This study used remotely sensed imagery to evaluate and characterize informal settlements within the city, both with and without expert knowledge of the study area (defined as expert knowledge, EK). An informal settlement ontology for four study sites within Riyadh City was developed using an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Local knowledge was translated into a ruleset to identify and map settlement areas using spatial, spectral, textural, and geometric techniques. These were combined with an object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach. The study demonstrated that combining expert knowledge and remotely sensed data can efficiently and accurately identify informal settlements. Two classified images were produced, one with EK, and one without EK, to investigate how a detailed understanding of local conditions could affect the final image classification. Overall accuracy when using EK was 94%, with a kappa coefficient of 89%, while without EK accuracy was 68% (kappa coefficient of 61%). The final OBIA classes included formal and informal settlements, road networks, vacant blocks, shaded areas, and vegetation. This study demonstrated that local expert knowledge and OBIA helpful in urban mapping. It also indicated the value of integrating a local ontological process during digital image classification. This work provided improved techniques for mapping informal settlements in Middle Eastern cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Remote Sensing)
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19 pages, 8710 KiB  
Article
Validation of MODIS Temperature and Emissivity Products Based on Ground-Based Mid-Wave Hyperspectral Imaging Measurement in the Northwestern Plateau Region of Qinghai, China
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3893; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153893 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 699
Abstract
The climatic fluctuations in northern China exhibit remarkable variability, making it imperative to harness the power of MODIS data for conducting comprehensive investigations into the influences of desertification, desert expansion, and snow and ice melting phenomena. Consequently, the rigorous evaluation of MODIS land [...] Read more.
The climatic fluctuations in northern China exhibit remarkable variability, making it imperative to harness the power of MODIS data for conducting comprehensive investigations into the influences of desertification, desert expansion, and snow and ice melting phenomena. Consequently, the rigorous evaluation of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and land surface emissivity (LSE) products takes on a momentous role, as this provides an essential means to ensure data accuracy, thereby instilling confidence in the robustness of scientific analyses. In this study, a high-resolution hyperspectral imaging instrument was utilized to measure mid-wave hyperspectral images of grasslands and deserts in the northwest plateau region of Qinghai, China. The measured data were processed in order to remove the effects of sensor noise, atmospheric radiation, transmission attenuation, and scattering caused by sunlight and atmospheric radiation. Inversion of the temperature field and spectral emissivity was performed on the measured data. The inverted data were compared and validated against MODIS land surface temperature and emissivity products. The validation results showed that the absolute errors of emissivity of grassland backgrounds provided by MCD11C1 in the three mid-wave infrared bands (3.66–3.840 μm, 3.929–3.989 μm, and 4.010–4.080 μm) were 0.0376, 0.0191, and 0.0429, with relative errors of 3.9%, 2.1%, and 4.8%, respectively. For desert backgrounds, the absolute errors of emissivity were 0.0057, 0.0458, and 0.0412, with relative errors of 0.4%, 4.9%, and 3.9%, respectively. The relative errors for each channel were all within 5%. Regarding the temperature data products, compared to the inverted temperatures of the deserts and grasslands, the remote sensing temperatures provided by MOD11L2 had absolute errors of ±2.3 K and ±4.1 K, with relative errors of 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. The relative errors for the temperature products were all within 2%. Full article
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22 pages, 19185 KiB  
Article
I–D Threshold Analysis of Rainfall-Triggered Landslides Based on TRMM Precipitation Data in Wudu, China
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3892; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153892 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
This study explored the applicability of TRMM, TRMM nonlinear downscaling, and ANUSPLIN (ANU) interpolation of three different types of precipitation data to define regional-scale rainfall-triggered landslide thresholds. The spatial resolution of TRMM precipitation data was downscaled from 0.25° to 500 m by the [...] Read more.
This study explored the applicability of TRMM, TRMM nonlinear downscaling, and ANUSPLIN (ANU) interpolation of three different types of precipitation data to define regional-scale rainfall-triggered landslide thresholds. The spatial resolution of TRMM precipitation data was downscaled from 0.25° to 500 m by the downscaling model considering the relationship between humidity, NDVI, and numerous topographic factors and precipitation. The rainfall threshold was calculated using the rainfall intensity–duration threshold model. The calculation showed that TRMM downscaled precipitation data have better detection capability for extreme precipitation events than the other two, the TRMM downscaling threshold was better than the ANU interpolation, and the cumulative effective rainfall of TRMM downscaling was preferred as the macroscopic critical rainfall-triggered landslide threshold for the early warning of the Wudu. The predictive performance of the rainfall threshold of 50% was better than the other two (10% and 90%). When the probability of landslide occurrence was 50%, the TRMM downscaled threshold curve was given by I50=21.03×D1.004. The authors also analyzed the influence of factors such as topography landform and soil type on the rainfall threshold of landslides in the study area. The rainfall intensity of small undulating mountains was higher than that of medium and large undulating mountains, and the rainfall intensity of landslides peaks at high altitude mountains of 3500–5000 m. Full article
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22 pages, 10124 KiB  
Article
Vegetation Dynamics and Its Response to Extreme Climate on the Inner Mongolian Plateau during 1982–2020
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3891; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153891 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
The impact of extreme climate change on terrestrial ecosystems continues to intensify. This study was conducted to understand extreme climate–vegetation interactions under exacerbated frequency, severity, and duration of extreme climatic events. The Inner Mongolian Plateau (IMP) was selected due to its sensitive natural [...] Read more.
The impact of extreme climate change on terrestrial ecosystems continues to intensify. This study was conducted to understand extreme climate–vegetation interactions under exacerbated frequency, severity, and duration of extreme climatic events. The Inner Mongolian Plateau (IMP) was selected due to its sensitive natural location, which is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and daily meteorological station data from 1982 to 2020, changes in the patterns of vegetation and extreme climate in the three ecological zones (forest, steppe, and desert steppe) of the IMP were identified. Furthermore, the effects of extreme climate on vegetation were quantified using correlation analysis and a geographical detector. The results showed that the annual NDVI of 95.1%, 50.6%, and 19.5% of the area increased significantly in the forest, steppe, and desert steppe, respectively. The Tx90p (warm days) and Tn90p (warm nights) increased significantly at the rate of 0.21 and 0.235 day·yr−1, respectively, while the Tx10p (cold days) and Tn10p (cold nights) showed a significantly decreasing trend at the rate of −0.105 and −0.117 day·yr−1. An extreme warming phenomenon was observed in all extreme temperature indices on the IMP. The results of both the correlation analysis and factor detector indicated that extreme temperature intensity and frequency greatly affected forest vegetation. In contrast, extreme precipitation intensity and frequency were relatively more important to the vegetation of the desert steppe. The lag in NDVI response to extreme temperature intensity was not less than three months in the IMP; however, extreme precipitation intensity exhibited a two-month time lag in the NDVI. This study can improve our understanding of extreme climate–vegetation interactions, provide theoretical support for disaster mitigation, and aid in understanding the ecological environment of the IMP. Full article
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19 pages, 4977 KiB  
Article
Hyperspectral Unmixing Network Accounting for Spectral Variability Based on a Modified Scaled and a Perturbed Linear Mixing Model
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3890; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153890 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Spectral unmixing is one of the prime topics in hyperspectral image analysis, as images often contain multiple sources of spectra. Spectral variability is one of the key factors affecting unmixing accuracy, since spectral signatures are affected by variations in environmental conditions. These and [...] Read more.
Spectral unmixing is one of the prime topics in hyperspectral image analysis, as images often contain multiple sources of spectra. Spectral variability is one of the key factors affecting unmixing accuracy, since spectral signatures are affected by variations in environmental conditions. These and other factors interfere with the accurate discrimination of source type. Several spectral mixing models have been proposed for hyperspectral unmixing to address the spectral variability problem. The interpretation for the spectral variability of these models is usually insufficient, and the unmixing algorithms corresponding to these models are usually classic unmixing techniques. Hyperspectral unmixing algorithms based on deep learning have outperformed classic algorithms. In this paper, based on the typical extended linear mixing model and the perturbed linear mixing model, the scaled and perturbed linear mixing model is constructed, and a spectral unmixing network based on this model is constructed using fully connected neural networks and variational autoencoders to update the abundances, scales, and perturbations involved in the variable endmembers. Adding spatial smoothness constraints to the scale and adding regularization constraints to the perturbation improve the robustness of the model, and adding sparseness constraints to the abundance determination prevents overfitting. The proposed approach is evaluated on both synthetic and real data sets. Experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method against other competitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hyperspectral Data Exploitation II)
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24 pages, 10588 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Application of SMRT Model for L-Band Brightness Temperature Simulation in Arctic Sea Ice
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3889; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153889 - 05 Aug 2023
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Using L-band microwave radiative transfer theory to retrieve ice and snow parameters is one of the focuses of Arctic research. At present, due to limitations of frequency and substrates, few operational microwave radiative transfer models can be used to simulate L-band brightness temperature [...] Read more.
Using L-band microwave radiative transfer theory to retrieve ice and snow parameters is one of the focuses of Arctic research. At present, due to limitations of frequency and substrates, few operational microwave radiative transfer models can be used to simulate L-band brightness temperature (TB) in Arctic sea ice. The snow microwave radiative transfer (SMRT) model, developed with the support of the European Space Agency in 2018, has been used to simulate high-frequency TB in polar regions and has obtained good results, but no studies have shown whether it can be used appropriately in the L-band. Therefore, in this study, we systematically evaluate the ability of the SMRT model to simulate L-band TB in the Arctic sea ice and snow environment, and we show that the results are significantly optimized by improving the simulation method. In this paper, we first consider the thermal insulation effect of snow by adding the thermodynamic equation, then use a reasonable salinity profile formula for multi-layer model simulation to solve the problem of excessive L-band penetration in the SMRT single-layer model, and finally add ice lead correction to resolve the large influence it has on the results. The improved SMRT model is evaluated using Operation IceBridge (OIB) data from 2012 to 2015 and compared with the snow-corrected classical L-band radiative transfer model for Arctic sea ice proposed in 2010 (KA2010). The results show that the SMRT model has better simulation results, and the correlation coefficient (R) between SMRT-simulated TB and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite TB is 0.65, and the RMSE is 3.11 K. Finally, the SMRT model with the improved simulation method is applied to the whole Arctic from November 2014 to April 2015, and the simulated R is 0.63, and the RMSE is 5.22 K. The results show that the SMRT multi-layer model is feasible for simulating L-band TB in the Arctic sea ice and snow environment, which provides a basis for the retrieval of Arctic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Polar Sea Ice)
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19 pages, 34606 KiB  
Article
Research on Detection and Safety Analysis of Unfavorable Geological Bodies Based on OCTEM-PHA
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3888; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153888 - 05 Aug 2023
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The caving method and mining disturbance may cause geological issues. The advance prediction of unfavorable geological bodies should be conducted to ensure product safety in the underground mine. In this study, we proposed the OCTEM-PHA analysis process and analyzed the Tongkeng Mine in [...] Read more.
The caving method and mining disturbance may cause geological issues. The advance prediction of unfavorable geological bodies should be conducted to ensure product safety in the underground mine. In this study, we proposed the OCTEM-PHA analysis process and analyzed the Tongkeng Mine in Guangxi. Further, we conducted opposing-coil transient electromagnetic method (OCTEM) detection on four detection lines in T5-1 stope at mine level 386 by using portable geological remote sensing equipment and created inversion maps. Plot profiles and coupling were analyzed with inversion maps to explore the five types of risk factors presented in the mine. The preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) method was used for five types of risk factors to predict the accident consequence and develop safety countermeasures. The results indicate the following: (1) the OCTEM-PHA safety analysis process for unfavorable geological bodies is realistic and feasible. (2) OCTEM shows an excellent response to both high- and low-resistance anomalies in practical engineering applications. The coupling analysis of profiles and inversion maps helps visually analyze the area of apparent resistivity anomalies. (3) The studied mine did not show overhanging formed by the overlying rock layer and large loose void areas. However, the crumbling mining area should be further optimized for balanced mining, the treatment of groundwater and surface water should be improved, and the comparative analysis with the follow-up detection results should be increased. Full article
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