Next Issue
Volume 13, February-1
Previous Issue
Volume 13, January-1
sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sustainability, Volume 13, Issue 2 (January-2 2021) – 570 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Agriculture figures prominently in the global quest for sustainability. Having co-evolved with societal structures such as technology, retail, consumer habits and policies, agricultural systems constitute sociotechnical regimes. Governance, with its manifold actors and levels, plays a key role in transitioning agricultural regimes toward sustainability. Our systematic review of the emerging field of governing transitions to sustainable agriculture yields seven distinct perspectives: conceptualizations of agricultural transitions; public regulation; knowledge and learning; sustainable solutions; local networks; agri-food businesses; and gender. Most papers study local niche developments and discuss governance options for upscaling, rather than actual regime change. More comparative work and stronger conceptual coherence will benefit progress in the currently highly fragmented field. View [...] Read more.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Why Does Context Really Matter? Understanding Companies’ Dialogue with Fringe Communities
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020999 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Although scholars have studied stakeholder dialogue, we lack studies that understand the effect of context on the structure and form of dialogue. To address this gap, in this research we focus on local rural communities that can be classified as fringe stakeholders to [...] Read more.
Although scholars have studied stakeholder dialogue, we lack studies that understand the effect of context on the structure and form of dialogue. To address this gap, in this research we focus on local rural communities that can be classified as fringe stakeholders to develop a comprehensive model of “fringe community dialogue”. As these neglected groups have been marginalized from society and face grave serious socio-environmental issues, we argue that these characteristics will affect the way dialogue occurs. Therefore, we posit that these instances need to be tailored to this specific stakeholder. To assess this, we follow a theory-building grounded theory approach, and as field of research we extract information from three different research sites. Findings indicate that, because of the characteristics of fringe communities, dialogues must follow three sequential dimensions, which are connected by two enabling mechanisms. We contribute by evincing that, because of this stakeholder’s characteristics, the dialogue process has a particular structure and key variables, differing from what the past literature asserts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interactional Justice, Informational Quality, and Sustainable Supply Chain Management: A Comparison of Domestic and Multinational Pharmaceutical Companies
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020998 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
As the business environment gradually intensifies, interest in building efficient supply chain relationships is growing. The basic principle of supply chain management (SCM) is to enhance efficiency by maintaining sustainable relationships between companies in the supply chain. This study classifies interactional justice into [...] Read more.
As the business environment gradually intensifies, interest in building efficient supply chain relationships is growing. The basic principle of supply chain management (SCM) is to enhance efficiency by maintaining sustainable relationships between companies in the supply chain. This study classifies interactional justice into interpersonal justice and informational justice and examines their effects on informational quality and sustainable SCM by comparing Korean pharmaceutical companies with multinationals. The study used a theoretical structural model to investigate the causal impact of interactional justice on informational quality and sustainable SCM. The results indicated that interpersonal justice showed a significant positive relationship with informational justice. Further, interpersonal justice and informational justice had a significant positive effect on informational quality in Korean pharmaceutical companies but not in multinationals. Finally, informational quality had a positive effect on sustainable SCM performance regardless of the company’s nationality. This study is important because it identified the influence of interactional justice on informational quality and sustainable SCM by comparing Korean with multinational pharmaceutical companies. The study also highlighted the necessity of interpersonal justice and informational justice in the pharmaceutical industry. Lastly, the study suggests a useful method for the literature to investigate pharmaceutical companies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Geographical Modelling of Transit Deserts in Cape Town
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020997 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
The World Bank calculated South Africa’s 2018 Gini Coefficient to be 0.63, which made it the world’s most unequal country. Such inequality is perpetuated by land-use patterns still influenced by the apartheid past. The resulting urban form necessitates long travel distances, often relying [...] Read more.
The World Bank calculated South Africa’s 2018 Gini Coefficient to be 0.63, which made it the world’s most unequal country. Such inequality is perpetuated by land-use patterns still influenced by the apartheid past. The resulting urban form necessitates long travel distances, often relying on fragmented transit modes, each with their own geographical and temporal constraints. This study applies work on transit deserts in cities in the global north to Cape Town, aiming to assess the methodological transferability to the global south, and generating case study results. In the Cape Town case, the study first analyses transit deserts based on formal public transport supply (bus rapid transit, traditional bus and train), identifying that ten out of 18 traffic analysis zones were classified as transit gaps (some unserved demand), while three of these zones qualified as transit deserts (significant undersupply). Like its U.S. counterparts, excess supply is found near Cape Town’s city centre. In Cape Town, the transit gaps/deserts are partly filled by unscheduled minibus-taxis. When this informal public transport service is added, the transit deserts disappear; however, half of the transport analysis zones still qualify as having transit gaps. It is, therefore, concluded that informal public transit in Cape Town reduces the transit gap, but does not eliminate it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fairness in Transport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Research on Sustainable Land Use Based on Production–Living–Ecological Function: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020996 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
After decades of rapid development, there exists insufficient and contradictory land use in the world, and social, economic and ecological sustainable development is facing severe challenges. Balanced land use functions (LUFs) can promote sustainable land use and reduces land pressures from limited land [...] Read more.
After decades of rapid development, there exists insufficient and contradictory land use in the world, and social, economic and ecological sustainable development is facing severe challenges. Balanced land use functions (LUFs) can promote sustainable land use and reduces land pressures from limited land resources. In this study, we propose a new conceptual index system using the entropy weight method, regional center of gravity theory, coupling coordination degree model and obstacle factor identification model for LUFs assessment and spatial-temporal analysis. This framework was applied to 17 cities in central China’s Hubei Province using 39 indicators in terms of production–living–ecology analysis during 1996–2016. The result shows that (1) LUFs showed an overall upward trend during the study period, while the way of promotion varied with different dimensions. Production function (PF) experienced a continuous enhancement during the study period. Living function (LF) was similar in this aspect, but showed a faster rising tendency. EF continued to increase during 1996–2011, but declined during 2011–2016. LUFs were higher in the east than in the west, and slightly higher in the south than in the north. The spatial coordination was enhanced during the study period. (2) The overall level of coupling coordination degree continued to increase during 1996–2016, while regional difference declined obviously, indicating a good developing trend. However, the absolute level was still not satisfactory. (3) The obstacle degree of PF was always dominant, and LF showed a downward trend, while EF showed an increasing trend. Benefit index (A2), Comfort index (B2) and Green index (C1) constituted the primary obstacle factor for each dimension. Added-value of high and new technology industry (A2-3) and land use intensity (A3-2) were key factors restricting PF. Number of medical practitioner (B1-4) and internet penetration rate (B2-3) were key factors restricting LF. Air quality rate (C3-1) and wetland coverage rate (C1-4) were key factors restricting EF. This study can help to give a more detailed understanding of sustainable land use for the particularity of China from a land function perspective and provide lessons and suggestions for other developing countries in the world. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Applying a Practice Lens to Local Government Climate Change Governance: Rethinking Community Engagement Practices
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020995 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Governments commit substantial time and resources engaging individuals and households to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. These approaches, based largely upon behaviour change theories, have been criticised for their limited reach and effectiveness by practice theorists who have offered an alternative approach, broadening [...] Read more.
Governments commit substantial time and resources engaging individuals and households to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. These approaches, based largely upon behaviour change theories, have been criticised for their limited reach and effectiveness by practice theorists who have offered an alternative approach, broadening the focus beyond individuals. While practice theory has provided valuable insights into the energy consuming activities of households it has gained limited traction as a way to analyse and inform government practices and policy making. We address this by applying a practice lens to climate change community engagement practices performed by Australian local governments. Drawing on 29 interviews with practitioners and analysis of 37 Australian local government climate strategies, we examine the bundle of practices that constitute climate change community engagement: recruitment, engagement and evaluation. We consider how these practices are situated vis-a-vis other climate governance practices (regulation, service delivery, infrastructure provision and advocacy) as well as internal local government processes. Using a practice lens reveals the weaknesses in current engagement approaches which we contend are limiting efficacy. We draw upon Spurling et al.’s conceptualisation of re-crafting, re-integrating and substituting practices to consider how climate change community engagement practices might be reconfigured to improve their effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air, Climate Change and Sustainability)
Article
Assessing the Effects of Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP on Acidification and Inorganic N Leaching Loss from Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Cultivated Soils with Increasing Urea–N Rates
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020994 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
The effects of nitrification inhibitor in tea gardens with different urea–N rates have rarely been assessed. For eight months, a glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a nitrification inhibitor (3, 4–dimethylpyrazole phosphate, DMPP) on the changes of soil pH and [...] Read more.
The effects of nitrification inhibitor in tea gardens with different urea–N rates have rarely been assessed. For eight months, a glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a nitrification inhibitor (3, 4–dimethylpyrazole phosphate, DMPP) on the changes of soil pH and inorganic N loss. Urea (0, 300, 500, and 800 kg N ha−1) with or without DMPP (1% of urea–N applied) were added to pots that hosted six plants that were three years old. Next, three leaching events were conducted with 600 mL of water after 7, 35, and 71 days of intervention while soil samples were collected to determine pH and inorganic N. Averaged across sampling dates, urea–N application at an increasing rate reduced soil pH with the lowest values at 800 kg urea–N ha−1. Adding DMPP increased soil pH up to a rate of 500 kg ha−1. Irrespective of the addition of DMPP, gradient urea–N application increased the leaching loss of inorganic N. On overage, DMPP increased soil pH and decreased leaching losses of total inorganic N, suggesting a higher soil N retention. Therefore, we believe that this increase in soil pH is associated with a relatively lower proton release from the reduced nitrification in the DMPP–receiving pots. This nitrification reduction also contributed to the N loss reduction (NO3–N). Altogether, our results suggest that DMPP can reduce N leaching loss while maintaining the pH of tea–cultivated soils. Therefore, DMPP application has a significant potential for the sustainable N management of tea gardens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Soil Health Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Influence of Sedimentation Ponds of the Former Soda “Solvay” Plant in Krakow on the Chemistry of the Wilga River
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020993 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
This paper explores how the chemistry of the Wilga River is affected by the sedimentation ponds at the former Soda “Solvay” Plant in Krakow. Despite the revitalization of the sedimentation ponds about 30 years ago, the chemistry of the samples was characterized by [...] Read more.
This paper explores how the chemistry of the Wilga River is affected by the sedimentation ponds at the former Soda “Solvay” Plant in Krakow. Despite the revitalization of the sedimentation ponds about 30 years ago, the chemistry of the samples was characterized by high EC (from 845 to 3000 µS cm−1), high concentration of Cl (up to 800 mg L−1), Ca (up to 270 mg L−1), and SO42− (up to 115 mg L−1), and a high value for Na (up to 270 mg L−1) was noted—surface water quality standards were exceeded. The effect of high mineralization by those elements, generated in wastewater during soda waste production, were noted to have seasonal and vertical variability. We concluded that, despite the industrial shutdown and revitalization processes, the drainage of industrial water can have serious and long-term negative effects on quality of water and the Wilga River ecosystem. The Wilga River is one of the most important examples of important environmental problems in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Solid Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Encouraging Individuals to Adapt to Climate Change: Relations between Coping Strategies and Psychological Distance
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020992 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Experts agree that the environmental situation in relation to climate change requires that populations mobilize. In this respect, research on psychological distance shows that the fact of perceiving an event as concrete leads individuals to adapt to this environmental issue. The first aim [...] Read more.
Experts agree that the environmental situation in relation to climate change requires that populations mobilize. In this respect, research on psychological distance shows that the fact of perceiving an event as concrete leads individuals to adapt to this environmental issue. The first aim of this research study is to identify the different types of environmental coping as regards climate change. The second objective is to study the relations between psychological distance relative to climate change and environmental coping strategies via a quasi-experimental protocol. In order to do this, 345 participants were assigned to a group where climate change was presented as more or less distant from a spatial, temporal, social or hypothetical point of view. On the one hand, the results enable the identification of two second-order factors regarding coping strategies in relation to climate change: Strategies centered on accepting climate change and those centered on minimizing its gravity. On the other hand, covariance analyses and path analyses show that, in general, a small psychological distance in relation to climate change is likely to be associated with more strategies centered on accepting climate change and fewer strategies focused on minimizing its gravity. This study leads us to ponder the pertinence of considering the psychological distance model, notably during awareness-raising campaigns. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Progress on Relationship between Natural Environment and Mental Health in China
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020991 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Natural environment has a positive effect on individual mental health, which can be proved by many studies, both domestic and overseas. At present, some sunrise industries such as forest healthcare and natural tourism are booming in China. However, academically speaking, there’s still a [...] Read more.
Natural environment has a positive effect on individual mental health, which can be proved by many studies, both domestic and overseas. At present, some sunrise industries such as forest healthcare and natural tourism are booming in China. However, academically speaking, there’s still a lack of systematic summary of researches on the relationship between natural environment and mental health in China, as well as a lack of comparison with foreign research achievements, which hinders the further development of the field to some extent in China. Therefore, this paper reviews the literature systematically by using the database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), in order to understand the research status in China and find out its gap with foreign studies. The results show that the study in this area in China can be divided into three stages, namely the embryonic stage (prior to 2000), the start-up stage (2001–2008) and the stage of initial development (since 2009); disciplines involved in the study mainly cover forestry, agriculture, psychology, medicine, sports science, tourism, ecology, education and geography. In general, the research in China concentrates on four topics: ecological psychology, the impact of natural ecological environment on mental health, the impact of artificial ecological environment on mental health, as well as the impact of natural tourism on mental health. Based on the findings, a future study framework and some main study lines are suggested: firstly, a systematic study on the relationship between natural environment and mental health in other countries should be conducted; secondly, factors affecting mental health in natural environment should be identified; thirdly, an evaluation system of psychological effect of natural environment should be established; finally, the utilization modes and influencing mechanism of natural environment should be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gender and Age Do Matter: Exploring the Effect of Passengers’ Gender and Age on the Perception of Light Rail Transit Service Quality in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020990 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Light rail transit (LRT) is a sustainable transportation mode that ensures sustainable environmental, economic, and social development. Generally, the rate of public transportation usage in many parts of the world remains low compared to private vehicles. There is a need to understand passengers’ [...] Read more.
Light rail transit (LRT) is a sustainable transportation mode that ensures sustainable environmental, economic, and social development. Generally, the rate of public transportation usage in many parts of the world remains low compared to private vehicles. There is a need to understand passengers’ perception of public transportation service quality to enhance passenger satisfaction and increase ridership. Thus, this study used the Kuala Lumpur LRT service as a case study to investigate the effect of a passenger’s gender and age on their perception of the LRT service quality and their overall satisfaction. This survey involved 417 respondents. The outcome of factor analysis indicated that eight factors—i.e., signage, comfort, speediness, safety, ticketing service, facilities, staff service, and provision of information—influenced passenger satisfaction. The results of the Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis test indicated that the factors influencing passenger satisfaction significantly varied across a passenger’s gender and age. A more in-depth and comprehensive analysis using the ordered logit model and segmentation approach proved that provision of information, comfort, staff service, and facilities were critical determiners of passenger satisfaction in most segments. Safety factors and ticketing services had no impact on overall passenger satisfaction. The findings of this research could help LRT service providers, researchers, and policymakers formulate effective strategies for enhancing passenger satisfaction and increase the ridership for LRT services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Social Farming in the Virtuous System of the Circular Economy. An Exploratory Research
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020989 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Multifunctionality and social farming represent forms of resilience and innovation within urban and rural systems, making use of agricultural, rural, natural, and cultural resources to produce multiple benefits and eco-systemic services. Social farming (SF) introduces innovative activities capable of representing a factor supporting [...] Read more.
Multifunctionality and social farming represent forms of resilience and innovation within urban and rural systems, making use of agricultural, rural, natural, and cultural resources to produce multiple benefits and eco-systemic services. Social farming (SF) introduces innovative activities capable of representing a factor supporting the competitiveness of the production system and represents a tool for responding to the growing needs of urban and rural populations in social, economic, and environmental terms, in relation to the offer of social- health, social-work, recreative and educational services. SF is an innovative model of territorial, participatory, relational, and community service development that looks to an inclusive, sustainable, fair, and supportive society. Its success is linked to the ability to spread within the economic system and become a circular economy model highlighting good practices and as a virtuous example for other companies. The purpose of this work is to examine the role and social impact that Social Farming has in the environmental, social, and cultural changes of the territories where they are located. Case studies in an area of Southern Italy—the Calabria region—were examined with multicriteria methodologies (social network analysis; multiple correspondence analysis) to identify the type of social activity carried out and the propensity to introduce innovations based on services ecosystems on farms. The results show the potential and value of the companies that carry out these social innovation activities. The analysis carried out has drawn some indicative profiles of socially oriented multifunctional companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards More Sustainable Food Systems: A Circular Economy Approach)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
How Construction Employment Can Create Social Value and Assist Recovery from COVID-19
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020988 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
COVID-19 has created or amplified economic and social crises internationally. Australia entered its first recession in 30 years and saw a significant rise in unemployment. In response, Australian governments have increased their commitments to infrastructure construction to stimulate the national economy and combined [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has created or amplified economic and social crises internationally. Australia entered its first recession in 30 years and saw a significant rise in unemployment. In response, Australian governments have increased their commitments to infrastructure construction to stimulate the national economy and combined this with new social procurement policies that aim to create social value for targeted populations like Indigenous peoples and unemployed youth. However, emerging social procurement research in construction shows a disconnect between policymakers and the practitioners who must implement them. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide theoretical and practical insights on creating social value in the context of construction employment created by new social procurement policies. Reporting a survey of 107 construction workers in Australia, it is shown that social procurement policies and construction employers can create social value when they provide work benefits like adequate pay and training and development and cultural benefits like inclusive workplaces. Recommendations are made to demonstrate how the results presented in this article can be used by contractors to create social value. This research is significant for advising how increased infrastructure spending commitments in Australia can create social and economic outcomes for workers, ensuring a sustainable recovery from COVID-19 crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Impact of China’s Tightening Environmental Regulations on International Waste Trade and Logistics
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020987 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
In recent years, China’s influence as the dominant importer of waste products has reshaped global waste trade through restrictive programs such as Operation Green Fence in 2013 and National Sword in 2017. These restrictions have greatly affected not only China’s import of waste [...] Read more.
In recent years, China’s influence as the dominant importer of waste products has reshaped global waste trade through restrictive programs such as Operation Green Fence in 2013 and National Sword in 2017. These restrictions have greatly affected not only China’s import of waste products but also the international trade and global logistics of these products. China’s import restrictions in 2017 decreased the country’s import of waste plastic by 92% and used paper by 56%. It also increased the unit value of these two categories of waste by 27% and 13%, respectively, showing an improvement in the quality of imported waste. Most of these impacts originate from intensive margins. The restrictions diverted the flow of waste mostly to the low- and middle-income countries of the East Asian and Pacific regions along with Europe and Central Asia, as their imports increased by 161% and 266% for waste plastic and 101% and 77% for used paper, respectively. Compared with Operation Green Fence, the impact of the 2017 National Sword has been much higher, with shipping companies faced with a lack of products on backhaul routes and forced to change their longstanding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global and International Logistics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Innovation in NBS Co-Design and Implementation
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020986 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Impacts in the form of innovation and commercialization are essential components of publicly funded research projects. PHUSICOS ("According to nature" in Greek), an EU Horizon 2020 program (H2020) Innovation Action project, aims to demonstrate the use of nature-based solutions (NBS) to mitigate hydrometeorological [...] Read more.
Impacts in the form of innovation and commercialization are essential components of publicly funded research projects. PHUSICOS ("According to nature" in Greek), an EU Horizon 2020 program (H2020) Innovation Action project, aims to demonstrate the use of nature-based solutions (NBS) to mitigate hydrometeorological hazards in rural and mountainous areas. The work program is built around key innovation actions, and each Work Package (WP) leader is specifically responsible for nurturing innovation processes, maintaining market focus, and ensuring relevance for the intended recipients of the project results. Key success criteria for PHUSICOS include up-scaling and mainstream implementation of NBS to achieve broader market access. An innovation strategy and supporting tools for implementing this within PHUSICOS has been developed and key concepts forming the basis for this strategy are presented in this research note. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions—Concept, Evaluation, and Governance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
q-Rung Orthopair Fuzzy TOPSIS Method for Green Supplier Selection Problem
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020985 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Supply chain management is to improve competitive stress. In today’s world, competitive terms and customer sense have altered in favor of an environmentalist manner. As a result of this, green supplier selection has become a very important topic. In the green supplier selection [...] Read more.
Supply chain management is to improve competitive stress. In today’s world, competitive terms and customer sense have altered in favor of an environmentalist manner. As a result of this, green supplier selection has become a very important topic. In the green supplier selection approach, agility, lean process, sustainability, environmental sensitivity, and durability are pointed. Like the classical supplier selection problems, environmental criteria generally emphasize green supplier selection. However, these two problem approaches are different from each other in terms of carbon footprint, water consumption, environmental and recycling applications. Due to the problem structure, a resolution is defined that includes an algorithm based on q-Rung Orthopair Fuzzy (q-ROF) TOPSIS method. Brief information about q-ROF sets is given before the methodology of the q-ROF model is introduced. By using the proposed method and q-ROF sets, an application was made with today’s uncertain conditions. In the conclusion part, a comparison is made with classical TOPSIS, Intuitionistic Fuzzy TOPSIS and q-ROF TOPSIS methodology. As a result, more stable and accurate results are obtained with q-ROF TOPSIS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Sustainable Application of ZIF-8 for Heavy-Metal Removal in Aqueous Solutions
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020984 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Water is life, and clean-water demand is increasing daily as a result of rapid population growth and industrial evolution. Nevertheless, due to the inadequate supply and availability of new water sources, there is a need for effective, sustainable removal of contaminants for wastewater [...] Read more.
Water is life, and clean-water demand is increasing daily as a result of rapid population growth and industrial evolution. Nevertheless, due to the inadequate supply and availability of new water sources, there is a need for effective, sustainable removal of contaminants for wastewater reuse. Several treatment approaches that include chemical, physical, and biological methods have been thoroughly tested, with biological treatment being regarded as the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly method. However, the presence of heavy metals and complicated chemicals that are nonbiodegradable limits the use of this cost-effective approach. In this paper, we review the sustainable application of a cheap, water-stable metal-organic framework, the zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8), with an easier synthesis approach for heavy-metal removal in aqueous solutions. In this review, we discuss the removal efficiency in terms of adsorption capacity, describe the underlying mechanism behind the adsorption capacity of ZIF-8, present a sustainable synthesis approach, and make vital suggestions to aid in the future application of ZIF-8 for the removal of heavy metals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Building Retrofit and Energy Conservation/Efficiency Review: A Techno-Environ-Economic Assessment of Heat Pump System Retrofit in Housing Stock
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020983 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The world has not been able to achieve minimum greenhouse gas emissions in buildings’ energy consumptions because the energy and emissions optimization techniques have not been fully utilized. Thermal comfort is one of the most important issues for both residential and commercial buildings. [...] Read more.
The world has not been able to achieve minimum greenhouse gas emissions in buildings’ energy consumptions because the energy and emissions optimization techniques have not been fully utilized. Thermal comfort is one of the most important issues for both residential and commercial buildings. Out of the 40% of global energy consumed by buildings, a large fraction is used to maintain their thermal comfort. In this study, a comprehensive review of the recent advancements in building energy conservation and efficiency application is presented based on existing high-quality research papers. Additionally, the retrofit of the heating/cooling and hot water system for an entire community in Cyprus is presented. This study aims to analyze the technical and environmental benefits of replacing existing electric heaters for hot water with heat pump water heating systems and the use of heat pump air conditioners for thermal comfort in place of the existing ordinary air conditioners for space heating and cooling. One administrative building, 86 apartments (including residential and commercial) buildings, and a restaurant building is retrofitted, and the feasibility of the project is determined based on three economic indicators, namely; simple payback period (SPP), internal rate of return (IRR), and net present value (NPV). The electrical energy required by the hot water systems and the heating/cooling system is reduced by 263,564 kWh/yr and 144,825 kWh/yr, respectively. Additionally, the retrofit project will reduce Cyprus’ CO2 emission by 121,592.8 kg yearly. The SPP, IRR, and NPV for the project show that the retrofit is economically feasible. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment of the Efficiency, Environmental and Economic Effects of Compact Type On-Site Wastewater Treatment Plants—Results from Random Testing
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020982 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 657
Abstract
This study presents the results of random testing of selected on-site wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) constructed in Poland in Masovia Voivodship in the years 2011–2016. The vast majority of tested on-site WWTPs were compact (container) type treatment plants, based on low rate activated [...] Read more.
This study presents the results of random testing of selected on-site wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) constructed in Poland in Masovia Voivodship in the years 2011–2016. The vast majority of tested on-site WWTPs were compact (container) type treatment plants, based on low rate activated sludge (AS), sequencing batch reactors (SBR), or a hybrid (activated sludge supported with biological film, AS + BF) method. Compact type plans are becoming more and more popular in single households in Poland, due to the option of co-financing. According to certificates provided by producers and distributors, container on-site wastewater treatment plants are efficient in BOD5 removal, with the expected removal rate being over 80%. The aim of this study was (1) to analyze BOD5 in effluents sampled from randomly selected on-site WWTPs, (2) to evaluate predicted and real environmental effects of the implementation of on-site WWTPs in selected communes within Masovia Voivodship, and (3) to calculate unit environmental and economic effects of container on-site WWTPs in three different technologies. Results of this study show that in most cases, there is a gap between the declared and the real BOD5 removal efficiency. There is also a difference between the performance of different container type technologies. The lowest real environmental effect was obtained for AS technology, and the highest for the hybrid one. The predicted environmental effect has only been almost achieved in the case of hybrid systems. Based on net present value (NPV) benefits, technologies can be set up as follows: AS > SBR > AS + BF, making the AS method the most effective technology from the point of view of the economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact Assessment and the Culture of Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Impact of Airport Managerial Type and Airline Market Share on Airport Efficiency
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020981 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
This paper investigates the impact of airport managerial type and airline market structure on airport efficiency. It explores whether the market shares of the largest airlines differ depending on the managerial type of the airport. In this study, the efficiency scores for the [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the impact of airport managerial type and airline market structure on airport efficiency. It explores whether the market shares of the largest airlines differ depending on the managerial type of the airport. In this study, the efficiency scores for the sample airport are measured through DEA (Data Envelop Analysis), and the impacts of the airport managerial type and dominant carrier market share on airport efficiency are subsequently estimated through CEM (Coarsened Exact Matching). This paper concludes that group airports are more efficient than the standalone airports, and the market shares of the largest airlines have a positive impact on enhancing airport efficiency. In addition, the market shares of the largest airlines are found to be higher for group airports than for standalone airports. These findings can serve as practical guidelines for governments and airport authorities by suggesting that efficiency improves when multiple standalone airports are operated as a group through the M&A of airports or the establishment of airport operation agencies. While facing unprecedented challenges from the spread of COVID 19, this paper also suggests that an increase in airline market share through airport–airline cooperation has a positive impact on airport efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies and Innovations for Sustainable Air Transportation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sustainability of Traditional Rice Cultivation in Kerala, India—A Socio-Economic Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020980 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Traditional rice cultivars and cultivation are on the decline in most rice-growing areas, mainly as a result of their low productivity. Packed with nutritionally, environmentally and locally superior qualities, traditional cultivars hold the key for sustainability in rice cultivation. This study explored the [...] Read more.
Traditional rice cultivars and cultivation are on the decline in most rice-growing areas, mainly as a result of their low productivity. Packed with nutritionally, environmentally and locally superior qualities, traditional cultivars hold the key for sustainability in rice cultivation. This study explored the dynamics of traditional rice cultivation in Kerala, India. It examined the economic, institutional and socio demographic factors involved in the production and marketing of traditional rice. We employed a multinomial logit model and discriminant function analysis to extract the key factors governing farmers’ marketing behaviour, and various cost measures to study the economics of rice enterprises. The socio-demographic factors were analysed using descriptive statistical tools. Holding size and institutional support were the main factors governing the marketing behaviour of farmers. Even though traditional rice farming was not found to be cost-effective in implicit terms, it was remunerative when imputed personal labour and owned land costs were not considered. The study found that traditional farmers are ageing, have a lower education and use limited marketing channels. However, the majority of them were satisfied with their farm enterprise. By streamlining the market support mechanism and processing facilities, traditional rice would most likely gain momentum in key areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Innovation and Sustainable Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Using Recycled Material from the Paper Industry as a Backfill Material for Retaining Walls near Railway Lines
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020979 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
The construction industry uses a large amount of natural virgin material for different geotechnical structures. In Europe alone, 11 million tonnes of solid waste is generated per year as a result of the production of almost 100 million tonnes of paper. The objective [...] Read more.
The construction industry uses a large amount of natural virgin material for different geotechnical structures. In Europe alone, 11 million tonnes of solid waste is generated per year as a result of the production of almost 100 million tonnes of paper. The objective of this research is to develop a new geotechnical composite from residues of the deinking paper industry and to present its practical application, e.g., as a backfill material behind a retaining structure. After different mixtures were tested in a laboratory, the technology was validated by building a pilot retaining wall structure in a landslide region near a railway line. It was confirmed that a composite with 30% deinking sludge and 70% deinking sludge ash had a high enough strength but experienced some deformations before failure. Special attention was paid to the impact of transport, which, due to the time lag between the mixing and installation of the composite, significantly reduced its strength. The pilot retaining wall structure promotes the use of recycled materials with a sustainable design, while adhering to government-mandated measures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparative Evaluation of Sustainable Framework in STEM Intensive Programs for Secondary and Tertiary Education
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020978 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
Sustainability of learning environments is a key pillar of all societal development frameworks. A variety of research address the development of education as a fine balanced relation between flexibility, adaptability, innovation, and efficient resource allocation. The main limitation of current approaches is the [...] Read more.
Sustainability of learning environments is a key pillar of all societal development frameworks. A variety of research address the development of education as a fine balanced relation between flexibility, adaptability, innovation, and efficient resource allocation. The main limitation of current approaches is the lack of correlation between various efficiency analyses and budget expenditure of learning environments. The current research aims at undertaking a comparative evaluation of a sustainable framework in STEM intensive programs for secondary and tertiary education. This was done using several established methods like the Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle for the development main framework, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for efficiency evaluation and Value Analysis for budget expenditure allocations and improvement identification. The main framework is based on learning objectives defined in accordance with Blooms’ revised taxonomy and student feedback was collected through surveys and group feedback. The main results of the study show that the framework had overall efficiencies over the 80% threshold in both secondary and tertiary education, whilst some of the components scored under 65%, identifying immediate improvement features. Further research involves the transition to an online and mixed teaching environment, by adapting the content and framework structure with the aid of smart learning environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Education and Approaches)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bridging the Intention–Behavior Gap: Effect of Altruistic Motives on Developers’ Action towards Green Redevelopment of Industrial Brownfields
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020977 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
Green redevelopment (GR) is a promising strategy to deal with industrial brownfields, this sustainable initiation usually fails to be implemented practically in China. Thus, investigating the driving mechanism of developer’s GR behavior, as executors of renovation project, is quite essential. The study introduced [...] Read more.
Green redevelopment (GR) is a promising strategy to deal with industrial brownfields, this sustainable initiation usually fails to be implemented practically in China. Thus, investigating the driving mechanism of developer’s GR behavior, as executors of renovation project, is quite essential. The study introduced formative constructs perceived risk (PR) and perceived cost (PC), integrated them with theory of planned behavior (TPB), and extended them by adding two altruistic motives, awareness of responsibility (AR) and awareness of consequence (AC), as moderation variables to explore the bridging role of altruistic motives in GR’s intention–behavior gap. Based on 156 developers-oriented field surveys, the study conducted data analysis through partial least square structural equation modeling. It interestingly showed that subjective norm could primarily affect developers’ GR behavior, while perceived behavior control is not a significant influencing factor. Meanwhile, adding PR and PC as the additional constructs significantly increased the explanatory power of standard TPB model. Furthermore, the conclusion confirmed altruistic motives AR can distinctly adjust the relationship between GR intention and behavior, whereas AC has no such effect. These findings provide a scientific theoretical basis and a targeted path reference for promoting GR of industrial brownfields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment of Factors Affecting the Amount of Food Waste in Households Run by Polish Women Aware of Well-Being
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020976 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Food waste is a pressing problem in Western countries. Increased food waste production directly affects environmental changes and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions and contamination with packaging. In Poland, 9.2 million tons of food is lost annually, 53% of which is produced by [...] Read more.
Food waste is a pressing problem in Western countries. Increased food waste production directly affects environmental changes and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions and contamination with packaging. In Poland, 9.2 million tons of food is lost annually, 53% of which is produced by consumers. To minimize food waste by consumers, it is necessary to understand the factors affecting the behaviors associated with food wasting. This work is focused on investigating the causes and behaviors related to food wasting, and determining the kinds of food that are wasted in Polish households run by women that possess a high awareness of well-being. It was found that most of the respondents who took part in the survey admitted that their households did waste food. It was shown that there is a positive correlation between the number of people living in a household and the amount of food wasted. It was also confirmed that age has an impact on the amount of food discarded by Polish women, because respondents over 37 years of age wasted less food and more often declared a lack of wasting compared to others. In households, fresh food with short expiry dates, including vegetables, fruit, bread, and meat, was wasted the most. The most important factors directly influencing the amount of wasted food were: purchasing too much food, a lack of expiry-date control, a lack of planning of purchases and menus, and a lack of ideas for using food residues. The main element affecting waste is purchasing too much food, most often resulting from susceptibility to promotions, willingness to buy in stock, and a lack of prior planning. Understanding the mechanisms of waste allows households to take actions to effectively reduce it, and therefore ensure greater food security in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Consumption and Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
What Do We Mean by Sustainable Finance? Assessing Existing Frameworks and Policy Risks
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020975 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
I observe that the sustainable finance landscape as it stands today is featured by an overabundance of heterogeneous concepts, definitions, industry and policy standards. I argue that such heterogeneity may hinder the smooth development of the conceptual thinking underpinning sustainable finance and originates [...] Read more.
I observe that the sustainable finance landscape as it stands today is featured by an overabundance of heterogeneous concepts, definitions, industry and policy standards. I argue that such heterogeneity may hinder the smooth development of the conceptual thinking underpinning sustainable finance and originates specific risks that may harm the credibility of the nascent market. These risks include green and sustainable washing, the rebranding of financial flows without additionality, the disordered adjustment in the cost of capital spreads between industries. I argue that to reflect the actual industry and policy context as wells as to steer conceptual and applied practice sustainable finance should be today referred to as “finance for sustainability”. To this extent, both its definition and implementing standards should make clear reference to the relevant sustainability dimensions (in particular in line with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement) and to the sectors or activities that positively contribute to these dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Accounting and Sustainable Finance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Use Determination of Aerodynamic and Rolling Resistances of Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020974 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
A vehicle’s air drag coefficient (Cd) and rolling resistance coefficient (RRC) have a significant impact on its fuel consumption. Consequently, these properties are required as input for the certification of the vehicle’s fuel consumption and Carbon Dioxide emissions, regardless of whether [...] Read more.
A vehicle’s air drag coefficient (Cd) and rolling resistance coefficient (RRC) have a significant impact on its fuel consumption. Consequently, these properties are required as input for the certification of the vehicle’s fuel consumption and Carbon Dioxide emissions, regardless of whether the certification is done via simulation or chassis dyno testing. They can be determined through dedicated measurements, such as a drum test for the tire’s rolling resistance coefficient and constant speed test (EU) or coast down test (US) for the body’s air Cd. In this paper, a methodology that allows determining the vehicle’s Cd·A (the product of Cd and frontal area of the vehicle) from on-road tests is presented. The possibility to measure these properties during an on-road test, without the need for a test track, enables third parties to verify the certified vehicle properties in order to preselect vehicle for further regulatory testing. On-road tests were performed with three heavy-duty vehicles, two lorries, and a coach, over different routes. Vehicles were instrumented with wheel torque sensors, wheel speed sensors, a GPS device, and a fuel flow sensor. Cd·A of each vehicle is determined from the test data with the proposed methodology and validated against their certified value. The methodology presents satisfactory repeatability with the error ranging from −21 to 5% and averaging approximately −6.8%. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the possibility of using the tire energy efficiency label instead of the measured RRC to determine the air drag coefficient. Finally, on-road tests were simulated in the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool with the obtained parameters, and the average difference in fuel consumption was found to be 2%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emissions from Road Transportation and Vehicle Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimization Issues of a Hammer Mill Working Process Using Statistical Modelling
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020973 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
Our paper presents the hammer mill working process optimization problem destined for milling energetic biomass (MiscanthusGiganteus and Salix Viminalis). For the study, functional and constructive parameters of the hammer mill were taken into consideration in order to reduce the specific [...] Read more.
Our paper presents the hammer mill working process optimization problem destined for milling energetic biomass (MiscanthusGiganteus and Salix Viminalis). For the study, functional and constructive parameters of the hammer mill were taken into consideration in order to reduce the specific energy consumption. The energy consumption dependency on the mill rotor spinning frequency and on the sieve orifices in use, as well as on the material feeding flow, in correlation with the vegetal biomass milling degree was the focus of the analysis. For obtaining this the hammer mill was successively equipped with 4 different types of hammers that grind the energetic biomass, which had a certain humidity content and an initial degree of reduction ratio of the material. In order to start the optimization process of hammer mill working process, 12 parameters were defined. The objective functions which minimize hammer mill energy consumption and maximize the milled material percentage with a certain specific granulation were established. The results obtained can serve as the basis for choosing the optimal working, constructive, and functional parameters of hammer mills in this field, and for a better design of future hammer mills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Conversion of Renewable Energy Sources)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Choreographic Group-Based Fitness Classes Improve Cardiometabolic Health-Related Anthropometric Indices and Blood Lipids Profile in Overweight Sedentary Women
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020972 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 563
Abstract
Background: Choreographic group-based fitness classes are the most common type of physical activity practiced by women, being a viable and sustainable strategy to improve general health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a 16-week healthy lifestyle program, [...] Read more.
Background: Choreographic group-based fitness classes are the most common type of physical activity practiced by women, being a viable and sustainable strategy to improve general health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a 16-week healthy lifestyle program, based on choreographic fitness classes, on cardiometabolic health-related anthropometric indices and metabolic blood profile among overweight sedentary women. Methods: A total of 50 overweight (Body Mass Index = 27.68 ± 1.19 kg/m2) middle-aged women (39.73 ± 7.41 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental exercise group based on structured choreographic fitness classes (CFC) with the Zumba Fitness program (3 days/week; 60 min/session) (CFC = 30) or a non-exercise control group (CG = 20). The anthropometric indices (waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, a body shape index, conicity index, abdominal volume index, and body adiposity index), blood pressure, glycemia, and blood lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)] were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Results: 40 participants competed the pre/post measures. Post-intervention, the CFC group (n = 25) presented a significant improvement in all anthropometric indices as well as in TG, HDL, and LDL as compared with the CG (n = 15). Conclusion: A 16-week healthy lifestyle program based on structured choreographic fitness classes with the Zumba Fitness program (3 days/week; 60 min/session) could significantly improve cardiometabolic health-related anthropometric indices and the blood lipid profile in overweight sedentary middle-aged women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sustainable Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Earthquake Forecasting in India Using Supervised Machine Learning Classifiers
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020971 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
Earthquakes are one of the most overwhelming types of natural hazards. As a result, successfully handling the situation they create is crucial. Due to earthquakes, many lives can be lost, alongside devastating impacts to the economy. The ability to forecast earthquakes is one [...] Read more.
Earthquakes are one of the most overwhelming types of natural hazards. As a result, successfully handling the situation they create is crucial. Due to earthquakes, many lives can be lost, alongside devastating impacts to the economy. The ability to forecast earthquakes is one of the biggest issues in geoscience. Machine learning technology can play a vital role in the field of geoscience for forecasting earthquakes. We aim to develop a method for forecasting the magnitude range of earthquakes using machine learning classifier algorithms. Three different ranges have been categorized: fatal earthquake; moderate earthquake; and mild earthquake. In order to distinguish between these classifications, seven different machine learning classifier algorithms have been used for building the model. To train the model, six different datasets of India and regions nearby to India have been used. The Bayes Net, Random Tree, Simple Logistic, Random Forest, Logistic Model Tree (LMT), ZeroR and Logistic Regression algorithms have been applied to each dataset. All of the models have been developed using the Weka tool and the results have been noted. It was observed that Simple Logistic and LMT classifiers performed well in each case. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Modeling Two-Person Segmentation and Locomotion for Stereoscopic Action Identification: A Sustainable Video Surveillance System
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020970 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Due to the constantly increasing demand for automatic tracking and recognition systems, there is a need for more proficient, intelligent and sustainable human activity tracking. The main purpose of this study is to develop an accurate and sustainable human action tracking system that [...] Read more.
Due to the constantly increasing demand for automatic tracking and recognition systems, there is a need for more proficient, intelligent and sustainable human activity tracking. The main purpose of this study is to develop an accurate and sustainable human action tracking system that is capable of error-free identification of human movements irrespective of the environment in which those actions are performed. Therefore, in this paper we propose a stereoscopic Human Action Recognition (HAR) system based on the fusion of RGB (red, green, blue) and depth sensors. These sensors give an extra depth of information which enables the three-dimensional (3D) tracking of each and every movement performed by humans. Human actions are tracked according to four features, namely, (1) geodesic distance; (2) 3D Cartesian-plane features; (3) joints Motion Capture (MOCAP) features and (4) way-points trajectory generation. In order to represent these features in an optimized form, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied. After optimization, a neuro-fuzzy classifier is used for classification and recognition. Extensive experimentation is performed on three challenging datasets: A Nanyang Technological University (NTU) RGB+D dataset; a UoL (University of Lincoln) 3D social activity dataset and a Collective Activity Dataset (CAD). Evaluation experiments on the proposed system proved that a fusion of vision sensors along with our unique features is an efficient approach towards developing a robust HAR system, having achieved a mean accuracy of 93.5% with the NTU RGB+D dataset, 92.2% with the UoL dataset and 89.6% with the Collective Activity dataset. The developed system can play a significant role in many computer vision-based applications, such as intelligent homes, offices and hospitals, and surveillance systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Human-Computer Interaction and Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop