Re-Visiting Design Thinking for Learning and Practice: Critical Pedagogy, Conative Empathy
The search for scientific bases for confronting problems of social policy is bound to fail, because of the nature of these problems. They are “wicked” problems, whereas science has developed to deal with “tame” problems. Policy problems cannot be definitively described. Moreover, in a pluralistic society there is nothing like the undisputable public good; there is no objective definition of equity; policies that respond to social problems cannot be meaningfully correct or false […] Even worse, there are no “solutions” in the sense of definitive or objective answers.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Designerly Thinking (DT), Designerly Ways of Knowing (DWK)
“Designerly ways of knowing are the cognitive approaches and mindsets characteristic of expert designers such as framing, reflection-in-action, and abductive reasoning. Design thinking strategies are the processes involved in design, including frame creation, ideation, prototyping, iteration, and deploying in real-world contexts (p. 2)”.
2.2. DT in Tourism and Hospitality Related Studies
It is possible to see visitors’ agency as operating in the co-production of meaning at a more-than-representational level: meaning is conceptualized as generated, explored and shared in all manner of ways, drawn as it is from memories and preconceptions, the narratives of overarching discourses and not least the somatic nature of engagement and the emotional. (p. 97)
2.3. Decolonizing DT, Fascilitating Plutalism and Rationality
The model effectively integrated key values and identities of the Indigenous culture which led to additional benefits and outcomes for the Lacandon co-researchers including the revitalization of cultural knowledge. (p. 1341)
enrich visitors’ experiences with their unique symbolism and cosmology of the landscape and furthermore to share their own story on their own terms. Furthermore, through learning and sharing experiences, visitors become knowledgeable about Indigenous issues and concerns, helping them become more respectful tourists and helping advance the political agenda of Indigenous peoples. (pp. 1344–1345)
3. Case Example: Pandemic Experiences and Reflections through Creative Writing
In the left-hand corner of my picture is the back of myself holding my phone, it then shows images stacked on top of themselves. The image of the stacked images is my view of what I have seen through social media the last several months…For me each of these images hit home, it showed me the impact that we as people have on the world. The pollution that we cause, the over tourism, the negativity we create, COVID-19 created in my mind a break. The entire right side of my creation is my personal perceptions and experiences during the quarantine and now coming out of it…a stack of books reflects the required text books I have been reading for my summer classes, the end of Spring semester readings, and personal reading choices, as well as my journal that I write in regularly. Crafting is another way that I release my emotions and for me this entire quarantine created a lot of mixed feelings, which the paint brush and canvas image represent. Finally, across the center of my image words reflecting what the world seems to be screaming at me every time I look. “Breaking News”, “Riots”, “COVID-19”, “Protests”, “Small Businesses Failing”, all words that I can’t escape, each telling someone else’s story, each with a vast set of emotions, each seeking attention. (Student’s one-paragraph description accompanying the drawing).
My drawing depicts my personal experience and perception of COVID-19. I have created a piece that represents the concept of “flatten the curve” which is the reason for self-quarantining and social distancing going into effect. In my drawing, the straight lines represent how life was on a steady trajectory until the pandemic hit. The “flatten the curve” graph can be seen within the piece as well as heart rate depictions. The heart rate depictions are to represent the amount of people who sadly have been hospitalized due to Coronavirus and the uncertainty of the virus causing nervous and racing hearts. The background colors are a blend of yellow and green to represent sickness. Together the piece speaks to the core concept of doing your part for the good of humanity. By everyone self-quarantining and social distancing we can slow the spread of COVID-19 to prevent the shortage of hospital resources. Personally, I believe that to “flatten the curve” means to do your part to keep everyone safe and that is what inspired my drawing. (Student’s one-paragraph description accompanying the drawing).
When I read over the subject for this writing assignment, several ideas flowed through my head. I thought to myself, “Perfect, this is my time to vent about how difficult it has been transitioning from in-person to online classes.” Then I thought about all the other students and professors that might feel the same way and will probably write about it. I, then, briefly thought of writing about how difficult this quarantine has been for my family, especially my younger brother who struggles with mental health issues, but I figured it was too personal. The effects this quarantine has had on the environment came to my mind. I reflected on all of the photos and news articles I have seen and read about how much cleaner the canals in Venice are, the beaches in the west coast, the pollution levels dropping all across the world, but I could not figure out how to write about it all in my own words without restating what everyone else has written. So, I finally decided to just write about me and what I have been up to in the last few months during this pandemic.
In my drawing for this assignment I have split it up between two different times of this quarantine. The first half I drew what my life was like during the beginning of the quarantine. I sketched out myself and my roommate, Stephen, sitting in our living room watching TV while drinking wine and eating pizza and popcorn. That is pretty much all we would do every single day for the first few weeks of the lock down. Neither one of us was very productive and we had hit a very low low in our lives. The second half I sketched myself out sitting on the same chair as the first photo, however instead of being on my phone I am reading a book, have the TV off and instead of a glass and bottle of wine next to me I have my water bottle. Below that sketch I drew myself running through Lemon Creek Park because I like to run through there during my morning runs. These sketches show how much my habits have changed throughout these past few months of the pandemic. (Student’s one-paragraph description accompanying the drawing).
It was mid spring break when I found out we would not be returning to regular classes for the remainder of the semester. That same week I found out I was being furloughed. I did not know how I felt or what to make from the whole situation. All I could think about was, ‘How am I going to pay for all of my bills?’
I drew a picture of a women meditating in the center of the Earth. Meditation is all about relaxing and focusing on the things that you can and cannot control. The women in the middle represent me and my personal journey with COVID-19. The recent pandemic has altered my life in many ways including my social life, my school and career, and has left many uncertainties. However, it has also helped me grow in ways I would not have imagined. That is what this picture represents to me. (Student’s one-paragraph description accompanying the drawing).
The drawing I drew is called Covid Good Covid Bad, and it represents the duality of the situation we are in. There has been unprecedented damage, destruction, and death that has come because of Covid-19. The bad things represented are death, by the skull and crossbones, fear, represented by the mask, cancelled trips and plans, represented by the suitcase, a world that has been hurt, represented by the globe, the separation from society, represented by the people separated by the letters of Covid-19, and the collapse of industry, represented by the falling dominoes. The good things are time, represented by the clock, personal growth, represented by the paintbrush and music notes, rest, represented by the pillow, relaxation, represented by the cup of tea, and most importantly family, represented by the family. Even in the midst of the chaos of corona, there are good things we can put our focus on. That’s what I hoped to capture with my drawing. (Student’s one-paragraph description accompanying the drawing).
Overall, my drawing is meant to experience the joy I find in my daily life, for example, looking up in the sky during the day or the night to see the sun or the stars and realizing that life is truly a gift. My thoughts and the outside world may seem as if though they were really negative but I have been taking a lot of important things to me for granted. I have realized more that I have a lot of love and compassion for other people and that honestly, that it almost feels rare. I have surrounded myself with friends and family and reconnecting with those I truly care about. The uncertainty of everything is difficult for me to deal with but I am trying my best. (Student’s one-paragraph description accompanying the drawing).
4. Directions Forward: Design for Critical, Empathetic “Doing” DT
4.1. A Relational Approach towards Conative Empathy
challenges universal principles about how we should act and behave, and instead, argues for a relational form of care ethics, wherein caring and responsibility are framed as reciprocal, and deeply embedded in our personal commitments to others (Gilligan, 1982. Furthermore, the intimacy of caring creates bonds that foster relational ecologies, characterized by empathy, trust and equity”. (p. 129)
4.2. Implementing the Theoretical into Practice
- Diverse designerly ways of knowing (DWK) which embrace pluralistic worldviews and values. In other words, to address inclusivity not merely in terms of collaborative co-creation but also epistemically with respect to diverse ways of knowing, doing, and becoming, and to outcomes enabling equity and justice.
- Diverse process-oriented approaches to design thinking (DT) that foster relationality and embody affectively values in the practice and implementation of DT, i.e., empathetic engagement with learning in action. Here, empathy is not merely cognitive (in the mind) nor merely affective (i.e., emotions and feelings tugging at the heart), but also conative through acting empathetically (in learning and practice).
4.3. Re-Envisioning Design Thinking for Engaged Learning
4.4. Design Thinking Process in the Revised DTEL Model
4.5. Designerly Ways of Knowing in the Revised DTEL Model
- Community-based Collaborative Research for CBT, social enterprises, and businesses must orient design thinking approaches towards community driven design vs. externally imposed top-down design (for more on community-driven development, see ). Co-creation—creating co-value as co-equals between visitors and community members—is one aspect, but co-ownership, inclusiveness, and co-involvement in the design of the prototype is crucial if epistemic justice in DWK and communal well-being is to be achieved through the DT process.
- Working as co-equals with others in the community and having equal ownership with the designer(s) means being involved right at the start of the DT process, developing the problem, framing, making up the questions, etc. If students are doing the project through DTEL, for instance, then students (designers) must work with resident communities and visitors early in the design process to enable a “decolonizing” approach that is fair, equitable, and pursues epistemic justice.
- Critical pedagogy and praxis as per Freire  are simply not sufficient, however, as argued above. Going beyond cognitive empathy, design thinking approaches must include an ethic of care and embodied empathy as illustrated by the terms conative empathy in our theoretical framework (Figure 7), in order to facilitate critical action towards inclusiveness, equity and fairness (Figure 7)—advancing communal well-being, resilience and planetary sustainability through just transitions and pluralistic justice in the Anthropocene (see also  for more on co-designing for sustainability in tourism);
- Recent emerging post-structural critiques and post-humanist perspectives on affective hospitality may help to further develop pluralistic, relational, non-dualistic approaches to DTEL and DT that advance posthumanistic design and caring for people and caring about non-human others (animals and other living things, place and social-ecological systems) (e.g., [56,57,71,72,73]. As Phi and Dredge  point out in their special issue on co-creation:The Anthropocene demands that we de-centre our human perspective, to exercise empathy and to acknowledge the rights of Nature. Co-creation has an enormous contribution to make in this regard, because it implores us to think about the co-design, co-creation and co-production of tourism with Nature, and not simply as based on, or exploiting, Nature  (p. 283);
- Drawing on cross-disciplinary areas such as the Learning Sciences, and sources like the Journal of Learning Sciences, offer valuable guidance to enable transformative learning experiences and relational praxis, engaging situated standpoint epistemologies and pluralistic knowledges in affective, human-centered design to enable epistemic justice and responsible practice [74,75].
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Jamal, T.; Kircher, J.; Donaldson, J.P. Re-Visiting Design Thinking for Learning and Practice: Critical Pedagogy, Conative Empathy. Sustainability 2021, 13, 964. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020964
Jamal T, Kircher J, Donaldson JP. Re-Visiting Design Thinking for Learning and Practice: Critical Pedagogy, Conative Empathy. Sustainability. 2021; 13(2):964. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020964Chicago/Turabian Style
Jamal, Tazim, Julie Kircher, and Jonan Phillip Donaldson. 2021. "Re-Visiting Design Thinking for Learning and Practice: Critical Pedagogy, Conative Empathy" Sustainability 13, no. 2: 964. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020964