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Special Issue "Technology and Management for Sustainable Buildings and Infrastructures"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sunkuk Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si 17104, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Interests: sustainable construction project management; energy use and CO2 reduction in construction project; performance evaluation of buildings and infrastructures; simulation and optimization; risk management; free-form building technology; sustainable facility management
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainability has been being used in a variety of areas, including human activities, economics and management, climate and environment, and national policy since the Roman Club first mentioned it in 1972 in the report “The Limits to Growth”. According to UNEP, buildings use about 40% of the global energy, 25% of the global water, 40% of the global resources, and they emit approximately one-third of greenhouse gas emissions. Yudelson (2007) argued that buildings produce 45% to 65% of disposed waste in landfills. Enormous resources are invested in the construction and operation of various infrastructure to run cities and industries, and energy is correspondingly used. Excessive use of energy is an immoral act that places a heavy burden on future generations.

Therefore, research on the technology and management of the entire process from design, procurement, construction, O&M, and decommissioning is needed to produce sustainable buildings and infrastructure that minimize energy use throughout their life cycle. This Special Issue aims to act as a research hub for exchanging research on innovative technology and management on sustainable buildings and infrastructure. This Special Issue is expected to contribute to the sustainability of buildings and infrastructure, which most impacts climate change. This Special Issue encourages the submission of case study papers, as well as academic and practical research, with focuses on the keywords listed below.

  • Sustainable buildings and infrastructure
  • Sustainable construction technology
  • Energy use or CO2 emission reduction
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Simulation, optimization, and risk management
  • Sustainable facility management
  • Modeling techniques for the sustainability of buildings and infrastructure
  • Policies and regulations for sustainable buildings and infrastructure

Original papers related to the above keywords or considering innovative technologies, management techniques, experimental investigations, mathematical and logical algorithms, policies and regulations, and case studies for sustainable buildings and infrastructures are also welcome.

Prof. Sunkuk Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Buildings and infrastructure
  • Sustainability
  • Technology and management
  • Energy use
  • CO2 reduction
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Facility management
  • Simulation
  • Optimization
  • Risk management
  • Modeling techniques
  • Policy

Published Papers (31 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Technology and Management for Sustainable Buildings and Infrastructures
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9380; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169380 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
According to a report published in 2019 by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the building sector accounts for 38% of all energy-related CO2 emissions when adding building construction industry emissions. [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Development of Key Performance Indicators for Measuring the Management Performance of Small Construction Firms in Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6166; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116166 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Large construction firms execute management control in preparation for a fast-paced business environment, but small ones are unable to do so. This is because there is no management control model tailored to them. The current study derived Management Performance Evaluation Indicators (MAPEIs) for [...] Read more.
Large construction firms execute management control in preparation for a fast-paced business environment, but small ones are unable to do so. This is because there is no management control model tailored to them. The current study derived Management Performance Evaluation Indicators (MAPEIs) for small construction firms for measuring the management performance of construction firms with 10 or fewer employees, considering the characteristics of small construction firms. MAPEIs consist of BSC (Balanced Scorecard), performance, and the hierarchy and weighted value of KPIs (Key Performance Indicators). After an interview with an expert, based on the management performance indicators of large construction firms, a final hierarchy of small construction firms was constructed through modification and supplementation. The KPIs of the hierarchy were analyzed through a survey using the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method to finalize MAPEIs for small construction firms in Korea. The final MAPEIs underwent a feasibility evaluation to apply them to real life. It is expected that they can be used as fundamental resources for system development for small construction firm management performance and control. In addition, further studies to resolve the limitations would improve the competitiveness of small construction firms. Full article
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Article
Application of the Taguchi Method for Optimizing the Process Parameters of Producing Controlled Low-Strength Materials by Using Dimension Stone Sludge and Lightweight Aggregates
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5576; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105576 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 477
Abstract
In view of the increasing concerns over non-renewable resource depletion and waste management, this paper studied the development of low-density controlled low-strength material (CLSM) by using stone sludge and lightweight aggregates. First, the investigation was performed at a laboratory scale to assess the [...] Read more.
In view of the increasing concerns over non-renewable resource depletion and waste management, this paper studied the development of low-density controlled low-strength material (CLSM) by using stone sludge and lightweight aggregates. First, the investigation was performed at a laboratory scale to assess the effects of the composition on the properties of the resulting low-density CLSM. The Taguchi method with an L9(34) orthogonal array and four controllable three-level factors (i.e., the stone sludge dosage, water to binder ratio, accelerator dosage and lightweight aggregate dosage) was adopted. Then, to optimize the selected parameters, the analysis of variance method was used to explore the effects of the experimental factors on the performance (fresh and hardened properties) of the produced low-density CLSM. The test results show that when the percentage of stone sludge usage was increased from 30% to 60%, the initial setting time approximately doubled on average. Moreover, at the age of 28 days, the compressive strength of most specimens did not exceed the upper limit of 8.83 MPa stipulated by Taiwan’s Public Construction Commission. Further, the material cost per cubic meter of the produced CLSM was about NT$ 720.9 lower than that of the ordinary CLSM, which could reduce the cost by 40.6%. These results indicate that the use of stone sludge as a raw material to produce CLSM could achieve environmental sustainability. In other words, the use of stone sludge and lightweight aggregates to produce low-density CLSM was extremely feasible. Full article
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Article
Classifying the Level of Bid Price Volatility Based on Machine Learning with Parameters from Bid Documents as Risk Factors
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3886; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073886 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to classify the bid price volatility level with machine learning and parameters from bid documents as risk factors. To this end, we studied project-oriented risk factors affecting the bid price and pre-bid clarification document as the uncertainty [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to classify the bid price volatility level with machine learning and parameters from bid documents as risk factors. To this end, we studied project-oriented risk factors affecting the bid price and pre-bid clarification document as the uncertainty of bid documents through preliminary research. The authors collected Caltrans’s bid summary and pre-bid clarification document from 2011–2018 as data samples. To train the classification model, the data were preprocessed to create a final dataset of 269 projects consisting of input and output parameters. The projects in which the bid inquiries were not resolved in the pre-bid clarification had higher bid averages and bid ranges than the risk-resolved projects. Besides this, regarding the two classification models with neural network (NN) algorithms, Model 2, which included the uncertainty in the bid documents as a parameter, predicted the bid average risk and bid range risk more accurately (52.5% and 72.5%, respectively) than Model 1 (26.4% and 23.3%, respectively). The accuracy of Model 2 was verified with 40 verification test datasets. Full article
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Article
Excavation Method Determination of Earth-Retaining Wall for Sustainable Environment and Economy: Life Cycle Assessment Based on Construction Cases in Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2974; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052974 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
This study describes life cycle assessment (LCA) results of the excavation depth and ground condition of a medium-sized excavation ground in order to examine the effect of construction methods on environmental and economic feasibility for an earth-retaining wall. LCA is conducted in consideration [...] Read more.
This study describes life cycle assessment (LCA) results of the excavation depth and ground condition of a medium-sized excavation ground in order to examine the effect of construction methods on environmental and economic feasibility for an earth-retaining wall. LCA is conducted in consideration of eight environmental impact categories according to the construction stage of the earth-retaining wall. In addition, the environmental cost of construction method for the earth-retaining wall was calculated, and its selection criteria were analyzed based on the calculation results. The evaluation results of the environmental load of construction methods for the earth-retaining wall show that the H-Pile+Earth plate construction method has low economic efficiency because the construction method significantly increased the environmental load due to the increased ecological toxicity. The environmental load characteristics have a greater effect on the selection of construction methods in sandy soil than in composite soil when the excavation depth is the same. The evaluation result of the environmental cost of the construction methods for the earth-retaining wall shows that the environmental cost increased as the excavation depth increased, and the sandy soil conditions have higher environmental costs than complex soil conditions. Full article
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Article
Environmental and Economic Optimization of a Conventional Concrete Building Foundation: Selecting the Best of 28 Alternatives by Applying the Pareto Front
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031496 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
This research optimizes the environmental impact of a conventional building foundation in Northern Europe while considering the economic cost. The foundation is composed of piles and ground beams. Calculations are performed following relevant building Eurocodes and using life cycle assessment methodology. Concrete and [...] Read more.
This research optimizes the environmental impact of a conventional building foundation in Northern Europe while considering the economic cost. The foundation is composed of piles and ground beams. Calculations are performed following relevant building Eurocodes and using life cycle assessment methodology. Concrete and steel accounted for the majority of the environmental impact of foundation alternatives; in particular, steel on piles has a significant influence. Selecting small sections of precast piles or low-reinforcement vibro-piles instead of continuous-flight auger piles can reduce the environmental impacts and economic costs of a foundation by 55% and 40%, respectively. However, using precast beams rather than building them on site can increase the global warming potential (GWP) by up to 10%. Increasing the concrete strength in vibro-piles can reduce the eco-costs, ReCiPe indicator, and cumulated energy demand (CED) by up to 30%; the GWP by 25%; and the economic costs by up to 15%. Designing three piles instead of four piles per beam reduces the eco-costs and ReCiPe by 20–30%, the GWP by 15–20%, the CED by 15–25%, and the costs by 12%. A Pareto analysis was used to select the best foundation alternatives in terms of the combination of costs and eco-burdens, which are those with vibro-piles with higher concrete strengths (low reinforcement), cast in situ or prefabricated beams and four piles per beam. Full article
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Article
Towards Effective Safety Cost Budgeting for Apartment Construction: A Case Study of Occupational Safety and Health Expenses in South Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031335 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
The construction industry has experienced a lot of occupational accidents, and construction work is considered one of the most dangerous occupations. In order to reduce the number of occupational injuries from construction, the South Korean government legislated the occupational safety and health expense [...] Read more.
The construction industry has experienced a lot of occupational accidents, and construction work is considered one of the most dangerous occupations. In order to reduce the number of occupational injuries from construction, the South Korean government legislated the occupational safety and health expense law, requiring companies to reserve a reasonable budget for safety management activities when budgeting for construction projects. However, safety budgets have not been spent based on the risk of accidents, and a large amount of the safety budget is spent either in the beginning or late stages of construction projects. Various accident risk factors, such as activity types, previous accident records, and the number of workers on a construction site, need to be considered when determining the safety budget. To solve such problems, this study investigated the expenditure trends of occupational safety and health expenses for 10 apartment construction projects in South Korea. This study also proposed an accident risk index that can be incorporated with the project costs, schedule, the number of workers, and historical accident records when budgeting for the safety costs. The results from the case study illustrate the limitations of the current planning strategy for safety expenditures and demonstrate the need for effective safety budgeting for accident prevention. The proposed safety cost expenditure guideline helps safety practitioners when budgeting for the occupational safety and health expenses while considering accident risk and the characteristics of safety cost expenditures in practice. The outcome of this research will contribute to the development of regulations for the budgeting of safety costs and help to prevent occupational injuries by providing a reasonable budget for safety management activities in an apartment construction project. Full article
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Article
Using Recycled Material from the Paper Industry as a Backfill Material for Retaining Walls near Railway Lines
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020979 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
The construction industry uses a large amount of natural virgin material for different geotechnical structures. In Europe alone, 11 million tonnes of solid waste is generated per year as a result of the production of almost 100 million tonnes of paper. The objective [...] Read more.
The construction industry uses a large amount of natural virgin material for different geotechnical structures. In Europe alone, 11 million tonnes of solid waste is generated per year as a result of the production of almost 100 million tonnes of paper. The objective of this research is to develop a new geotechnical composite from residues of the deinking paper industry and to present its practical application, e.g., as a backfill material behind a retaining structure. After different mixtures were tested in a laboratory, the technology was validated by building a pilot retaining wall structure in a landslide region near a railway line. It was confirmed that a composite with 30% deinking sludge and 70% deinking sludge ash had a high enough strength but experienced some deformations before failure. Special attention was paid to the impact of transport, which, due to the time lag between the mixing and installation of the composite, significantly reduced its strength. The pilot retaining wall structure promotes the use of recycled materials with a sustainable design, while adhering to government-mandated measures. Full article
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Article
Modeling Building Stock Development
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020723 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
It is widely agreed that dynamics of building stocks are relatively poorly known even if it is recognized to be an important research topic. Better understanding of building stock dynamics and future development is crucial, e.g., for sustainable management of the built environment [...] Read more.
It is widely agreed that dynamics of building stocks are relatively poorly known even if it is recognized to be an important research topic. Better understanding of building stock dynamics and future development is crucial, e.g., for sustainable management of the built environment as various analyses require long-term projections of building stock development. Recognizing the uncertainty in relation to long-term modeling, we propose a transparent calculation-based QuantiSTOCK model for modeling building stock development. Our approach not only provides a tangible tool for understanding development when selected assumptions are valid but also, most importantly, allows for studying the sensitivity of results to alternative developments of the key variables. Therefore, this relatively simple modeling approach provides fruitful grounds for understanding the impact of different key variables, which is needed to facilitate meaningful debate on different housing, land use, and environment-related policies. The QuantiSTOCK model may be extended in numerous ways and lays the groundwork for modeling the future developments of building stocks. The presented model may be used in a wide range of analyses ranging from assessing housing demand at the regional level to providing input for defining sustainable pathways towards climate targets. Due to the availability of high-quality data, the Finnish building stock provided a great test arena for the model development. Full article
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Article
The Contribution of Peripheral Large Scientific Infrastructures to Sustainable Development from a Global and Territorial Perspective: The Case of IFMIF-DONES
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020454 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 621
Abstract
Large scientific infrastructures are a major focus of progress. They have a big impact on the economic and social development of their surroundings. Departing from these well-known facts, it is not trivial to affirm whether the global contribution to Sustainable Development (SD) is [...] Read more.
Large scientific infrastructures are a major focus of progress. They have a big impact on the economic and social development of their surroundings. Departing from these well-known facts, it is not trivial to affirm whether the global contribution to Sustainable Development (SD) is higher when they are built in peripheral and not highly developed provinces instead of capitals and rich areas. Besides the economic impact on depressed areas, other SD-related parameters like the attachment of young and skilled people to their homeland, the avoidance of uncontrolled migrations from rural to dense urban zones, the growth of new focuses of knowledge independent from the lines of research established in the universities of the capitals, the indirect impact of auxiliary infrastructures and others must be analyzed. Concerning the next implementation of the “International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility—Demo Oriented Neutron Source” (IFMIF-DONES) project in Granada (Spain), one depressed and tourism-dependent zone, an analysis and comparison with similar infrastructures were done and presented. Full article
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Article
Priority of Accident Cause Based on Tower Crane Type for the Realization of Sustainable Management at Korean Construction Sites
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010242 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
Construction safety is a key factor among the many factors related to the sustainable management of construction sites. Although research is underway to reduce potential accidents in the construction industry in Korea, the number of tower crane (T/C) accidents is consistently increasing based [...] Read more.
Construction safety is a key factor among the many factors related to the sustainable management of construction sites. Although research is underway to reduce potential accidents in the construction industry in Korea, the number of tower crane (T/C) accidents is consistently increasing based on the increased use of such cranes. In this study, the priorities of accident causes for each T/C type were derived and utilized for the sustainable management of construction sites. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) questionnaire was completed by experts such as construction engineers, construction managers, safety engineers, and T/C operators with more than ten years of field experience. The results of the AHP questionnaire revealed that the leading cause of cab-control T/C accidents is poor operator visibility, while the leading cause of accidents related to remote-control T/Cs is the poor management of lifting objects and control of surroundings. The high-ranking causes derived in this study should be managed and priority measures should be implemented to reduce the number of T/C accidents. Full article
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Article
The Transition from Traditional Infrastructure to Living SOC and Its Effectiveness for Community Sustainability: The Case of South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10227; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410227 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
In 2018, the South Korean government began promoting a “livelihood-improving” social overhead capital policy based on the concepts of an inclusive city, smart shrinkage, and the balanced development of metropolitan and provincial cities. Based on a review of the extant literature and relevant [...] Read more.
In 2018, the South Korean government began promoting a “livelihood-improving” social overhead capital policy based on the concepts of an inclusive city, smart shrinkage, and the balanced development of metropolitan and provincial cities. Based on a review of the extant literature and relevant policies from South Korea, this study explores this policy’s implementation and makes some suggestions for its sustainability. This study compares the current state of South Korea’s urban facilities’ and the balance of their supply between metropolitan and provincial cities. To discern which type of facility central and local governments should prioritize, this study conducts a stepwise regression analysis and identifies which preexisting facilities influence the facility type proposed by the current policy. Results show that South Korea’s living infrastructure is well distributed among metropolitan and provincial cities. However, urban planning shows little consideration for minimizing the distance between facilities and residential zones. In terms of facility types, the supply of education and local community facilities was adequate throughout the country, while culture and art facilities were inadequate. In metropolitan cities, the supply of sports and leisure facilities was insufficient. Full article
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Article
Energy and CO2 Reduction of Aluminum Powder Molds for Producing Free-Form Concrete Panels
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9613; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229613 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 567
Abstract
Free-form design may enhance the architectural value of buildings in terms of aesthetic and symbolic effects. However, it is difficult to reuse the mold of free-form concrete segments, so they are manufactured for single use. Manufacturing these molds is a time-consuming process that [...] Read more.
Free-form design may enhance the architectural value of buildings in terms of aesthetic and symbolic effects. However, it is difficult to reuse the mold of free-form concrete segments, so they are manufactured for single use. Manufacturing these molds is a time-consuming process that requires a lot of manpower. To solve these problems, there have been numerous studies on the use of phase change materials (PCMs) to make the molds. PCM molds represent a new technique of producing free-form panels using a computerized numeric control (CNC) machine that employs low-cost material to produce free-form concrete panels. However, PCM molds require a substantial amount of time and energy during fabrication because repeated heating and cooling cycles are required during panel production, and this process increases the CO2 emissions. Thus, the purposes of this study were to develop composite molds using aluminum powder to improve PCM mold performance and to conduct experiments to quantify the reduction of energy use and CO2 emissions. As a result of cooling experiments, it was found that the aluminum powder mold had an energy reduction effect of 14.3% against the PCM mold that had been produced only with paraffin wax, and CO2 reduction effect of more than 50% against the conventional mold. Full article
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Article
Construction Management Solutions to Mitigate Elevator Noise and Vibration of High-Rise Residential Buildings
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8924; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218924 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
In high-rise residential buildings (HRBs), elevators run at a high speed, which causes problems such as change of atmospheric pressure, noise, and vibration. Elevator noise and vibration (ENV) of HRBs causes both mental anxiety and a consistently negative effect for promoting a comfortable [...] Read more.
In high-rise residential buildings (HRBs), elevators run at a high speed, which causes problems such as change of atmospheric pressure, noise, and vibration. Elevator noise and vibration (ENV) of HRBs causes both mental anxiety and a consistently negative effect for promoting a comfortable residential area. Therefore, a solution for alleviating the ENV of HRBs is essential. To date, studies related to ENV have been mostly conducted in the approach of mechanical and electric aspects. There have been few cases conducted from the perspective of construction management (CM), which integrates design and construction. Therefore, the aim of this study is to propose CM solutions to mitigate the ENV of HRB. For this study, the CM solution is presented after identifying the ENV problems of HRBs through documented research and case measurement. By measuring the noise of HRB that the solution was applied to, the noise level, especially in a range of >125 Hz, was extensively reduced. The result of this study will be used as sustainable guidelines that alleviate ENV problems in the process of design and construction of HRB elevators. It is expected that studies for improving ENV problems that occur in high-rise elevators will increase on the basis of the results of this study. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Optimization Model for Estimating In-Situ Production Quantity of PC Members to Minimize Environmental Loads
by and
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8202; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198202 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 550
Abstract
CO2 emissions account for 80% of greenhouse gases, which lead to the largest contributions to climate change. As the problem of CO2 emission becomes more and more prominent, research on sustainable technologies to reduce CO2 emission among environmental loads is [...] Read more.
CO2 emissions account for 80% of greenhouse gases, which lead to the largest contributions to climate change. As the problem of CO2 emission becomes more and more prominent, research on sustainable technologies to reduce CO2 emission among environmental loads is continuously being conducted. In-situ production of precast concrete members has advantages over in-plant production in reducing costs, securing equal or enhanced quality under equal conditions, and reducing CO2 emission. When applying in-situ production to real projects, it is vital to calculate the optimal quantity. This paper presents a dynamic optimization model for estimating in-situ production quantity of precast concrete members subjected to environmental loads. After defining various factors and deriving the objective function, an optimization model is developed using system dynamics. As a result of optimizing the quantity by applying it to the case project, it was confirmed that the optimal case can save 7557 t-CO2 in CO2 emissions and 6,966,000 USD in cost, which resulted in 14.58% and 10.53% for environmental loads and cost, respectively. The model developed here can be used to calculate the quantity of in-situ production quickly and easily in consideration of dynamically changing field conditions. Full article
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Article
Identifying Risk Indicators for Natural Hazard-Related Power Outages as a Component of Risk Assessment: An Analysis Using Power Outage Data from Hurricane Irma
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7702; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187702 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Extensive use has been made of lifecycle-cost assessment to enhance the cost-effectiveness and resilience of facilities management. However, if such assessments are to be truly effective, supplemental information will be needed on the major costs to be expected over buildings’ entire lives. Electricity [...] Read more.
Extensive use has been made of lifecycle-cost assessment to enhance the cost-effectiveness and resilience of facilities management. However, if such assessments are to be truly effective, supplemental information will be needed on the major costs to be expected over buildings’ entire lives. Electricity generation and distribution systems, for example, are absolutely indispensable to industry and human society, not least in the operation of buildings and other infrastructure as networks. The widespread disruption that ensues when such power systems are damaged often carries considerable repair costs. Natural disasters likewise can cause extensive societal, economic, and environmental damage. Such damage is often associated with lengthy power outages that, as well as being directly harmful, can hinder emergency response and recovery. Accordingly, the present study investigated the correlations of natural hazard indicators such as wind speed and rainfall, along with environmental data regarding the power failure in Florida caused by Hurricane Irma in 2017 utilizing multiple regression analysis. The environmental data in question, selected on the basis of a thorough literature review, was tree density. Our analysis indicated that the independent variables, maximum wind speed, total rainfall, and tree density, were all significantly correlated with the dependent variable, power failure. Among these, rainfall was the least significant. Despite there being only three independent variables in the model, its adjusted coefficient of determination (0.512) indicated its effectiveness as a predictor of the power outages caused by Hurricane Irma. As such, our results can serve the construction industry’s establishment of advanced safety guidelines and structural designs power transmission systems in regions at risk of hurricanes and typhoons. Additionally, insurance companies’ loss-assessment modeling for power-system facilities would benefit from incorporating the three identified risk indicators. Finally, our findings can serve as a useful reference to policymakers tasked with mitigating power outages’ effects on infrastructure in hurricane-prone areas. It is hoped that this work will be extended, facilitating infrastructure restoration planning and making societies and economies more sustainable. Full article
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Article
Cataloguing of the Defects Existing in Aluminium Window Frames and Their Recurrence According to Pluvio-Climatic Zones
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7398; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187398 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
The sustainability of building envelopes is affected by its windows, since these establish the connection/separation between the indoor rooms and the external environment. They can also lead to problems if they do not offer sufficient protection against external agents. The data source in [...] Read more.
The sustainability of building envelopes is affected by its windows, since these establish the connection/separation between the indoor rooms and the external environment. They can also lead to problems if they do not offer sufficient protection against external agents. The data source in this research is unprecedented, as it is based on records of court sentences. There is a significant number of cases (1615), which provides high representativeness for the functional reality of windows. The methodology that was developed classifies the defects and the causes that were found, also analysing correspondence with their recurrence according to aspects of climatological location. In the results, the cases pertaining to water infiltration, air permeability and humidity by condensation are highlighted. This study provides a vision that categorizes problems related to aluminium windows that may be useful for future interventions by agents participating in the construction process. Full article
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Article
Cost of Climate Change: Risk of Building Loss from Typhoon in South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7107; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177107 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
In recent years, natural disasters and climate abnormalities have increased worldwide. The Fifth Assessment Report (2014) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warned of extreme rainfall events, warming and acidification, global mean temperature rises, and average sea level rises. In many countries, [...] Read more.
In recent years, natural disasters and climate abnormalities have increased worldwide. The Fifth Assessment Report (2014) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warned of extreme rainfall events, warming and acidification, global mean temperature rises, and average sea level rises. In many countries, changes in weather disaster patterns, such as typhoons and heavy rains, have already led to increased damage to buildings. However, the empirical quantification of typhoon risk and building damage due to climate change is insufficient. The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of building loss from typhoon pattern change caused by climate change. To this end, the intensity and frequency of typhoons affecting Korea were analyzed to examine typhoon patterns. In addition, typhoon risk was quantified using the Korean typhoon vulnerability function utilized by insurers, reinsurers, and vendors, the major users of catastrophe modeling. Hence, through this study, it is possible to generate various risk management strategies, which can be used by governments when establishing climate change policies and help insurers to improve their business models through climate risk assessment based on reasonable quantitative typhoon damage scenarios. Full article
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Article
Development of Design Considerations as a Sustainability Approach for Military Protective Structures: A Case Study of Artillery Fighting Position in South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6479; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166479 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Republic of Korea (ROK) military installations are scattered across South Korea, but there is a higher concentration of fortifications in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and eastern and western coastlines. These facilities range from relatively small structures, such as individual and artillery fighting positions, [...] Read more.
Republic of Korea (ROK) military installations are scattered across South Korea, but there is a higher concentration of fortifications in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and eastern and western coastlines. These facilities range from relatively small structures, such as individual and artillery fighting positions, to large buildings, such as ammunition depots and command posts. These military installations have a significant thickness of concrete members to provide a high degree of protection against bombs and projectiles. The Korean military will carry out the integration and dismantling of these protection facilities over the next ten years through the Army transformation plan. Such large-scale construction projects have an impact on the environment in terms of the carbon footprint, because building construction and operations account for 36% of the world’s energy use and 40% of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. It is very important to reduce the concrete materials and reinforcement steel during protective structure construction near the DMZ, which is now recognized as one of the most well-preserved areas in the world. In this study, new sustainable design considerations that allow elasto-plastic or plastic design of concrete elements were evaluated using a case study of an artillery fighting position. The new sustainable design considerations were developed on the basis of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time and civil considerations (METT + TC) within the context of the current battle situation, as well as protection against near misses. From this study, it was found that new sustainable design considerations provide a reasonable degree of protection that permits good construction practices and maximum structural stability with minimum amount of materials. It was also found that if the new design procedure is used to replace 1000 artillery positions through the Army transformation plan, the CO2 emissions can be reduced by 476,582.4 tons and the cost reduced by USD 23,829,120. Full article
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Article
Multidimensional Construction Planning and Agile Organized Project Execution—The 5D-PROMPT Method
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6340; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166340 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Although tremendous technological and strategic advances have been developed and implemented in the construction sector in recent years, there is substantial room for improvement in the areas of productivity growth, project performance, and schedule reliability. Thus, the present paper seeks to discover why [...] Read more.
Although tremendous technological and strategic advances have been developed and implemented in the construction sector in recent years, there is substantial room for improvement in the areas of productivity growth, project performance, and schedule reliability. Thus, the present paper seeks to discover why the currently applied scheduling tools and the latest agile-based project organization approaches have not yet achieved their full potential. A missing interlinkage between the project’s design, cost, and time aspects within the project design phase and its sparse utilization throughout project execution were indicated as the driving contributors responsible for the slow progress in development. To fundamentally change this situation, an extensive and coherent project organization solution is proposed. The key process of this solution utilizes a 5D Building Information Model comprising tight concatenations between the individual model objects and the corresponding construction cost and time effort values. The key dates of a waterfall-based construction process simulation, set during the project planning phase, provide particular information to create a structure for agile organized project execution. The implementation of information feedback loops allows target/actual comparisons and contributes to continual improvements in future planning. A comparative case study was conducted with auspicious results on improvements in the overall project performance, and schedule and cost reliability. Full article
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Article
Special-Length-Priority Algorithm to Minimize Reinforcing Bar-Cutting Waste for Sustainable Construction
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 5950; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155950 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
Reinforcing bars (rebar), which have the most embodied carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit weight in built environments, generate a significant amount of cutting waste during the construction phase. Excessive cutting waste not only increases the construction cost but also contributes to [...] Read more.
Reinforcing bars (rebar), which have the most embodied carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit weight in built environments, generate a significant amount of cutting waste during the construction phase. Excessive cutting waste not only increases the construction cost but also contributes to a significant amount of CO2 emissions. The objective of this paper is to propose a special-length-priority cutting waste minimization (CWM) algorithm for rebar, for sustainable construction. In the proposed algorithms, the minimization method by special and stock lengths was applied. The minimization by special length was performed first, and then the combination by stock length was performed for the remaining rebar. As a result of verifying the proposed algorithms through a case application, it was confirmed that the quantity of rebar was reduced by 6.04% compared with the actual quantity used. In the case building, a CO2 emissions reduction of 406.6 ton-CO2 and a cost savings of USD 119,306 were confirmed. When the results of this paper are applied in practice, they will be used as a tool for sustainable construction management as well as for construction cost reduction. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Muscle Stresses on Construction Workers’ Awkward Postures Using Simulation
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5693; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145693 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
The negligence involved in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) at construction sites results in high rates of muscle injuries. This paper presents findings identified by the MSD for each part of a worker’s body, categorizing the awkward postures of each body part, estimating muscle stresses, [...] Read more.
The negligence involved in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) at construction sites results in high rates of muscle injuries. This paper presents findings identified by the MSD for each part of a worker’s body, categorizing the awkward postures of each body part, estimating muscle stresses, and establishing the benchmark using anthropometry and hand force data. MSDs and their corresponding frequencies were identified by administering the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) survey, which solicits responses regarding construction workers’ awkward postures. Musculoskeletal stresses were estimated using three-dimensional static strength prediction program (3D SSPP) biomechanical software. The new benchmarks were established for existing preventive measures using the anthropometry and hand force data. Workers suffering from different body muscle pains in awkward postures may be predicted using the compression forces magnitude, strength capability, and body balance. The model was verified by comparing its outputs with the survey analysis results. The study is of value to practitioners because it provided a means to understand the contemporary scenario of MSD and to establish a practical benchmark based on the physical capability of workers. It is relevant to researchers because it digitally predicts MSD and facilitates experimentation with different dimensions, thereby contributing to construction productivity improvement. Test cases validate the prediction method. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Space Service Quality for Facilitating Efficient Operations in a Mass Rapid Transit Station
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5295; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135295 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
In an urban public transport system, mass rapid transit (MRT) stations play an important role in the concentration and deconcentration of passengers. Spatial conflicts and unclear routes may lead to crowding in MRT stations and reduce their operational efficiency. For this reason, this [...] Read more.
In an urban public transport system, mass rapid transit (MRT) stations play an important role in the concentration and deconcentration of passengers. Spatial conflicts and unclear routes may lead to crowding in MRT stations and reduce their operational efficiency. For this reason, this study proposes a space service quality evaluation method based on agent-based simulation by employing spatial information from building information modeling (BIM) systems as boundary constraints. Moreover, passengers and trains are simulated as interacting agents with complex behaviors in a limited space. This method comprehensively assesses congestion, noise, and air quality to determine service quality in different spaces. Moreover, the results are visualized in different ways for decision making about space planning. Finally, this research demonstrates and verifies the functions of the proposed system with an actual MRT station. Such simulation results can be used as a reference for management personnel to adjust space/route plans to increase passenger satisfaction environment quality, and operational efficiency in the operation stage of an MRT station. The evaluation method establishes valid and reliable measures of service performance and passenger satisfaction as well as other performance outcomes. Full article
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Article
Natural Hazard Influence Model of Maintenance and Repair Cost for Sustainable Accommodation Facilities
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 4994; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124994 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
To optimally maintain buildings and other built infrastructure, the costs of managing them during their entire existence—that is, lifecycle costs—must be taken into account. However, due to technological improvements, developers now build more high-rise and high-performance buildings, meaning that new approaches to estimating [...] Read more.
To optimally maintain buildings and other built infrastructure, the costs of managing them during their entire existence—that is, lifecycle costs—must be taken into account. However, due to technological improvements, developers now build more high-rise and high-performance buildings, meaning that new approaches to estimating lifecycle costs are needed. Meanwhile, an accelerating process of industrialization around the world means that global warming is also accelerating, and the damage caused by natural disasters due to climate change is increasing. However, the costs of losses related to such hazards are rarely incorporated into lifecycle-cost estimation techniques. Accordingly, this study explored the relationship between, on the one hand, some known parameters of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, high winds, and/or flooding, and on the other hand, the data on exceptional maintenance costs, represented by gross loss costs, generated by a large international hotel chain from 2007 to 2017. The regression model used revealed a correlation between heavy rain and insurance-claim payouts. This and other results can usefully inform safety and design guidelines for policymakers, both in disaster management and real estate, as well as in insurance companies Full article
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Article
System Dynamics Model for the Improvement Planning of School Building Conditions
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4235; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104235 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
As the number of aged infrastructures increases every year, a systematic and effective asset management strategy is required. One of the most common analysis methods for preparing an asset management strategy is life cycle cost analysis (LCCA). Most LCCA-related studies have focused on [...] Read more.
As the number of aged infrastructures increases every year, a systematic and effective asset management strategy is required. One of the most common analysis methods for preparing an asset management strategy is life cycle cost analysis (LCCA). Most LCCA-related studies have focused on traffic and energy; however, few studies have focused on school buildings. Therefore, an approach should be developed to increase the investment efficiency for the performance improvement of school buildings. Planning and securing budgets for the performance improvement of school building is a complex task that involves various factors, such as current conditions, deterioration behavior and maintenance effect. Therefore, this study proposes a system dynamics (SD) model for the performance improvement of school buildings by using the SD method. In this study, an SD model is used to support efficient decision-making through policy effect analysis, from a macro-perspective, for the performance improvement of school buildings. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Application of Hybrid Point Cloud and BIM Method for Tracking Construction Progress
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104106 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Compared to the past, the complexity of construction-project progress has increased as the size of structures has become larger and taller. This has resulted in many unexpected problems with an increasing frequency of occurrence, such as various uncertainties and risk factors. Recently, research [...] Read more.
Compared to the past, the complexity of construction-project progress has increased as the size of structures has become larger and taller. This has resulted in many unexpected problems with an increasing frequency of occurrence, such as various uncertainties and risk factors. Recently, research was conducted to solve the problem via integration with data-collection automation tools of construction-project-progress measurement. Most of the methods used spatial sensing technology. Thus, this study performed a review of the representative technologies applied to construction-project-progress data collection and identified the unique characteristics of each technology. The basic principle of the progress proposed in this study is its execution through the point cloud and the attributes of BIM, which were studied in five stages: (1) Acquisition of construction completion data using a point cloud, (2) production of a completed 3D model, (3) interworking of an as-planned BIM model and as-built model, (4) construction progress tracking via overlap of two 3D models, and (5) verification by comparison with actual data. This has confirmed that the technical limitations of the construction progress tracking through the point cloud do not exist, and that a fairly high degree of progress data which contains efficiency and accuracy can be collected. Full article
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Article
A Simple and Sustainable Prediction Method of Liquefaction-Induced Settlement at Pohang Using an Artificial Neural Network
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4001; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104001 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Conventionally, liquefaction-induced settlements have been predicted through numerical or analytical methods. In this study, a machine learning approach for predicting the liquefaction-induced settlement at Pohang was investigated. In particular, we examined the potential of an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm to predict the [...] Read more.
Conventionally, liquefaction-induced settlements have been predicted through numerical or analytical methods. In this study, a machine learning approach for predicting the liquefaction-induced settlement at Pohang was investigated. In particular, we examined the potential of an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm to predict the earthquake-induced settlement at Pohang on the basis of standard penetration test (SPT) data. The performance of two ANN models for settlement prediction was studied and compared in terms of the R2 correlation. Model 1 (input parameters: unit weight, corrected SPT blow count, and cyclic stress ratio (CSR)) showed higher prediction accuracy than model 2 (input parameters: depth of the soil layer, corrected SPT blow count, and the CSR), and the difference in the R2 correlation between the models was about 0.12. Subsequently, an optimal ANN model was used to develop a simple predictive model equation, which was implemented using a matrix formulation. Finally, the liquefaction-induced settlement chart based on the predictive model equation was proposed, and the applicability of the chart was verified by comparing it with the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) image. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Deformation Characteristics of Foundation-Pit Excavation and Circular Wall
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083164 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
The surrounding ground settlement and displacement control of an underground diaphragm wall during the excavation of a foundation pit are the main challenges for engineering safety. These factors are also an obstacle to the controllable and sustainable development of foundation-pit projects. In this [...] Read more.
The surrounding ground settlement and displacement control of an underground diaphragm wall during the excavation of a foundation pit are the main challenges for engineering safety. These factors are also an obstacle to the controllable and sustainable development of foundation-pit projects. In this study, monitoring data were analyzed to identify the deformation law and other characteristics of the support structure. A three-dimensional numerical simulation of the foundation-pit excavation process was performed in Midas/GTS NX. To overcome the theoretical shortcomings of parameter selection for finite-element simulation, a key data self-verification method was used. Results showed that the settlement of the surface surrounding the circular underground continuous wall was mainly affected by the depth of the foundation-pit excavation. In addition, wall deformation for each working condition showed linearity with clear staged characteristics. In particular, the deformation curve had obvious inflection points, most of which were located deeper than 2/3 of the overall excavation depth. The characteristics of the cantilever pile were not obvious in Working Conditions 3–9, but the distribution of the wall body offset in a D-shaped curve was evident. Deviation between the monitoring value of the maximal wall offset and the simulated value was only 4.31 %. The appropriate physical and mechanical parameters for key data self-verification were proposed. The concept of the circular-wall offset inflection point is proposed to determine the distribution of inflection-point positions and offset curves. The method provides new opportunities for the safety control and sustainable research of foundation-pit excavations. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

Review
Cutting Waste Minimization of Rebar for Sustainable Structural Work: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 5929; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115929 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Rebar, the core resource of reinforced concrete structures, generates more carbon dioxide per unit weight than any other construction resource. Therefore, reducing rebar cutting wastes greatly contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG). Over the past decades, many studies have been conducted [...] Read more.
Rebar, the core resource of reinforced concrete structures, generates more carbon dioxide per unit weight than any other construction resource. Therefore, reducing rebar cutting wastes greatly contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG). Over the past decades, many studies have been conducted to minimize cutting wastes, and various optimization algorithms have been proposed. However, the reality is that about 3 to 5% of cutting wastes are still generated. In this paper, the trends in the research on cutting waste minimization (CWM) of rebar for sustainable work are reviewed in a systematic method with meta-analysis. So far, the literature related to cutting waste minimization or optimization of rebar published has been identified, screened, and selected for eligibility by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, and the final 52 records have been included in quantitative and qualitative syntheses. Review by meta-analysis was conducted on selected literatures, and the results were discussed. The findings identified after reviewing the literature are: (1) many studies have performed optimization for the market length, making it difficult to realize near-zero cutting wastes; (2) to achieve near-zero cutting wastes, rebars must be matched to a specific length by partially adjusting the lap splice position (LSP); (3) CWM is not a one-dimensional problem but an n-dimensional cutting stock problem when considering several rebar combination conditions; and (4) CWM should be dealt with in terms of sustainable value chain management in terms of GHG contributions. Full article
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Other

Technical Note
Inter-Floor Noise Monitoring System for Multi-Dwelling Houses Using Smartphones
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5065; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125065 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The noise between the floors in apartment buildings is becoming a social problem, and the number of disputes related to it are increasing every year. However, laypersons will find it difficult to use the sound level meters because they are expensive, delicate, bulky, [...] Read more.
The noise between the floors in apartment buildings is becoming a social problem, and the number of disputes related to it are increasing every year. However, laypersons will find it difficult to use the sound level meters because they are expensive, delicate, bulky, etc. Therefore, this study proposes a system to monitor the noise between the floors, that will measure the sound and estimate the location of the noise using the sensors and applications in smartphones. To evaluate how this system can be used effectively within an apartment building, a case study has been performed to verify its validity. The result shows that the mean absolute error (MAE) between the actual noise generating position and the estimated noise source location was measured at 2.8 m, with a minimum error of 1.2 m and a maximum error of 4.3 m. This means that smartphones, in the future, can be used as low-cost monitoring and evaluation devices to measure the noise between the floors in apartment buildings. Full article
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Technical Note
Development and Application of Precast Concrete Double Wall System to Improve Productivity of Retaining Wall Construction
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3454; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083454 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
The construction of most apartment underground parking lots utilizes reinforced concrete (RC) structures composed mainly of rebar work and formwork. RC structures lower construction efficiency and significantly delay the construction because they require a large number of temporary materials and wooden formwork. In [...] Read more.
The construction of most apartment underground parking lots utilizes reinforced concrete (RC) structures composed mainly of rebar work and formwork. RC structures lower construction efficiency and significantly delay the construction because they require a large number of temporary materials and wooden formwork. In this study, a precast concrete double wall (PCDW) system was developed to address the existing problems of RC structures and to improve the productivity of retaining wall construction. PCDW is a precast concrete (PC) wall in which two thin concrete panels are connected parallel to each other with truss-shaped reinforcement between them. PCDW can contribute to securing integrity, reducing the delay in construction, and improving quality. An overall process for the member design and construction stage of the PCDW system was proposed, and its improvement effects were examined regarding various aspects in comparison to the RC method. Full article
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